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CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


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  🕑 Timeline

🕑 Timeline of Muslim history

Timeline of Muslim history (W)



  Beginnings of Islam

MUHAMMED (570-632)


  • Peygamberin ilk yaşamöyküsü (siyer) İbni İshak tarafından yklş. 767’de yazdırılan Sīratu Rasūli l-Lāh (“Tanrının Elçisinin Yaşamı”) başlıklı metnin İbni Hisham (ö. 833) tarafından yapılan düzenlemesidir.
  • Muhammed animist ve politeist bir kültüre doğdu.
  • Mekke büyük ölçüde Kâbenin Efendisi olarak kabul edilen ‘Allah’ çevresinde kurulu bir kültün özeği idi.
  • Muhammed ardıllık için herhangi bir yönerge bırakmadı. Doğal ‘kan-bağı’ kavramını doğrulamak tüm inananların eşitliği ya da imamlığı ilkesini yadsımaktır.
Timeline of 6th-century Muslim history
  • 570: Birth of Muhammad
  • 570: Death of Abdullah, Muhammad's father
  • 573: Birth of Abu Bakr. The senior companion of Muhammad and his father-in-law.
  • 576: Death of Aminah bint Wahb, the mother of Muhammad (approximate date)
  • 576: Birth of Uthman. The second cousin and twice son-in-law of Muhammad.
  • 578: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of Muhammad (approximate date)
  • 582: Birth of Umar. The senior companion of Muhammad and his father-in-law.
  • 582: Muhammad's journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. They meet with Bahira, a Christian monk. Bahira notes true characteristics about the Prophet, which forces him to ask more and have him discover the "mark of prophets," a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths. (approximate date).
  • 594: Muhammad works for Khadija; leads her trade caravan to Syria and back (approximate date)
  • 595: Muhammad marries Khadija (approximate date).
  • 599: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the city of Mecca. The cousin of Muhammad and his son in law.


Muhammad (c. 570-632) (W)

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد‎, c. 570 CE - 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. He was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib's wife Fatimah bint Asad. In later years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, and receiving his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One,” that complete “submission” (islām) to God is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.

The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.

The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).



📹 Early Islamic Conquest — 1 / Muhammed (VİDEO)

Early Islamic Conquest — 1 / Muhammed (LINK)

With the birth of The Prophet Muhammad and the Rise of Islam, the early Islamic Conquest begins. In a matter of 100 years the nascent Muslim state grows from the city state of Medina to encompass Mecca and a majority of the Middle East. Soon the young nation takes on the superpowers of its day — the Byzantine and the Persians. The stage is set for one of the greatest conquests in history.


📹 Early Islamic Conquest — 2 / Muhammed (VİDEO)

Early Islamic Conquest — 2 / Muhammed (LINK)

With the birth of The Prophet Muhammad and the Rise of Islam, the early Islamic Conquest begins. In a matter of 100 years the nascent Muslim state grows from the city state of Medina to encompass Mecca and a majority of the Middle East. Soon the young nation takes on the superpowers of its day — the Byzantine and the Persians. The stage is set for one of the greatest conquests in history.



Constitution of Medina

Constitution of Medina (W)

The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (Arabic: صحيفة المدينة‎, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE (or 1 AH), following the Hijra from Mecca.

The preamble declares the document to be "a book [kitab] of the prophet Muhammad to operate between the believers [mu'minin] and Muslims from the Quraysh tribe and from Yathrib and those who may be under them and wage war in their company" declaring them to constitute “one nation [ummah wāḥidah] separate from all peoples.” It established the collective responsibility of nine constituent tribes for their members' actions, specifically emphasising blood money and ransom payment. The first constituent group mentioned are the Qurayshi migrants, followed by eight other tribes. Eight Jewish groups are recognized as part of the Yathrib community, and their religious separation from Muslims is established. The Jewish Banu Ash shutbah tribe is inserted as one of the Jewish groups, rather than with the nine tribes mentioned earlier in the document. The constitution also established Muhammad as the mediating authority between groups and forbids the waging of war without his authorization.

The constitution formed the basis of a multi-religious Islamic state in Medina.

