Dünya Tarihinde Osmanlı İmparatorluğu

CKM 2017-18 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

KISA NOTLAR






  Maymun gör, maymun yap

Maymun gör, maymun yap

Maymun gör, maymun yap

Deneyciler bir kafes ile, dışsal olarak dayatılan sınırlayıcı bir yapı ile başladılar. Kafes içindeki bir ipun ucuna bir muz astılar ve altına merdiven koydular. Sonra kafesin içine beş maymun getirdiler. Çok geçmeden maymunlardan biri muza uzanmak için merdivenlere tırmanmaya başladı. Maymun merdivenlere dokunur dokunmaz deneyciler tüm öteki maymunların üstüne çok soğuk su püskürttüler. Bir başka maymun muzu alma girişiminde bulununca, öteki maymunların üstüne bir kez daha soğuk su püskürttüler. Bir süre sonra maymunlar gruplarından hiç birinin muza doğru gitmesine izin vermez oldular.

 

     

‘Muza uzanma’ya karşı kültürel yasağın yerleşmesinden sonra, deneyciler soğuk suyu bir yana bıraktılar. İlk maymunlardan birini kafesten çıkararak yerine yeni birini getirdiler. Muzu gören yeni maymun ona doğru yöneldi. Şaşkınlık ve dehşet içinde, tüm öteki maymunların saldırısına uğradığını gördü. Bir başka girişimden ve saldırıdan sonra yeni maymun ne zaman merdivenlere tırmanmaya ve muzu almaya çalışacak olsa saldırıya uğrayacağını öğrendi ve muza yaklaşmaya son verdi. Kafesin ‘muza yaklaşma’ kültürüne alıştırılmış ve asimile edilmişti.

Bundan sonra deneyciler ilk beş maymundan birini daha çıkararak yerine yeni birini geçirdiler. İkinci yeni maymun merdivenlere gitti ve tahmin edileceği gibi saldırıya uğradı. Birinci yeni maymun bu cezalandırma eylemine coşku içinde katıldı! Benzer olarak, başlangıçtakilerden bir üçüncü maymun yeni biri ile değiştirildi, ve sonra bir dördüncü, ve sonra bir beşinci ile. Yeni maymun merdivenlere ilerlediği her keresinde öteki maymunların saldırısına uğradı. Onu döven maymunların çoğunun niçin kendilerinin merdivenlere çıkmalarına izin verilmediği ya da niçin en yeni maymunu dövmeye katıldıkları konusunda hiçbir fikirleri yoktu. Başlangıçtaki tüm maymunlar değiştirildikten sonra, geri kalan maymunlardan hiç biri soğuk su ile ıslatılmamıştı. Buna karşın, maymunlardan hiç biri muza uzanmak için merdivenlere bir daha yaklaşmadı. Niçin yaklaşmadı? Çünkü, bildikleri kadarıyla, ‘buralarda işler her zaman böyle yürümüştür.’

 








  Prehistory Timeline
 
  • The Stone Age, whose origin coincides with the discovery of the oldest known stone tools, which have been dated to some 3.3 million years ago, is usually divided into three separate periods—Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period—based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools. (B)

  • The Pleistocene (= the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700.
  • The Holocene (= Anthropocene Epoch) is the current geological epoch. It began approximately 11,650 cal (calibrated C12) years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat. The Holocene has seen the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present.
 

1) STONE AGA (PALEOLITHIC — NEOLITHIC — CHALCOLITHIC) (3,3 million-4000 BC)
2) BRONZ AGE (3300-1200 BC)
3) IRON AGE (1200-550 BC)

 

 
  • 4.5 billion BC — Planet Earth formed
  • 3 billion BC — First signs of primeval life (bacteria and blue-green algae) appear in oceans
  • 4.4 million BC — Earliest known hominid fossils (Ardipithecus ramidus) found in Aramis, Ethiopia, 1994
  • 1.8 million BCHomo erectus
  • 100,000 BC — First modern Homo sapiens in South Africa.
  • 70,000 BCNeanderthal man (use of fire and advanced tools).
  • 10,000-4,000 BC — Development of settlements into cities; wheel, pottery, cultivation in Mesopotamia and elsewhere
  • 5500–3000 BC — Predynastic Egyptian cultures develop (5500-3100 BC)
  • 1500-1000 BC — Ikhnaton develops monotheistic religion in Egypt (c. 1375 BC). His successor, Tutankhamen, returns to earlier gods. Greeks destroy Troy (c. 1193 BC)
 
 
 
 




SİTE İÇİ ARAMA       
     

  ÇATALHÖYÜK

  ANCIENT RIVER VALLEYS

 
World Population over the last 12,000 years and UN projection until 2100 (Our World in Data)
 
Population of the world from 10,000 BC to 2000 AD (logarithmic scale) (W)
  ZOROASTRİANİZM

Işık fiziksel güneş değil ama tinsel İyidir. Ve insan olarak Ormuzd’dur. Herşey ondan doğar ve bu ışık krallığında herşey iyidir.
Ormuzd yaratılmamıştır; tersine, herşey ondan, herşey bu ışık tinsellikten yaratılır — tüm doğa, tüm yaşam, her insan ışıktır, Ormuzd’dur. Tüm sevgi, tüm güç, varolan herşey, dirimli ve dirimsiz tüm şeyler Işıktır ve Ormuzd’dur.