The constitution was created to end the bitter intertribal fighting between the rival clans of Banu Aws and Banu Khazraj in Medina and to maintain peace and co-operation among all Medinan groups. Establishing the role of Muhammad as the mediating authority between the two groups and the others in Medina was central to the ending of Medinan internal violence and was an essential feature of the constitution. The document ensured freedom of religious beliefs and practices for all citizens who “follow the believers.” It assured that representatives of all parties, Muslim or non-Muslim, should be present when consultation occurs or in cases of negotiation with foreign states. It declared "a woman will only be given protection with the consent of her family" and imposed a tax system for supporting the community in times of conflict. It declared the role of Medina as a ḥaram (حرم, "sacred place"), where no blood of the peoples included in the pact can be spilled.

The division of the constitution into numbered articles is not in the original text and the numbering of clauses differs in different sources, but there is general agreement on the authenticity of the most widely-read version of the charter, which is found in Ibn Ishaq's Sirah Rasul Allah.

In Muhammad's last years in Mecca, a delegation from Medina from its twelve important clans invited him as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as the chief arbitrator for the entire community. There had been fighting in Medina involving mainly its pagan and Jewish inhabitants for around 100 years before 620. The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all the clans had been involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with the authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and to protect him physically as if he was one of them.

After emigration to Medina, Muhammad drafted the constitution, “establishing a kind of alliance or federation” of the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca and specifying the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina, including that of the Muslim community to other communities: the Jews and the other "Peoples of the Book".

One of the constitution's more interesting aspects was the inclusion of the Jewish tribes in the ummah because although the Jewish tribes were "one community with the believers", they also “have their religion and the Muslims have theirs.”

Another important feature of the Constitution of Medina is the redefinition of ties between Muslims. It sets faith relationships above blood-ties and emphasizes individual responsibility.

Tribal identities are still important to refer to different groups, but the “main binding tie” for the newly-created ummah is religion.

Rights of non-Muslims

The non-Muslims had the following rights on the condition they "follow" the Muslims:

  1. The security of God is equal for all groups.
  2. Non-Muslim members have the same political and cultural rights as Muslims. They have autonomy and freedom of religion.
  3. Non-Muslims take up arms against the enemy of the nation and share the cost of war. There is to be no treachery between the two.
  4. Non-Muslims are not obliged to take part in the Muslims' religious wars.



Mecca (W)

Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is 340 kilometres south of Medina.

As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave 3 km (2 mi) from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer.

1787 Ottoman Turkish map of Al-Haram Mosque, and related religious sites, such as Jabal al-Nour.

Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities.

Early history

The early history of Mecca is still largely disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam. The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejazin 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra (now known as Mada'in Saleh), located to the north of Mecca. Even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca. The first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz.

The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: “And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians.”

Jabal al-Nour is where Muhammad is believed to have received the first revelation of God through the Archangel Gabriel.

Claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba in Mecca. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the former Nabataean Kingdom and Rome's Arabia Petraea.

Ptolemy lists the names of 50 cities in Arabia, one going by the name of “Macoraba.” There has been speculation since 1646 that this is could be a reference to Mecca, but there is no compelling explanation to link the two names.

In the Islamic view, the beginnings of Mecca are attributed to Ishmael’s descendants. The Old Testament chapter Psalm 84:3–6, and a mention of a pilgrimage at the Valley of Baca, that Muslims see as referring to the mentioning of Mecca as Bakkah in Quran's Surah 3:96. Some time in the 5th century, the Kaaba was a place of worship for the deities of Arabia’s pagan tribes. Mecca's most important pagan deity was Hubal, which had been placed there by the ruling Quraysh tribe and remained until the 7th century.



Kaaba (W)

The Kaaba (Arabic: أَلكَعْبَةal-kaʿbah, “The Cube”), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: أَلكَعْبَة أَلمُشَرَّفَة‎, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: أَلمَسْجِد أَلحَرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam. It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayt Allāh (Arabic: بَيْت الله‎, “House of God”), and has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies in Judaism. Its location determines the qiblah (Arabic: قِبْلَة‎, direction of prayer). Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing Salah (Arabic: صَلاة‎, Islamic prayer).

Ottoman tiles representing the Kaaba.


The Quran contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba. It states that the Kaaba was the first House of Worship, and that it was built by Ibrahim and Ishmael on Allah’s instructions.

Ibn Kathir, the famous commentator on the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. One is that the shrine was a place of worship for Angels before the creation of man. Later, a house of worship was built on the location by Adam and Eve which was lost during the flood in Noah's time and was finally rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael as mentioned later in the Quran. Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaaba, it was the first “House of God,” dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction and sanctified and blessed by Him as stated in Quran 22:26-29. A Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the First Mosque on Earth, and the Second Mosque was the Temple in Jerusalem.

While Abraham was building the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone which he placed in the eastern corner of the structure. Another stone was the Maqam-e-Ibrahim (literally the Station of Abraham) where Abraham stood for elevation while building the structure. The Black Stone and the Maqam-e-Ibrahim are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham as naturally the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for maintenance purposes. After the construction was complete, God enjoined the descendants of Ishmael to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj and the Korban, sacrifice of cattle. The vicinity of the shrine was also made a sanctuary where bloodshed and war were forbidden.[Quran 22:26–33]

According to Islamic tradition, over the millennia after Ishmael's death, his progeny and the local tribes who settled around the oasis of Zam-Zam gradually turned to polytheism and idolatry. Several idols were placed within the Kaaba representing deities of different aspects of nature and different tribes. Several heretical rituals were adopted in the Pilgrimage (Hajj) including doing naked circumambulation.

Independent views on origin

In her book, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was officially dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols that probably represented the days of the year.

But by Muhammad's day, it seems that the Kaaba was venerated as the shrine of Allah, the High God. Once a year, tribes from all around the Arabian peninsula, whether Christian or pagan, would converge on Mecca to perform the Hajj, marking the widespread conviction that Allah was the same deity worshiped by monotheists. Guillaume in his translation of Ibn Ishaq, an early biographer of Muhammad, says the Kaaba itself was addressed using a feminine grammatical form.

Circumambulation was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women, and linked to ancient fertility rites. It is disputed whether Allah and Hubal were the same deity or different. Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin and Christian Robin, Hubal was only venerated by Quraysh and the Kaaba was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh was installed in Kaaba after they conquered Mecca a century before Muhammad's time.

Pre-Islamic Era

Prior to the spread of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula, the Kaaba was a holy site for the various Bedouin tribes of the area. Once every lunar year, the Bedouin tribes would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their pagan gods in the Kaaba and trade with each other in the city.

Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. A statue of Hubal, the principal idol of Mecca, and other pagan deities were in or around the Kaaba. There were paintings of idols decorating the walls. A picture of the Prophet ’Isa and his mother, Maryam, was situated inside the Kaaba and later found by the Prophet Muhammad after his conquest of Mecca. The iconography portrayed a seated Maryam with her child on her lap. This description, which would later become a universal iconography in later times, is similar to Christian art and its portrayal of the seated Virgin Mary holding a young Jesus in her lap. The iconography in the Kaaba also included paintings of other prophets and angels.

Muhammad’s era

Throughout Muhammad's time (570-632 CE), the Kaaba was considered a holy and sacred site by the local Arabs. Muhammad took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba after its structure was damaged due to floods around 600 CE. Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasūl Allāh, one of the biographies of Muhammad (as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad settling a quarrel between Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone cornerstone in place.

According to Ishaq's biography, Muhammad's solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, after which Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands. Ibn Ishaq says that the timber for the reconstruction of the Kaaba came from a Greek ship that had been wrecked on the Red Sea coast at Shu'ayba and that the work was undertaken by a Coptic carpenter called Baqum. Muhammad's night journey is said to have taken him from the Kaaba to the Temple Mount and heavenwards from there.

Muslims initially considered Jerusalem as their qibla, or prayer direction, and faced toward it while offering prayers; however, pilgrimage to the Kaaba was considered a religious duty though its rites were not yet finalized.

In 624 CE, the direction of the qiblah was changed from Jerusalem to the Kaaba in Mecca.

At the culmination of his mission, in 630 CE, Muhammad conquered Mecca without violence from the Muslim army. His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba. According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad spared a painting of Mary and Jesus, and a fresco of Abraham; but according to Ibn Hisham, all pictures were erased.