Ahriman kötülük ilkesidir ve Ormuzd ile karşıtlık içinde soyut olarak kendi başına durur.

 

 
 
Frahavar
 
The winged figure, know as Fravahar, is believed to represent devine glory which shines only in the hearts of righteous kings. It is seen in the carvings on royal palaces and buildings of the Achaemenids era and there is no trace of it during the other dynasties in Iran. The Achaemenid kings Darius and Xerses adopted this winged symbol to indicate that they had received the glory and sovereignty from Ahura Mazda.

  SUMER

— one of the first civilizations in the world along with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley
— the earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC
— early cuneiform script writing emerged in 3000 BC
— Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC
— Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC)
— the Sumerian city of Eridu is considered to have been the world’s first city





  BABYLON

— Hammurabi
(c. 1810 BC – c. 1750 BC) was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty

Code of Hammurabi (NOT THE FIRST), which he claimed to have received from Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice

Marduk, the national god of the Babylonians

Property law: The Hammurabi Code recognizes many ways of disposing of property: sale, lease, barter, gift, dedication, deposit, loan, or pledge, all of which were matters of contract

Marriage retained the form of purchase, but was essentially a contract to be husband and wife together

  TEMPLATE











  Horasan — İpek Yolu — Avrasya Step Kuşağı

Horasan

Horasan


Khorasan.
 

Silk Road.



Eurasian steppe belt.

 

 








Some Ancient Civilizations

Some Ancient Civilizations (LINK)

Name Approximate dates Location Major cities
Akkadian 2350–2230 B.C. Mesopotamia, parts of
Syria, Asia Minor,
Iran
Akkad, Ur, Erich
Assyrian 1800–889 B.C. Mesopotamia, Syria Assur, Nineveh,
Calah
Babylonian 1728–1686 B.C. (old)
625–539 B.C. (new)
Mesopotamia, Syria,
Palestine
Babylon
Cimmerian 750–500 B.C. Caucasus, northern Asia
Minor
Egyptian 2850–715 B.C. Nile valley Thebes, Memphis,
Tanis
Etruscan 900–396 B.C. Northern Italy
Greek 900–200 B.C. Greece Athens, Sparta,
Thebes, Mycenae,
Corinth
Hittite 1640–1200 B.C. Asia Minor, Syria Hattusas, Nesa
Indus Valley 3000–1500 B.C. Pakistan,
Northwestern India
Lydian 700–547 B.C. Western Asia Minor Sardis, Miletus
Mede 835–550 B.C. Iran Media
Minoan 3000–1100 B.C. Crete Knossos
Persian 559–330 B.C. Iran, Asia Minor, Syria Persepolis,
Pasargadae
Phoenician 1100–332 B.C. Palestine (colonies:
Gibraltar, Carthage,
Sardinia)
Tyre, Sidon, Byblos
Phrygian 1000–547 B.C. Central Asia Minor Gordion
Roman 500 B.C.A.D. 300 Italy, Mediterranean
region, Asia Minor,
western Europe
Rome, Byzantium
Scythian 800–300 B.C. Caucasus
Sumerian 3200–2360 B.C. Mesopotamia Ur, Nippur

 



 

Indo-European

Indo-European 1

Any speaker of a European language who learning Persian soon encounters a series of familiar words: pedar (father, Latin pater); dokhtar (daughter, girl, German tochter); mordan (to die, Latin mortuus, French mourir, le mort); nam (name); dar (door); and perhaps the most familiar of all, the first-person present and singular of the verb to be, the suffix—am (I am—as in the sentence “I am an Iranian”—Irani-am). An English-speaker who has attempted to learn German will find Persian grammar both familiar and blessedly simple by comparison. There are no genders or grammatical cases for nouns. Persian, like English, has evolved since ancient times into a simplified form, dropping the heavily inflected grammar of old Persian. It has no structural relationship with Arabic or the other Semitic languages of the ancient Middle East (though it took in many Arab words after the Arab conquest)

A-History-of-Iran-Empire-of-the-Mind


 



 

LAWS

LAWS



According to many historians of the Roman Republic, such as to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Plutarch, the first sole Greek Roman King was indeed the successor of Romulus and second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius (715–673 BC).


This legendary King of Rome was a Sabine. As reported by many Roman Historians such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Porcius Cato and Titus Livius Patavinus the Sabines were a Greek Kingdom. They were descended from Greek colonists from Laconia. Thus they stated that the Sabines were Lacedaemonians who had left Greece to colonize Italy after Lycurgus of Sparta reformed the Spartan Constitution, as they considered the new law too severe.

As the Roman Tradition suggests, the Roman Kingdom’s population was heavily consisted of Sabines, and that the Sabine and Roman states merged, and the Sabine king Titus Tatius jointly ruled Rome with Romulus until Tatius' death five years later. The Roman Legend of the Rape of the Sabine Women, claims that the Romans abducted Sabine women to populate the newly built Rome. After a battle between Roman and Sabines, the Sabine women forced them to unite.

The intervention of the Sabine Women in the battle between Romans and Sabines.

Thus the two Kings Romulus and Titus Tatius agreed to merge their powers in a form of political alliance. After the death of Romulus, the Sabine son of Titus Tatius, became the second and sole Roman King.

This should be no surprise as the Greeks had been colonizing areas around the Mediterranean Sea, and the Italian Peninsula was not an exception. For example, as the legends suggest, Greek Acradians colonists under Oenortus, abandoned their homeland as it had become overpopulated, sailed West and colonized Apulia. The legends state that this event occurred seventy generations before the Trojan War. These may considered mythical exaggerations but archaeologists have determined that there was a Mycanean precence in South Italy and specifically Sicily and Apulia.

Let’s also not forget that because of the Second Greek Colonization in the period of the 8th–6th centuries BC, Italy faced an other wave of colonists. They heavily colonized the Italian coasts and influenced the mainland peoples.


Moreover, it is importan to remember that the legends of Roman History remember Aeneas as their mythical forefather. His journey from Troy to the Latium is remembered in Virgil’s Aeneid. Truly, the archaeologists have discovered many linguistic similarities between the ancient languages of the Italic Tribes and Greek and Anatolian Languages. An example is the closely relation of the Etruscan and the Lemnian Languages. Lemnian is largely accepted as being closely related to Etruscan. Lemnos is an island located in the North Aegean, right across Troy.

Additionally, the Trojans themselves might have been Greek as well. In Homer’s Iliad the Achaeans can easily communicate with their Trojan opponents. The Achaeans and the Trojans worshiped the same Olympian Gods, some of whom according to myth supported them. Also, they held the same values of family, legacy, honor and shame. The epic informes the reader that the allies of Troy spoke in a barbaric language. Those were allies such as the Mysians and the Lydians. Moreover the Luwian Theory on the Trojan language have very little basis.

In conclusion, the first sole Greek speaking and Greek originating Roman King was Numa Pompilius as he was a Sabine, a descendant of Spartan colonists. One may consider his father, Titus Tatius, but he was ruling with Romulus only for seven years. However the first Greek speaking Roman Emperor was surely Octavian Augustus (27 BC -14 AD), as the Roman Republic fell and the Imperial Era arose.

 



LUKRETIA

LUKRETIA

 





Les Sabines - L'Intervention des Sabines - Les Sabines arrêtant le combat entre les Romains et les Sabins
   

Euxodus, Deuteronomy — “Kitle Kıyımı Buyrukları”

Exodus, Deuteronomy — “Kitle Kıyımı Buyrukları”

But thou shalt utterly destroy them; namely, the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee.
Deuteronomy 20:17

 

Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
Exodus 34:11

 

To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates.
Genesis 15:18

 

O Children of Israel! Call to mind the favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all other nations.
The Koran, Verse (2:122)

 



Joshua 10:10-11 New International Version (NIV)

10 The Lord threw them into confusion before Israel, so Joshua and the Israelites defeated them completely at Gibeon. Israel pursued them along the road going up to Beth Horon and cut them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 11 As they fled before Israel on the road down from Beth Horon to Azekah, the Lord hurled large hailstones down on them, and more of them died from the hail than were killed by the swords of the Israelites.

New International Version (NIV)

Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

 

 



 
     

  Map of Biomes
  biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

Map of Late Iron Age Migrations

Map of Biomes (LINK)
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  Map of Late Iron Age Migrations
Map of Late Iron Age Migrations (LINK)
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  Map of Migrations in Antiquity
Map of Migrations in Antiquity (LINK)
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  Map of Mediaeval Migrations
Map of Mediaeval Migrations (LINK)
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  The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race (LINK)
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(W) The Passing of the Great Race: Or, The Racial Basis of European History is a 1916 book by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant. Though influential, the book was largely ignored when it first appeared; it went through several revisions and editions, but was never a best seller. Grant expounds a theory of Nordic superiority and argues for a strong eugenics program.

Grant's proposal to create a strong eugenics program for the Nordic population to survive was repudiated by Americans in the 1930s and Europeans after 1945. It is considered one of the main works in the 20th century tradition of scientific racism.

 









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