Narrated Abdullah: When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka’bah. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, “Truth has come and Falsehood has Vanished.” (Qur'an 17:81)

— Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith 583


Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah Al-Azraqi [9th-century Islamic commentator and historian] further conveys how Muhammad, after he entered the Kaaba on the day on the conquest, ordered all the pictures erased except that of Maryam.

“...Shihab (said) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the Ka'ba the day of the conquest, and in it was a picture of the angels (mala'ika) and others, and he saw a picture of Ibrahim and he said: "May Allah kill those representing him as a venerable old man casting arrows in divination (shaykhan yastaqsim bi 'l-azlam)." Then he saw the picture of Maryam, so he put his hands on it and he said: “Erase what is in it [the Ka’ba] in the way of pictures except the picture of Maryam.” — -al-Azraqi, Akhbar Mecca: History of Mecca

After the conquest Muhammad restated the sanctity and holiness of Mecca, including its Great Mosque, in Islam. He performed a lesser Pilgrimage (Umrah) in 629 CE, followed by the Greater Pilgrimage (Hajj) in 632 CE called the Farewell Pilgrimage since Muhammad prophesied his impending death on this event.



  • “Allah” (الله‎) sözcüğü Abrahamik dinlerde Tanrı için kullanılan sözcüktür.
  • Sözcük ‘tanrı’ anlamına gelen ve İbranice El ve Elah ile ilişkili olan al-ilāh sözcüğünden yapılan bir kısaltmadır.
  • “Allah” sözcüğü Arabik halklar tarafından ön-İslamik zamanlardan bu yana kullanılan genel bir terim idi.
  • “Allah” sözcüğü kişi adlarında kapsanıyordu (Muhammed’in babasının adı olan Abd-Allāh “Allah’ın kölesi” anlamına gelir).
  • Ön-İslamik dönemde genel “Allah” sözcüğünü temsil etmek üzere bir put ya da ikon bulunmuyordu.
  • İslamda Allah biricik, herşeye-gücü-yeten ve evrenin yaratıcısı olan tek Tanrıdır ve başka Abrahamik dinlerdeki Tanrı ile eşdeğerdedir.


Hubal (W)

Hubal (Arabic: هُبَل‎) was a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Kaaba in Mecca. This idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol. The origins of the cult of Hubal are uncertain, but the name is found in inscriptions from Nabataea in northern Arabia (across the territory of modern Syria and Iraq). The specific powers and identity attributed to Hubal are equally unclear.

Access to the idol was controlled by the Quraysh tribe. The god's devotees fought against followers of the Islamic prophet Muhammad during the Battle of Badr in 624 AD. After Muhammad entered Mecca in 630, he removed the statue of Hubal from the Kaaba along with the idols of all the other pagan gods.

Hubal in Kaaba

Hubal most prominently appeared at Mecca, where an image of him was worshipped at the Kaaba. According to Karen Armstrong, the sanctuary was dedicated to Hubal, who was worshipped as the greatest of the 360 idols the Kaaba contained, which probably represented the days of the year.

Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi's Book of Idols describes the image as shaped like a human, with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. According to Ibn Al-Kalbi, the image was made of red agate, whereas Al-Azraqi, an early Islamic commentator, described it as of "cornelian pearl". Al-Azraqi also relates that it "had a vault for the sacrifice" and that the offering consisted of a hundred camels. Both authors speak of seven arrows, placed before the image, which were cast for divination, in cases of death, virginity, and marriage.

According to Ibn Al-Kalbi, the image was first set up by Khuzaymah ibn-Mudrikah ibn-al-Ya's' ibn-Mudar, but another tradition, recorded by Ibn Ishaq, holds that Amr ibn Luhayy, a leader of the Khuza'a tribe, put an image of Hubal into the Kaaba, where it was worshipped as one of the chief deities of the tribe. The date for Amr is disputed, with dates as late as the end of the fourth century AD suggested, but what is quite sure is that the Quraysh later became the protectors of the ancient holy place, supplanting the Khuza'a.

A tale recorded by Ibn Al-Kalbi has Muhammad’s grandfather Abdul Mutallib vowing to sacrifice one of his ten children. He consulted the arrows of Hubal to find out which child he should choose. The arrows pointed to his son Abd-Allah, the future father of Muhammad. However, he was saved when 100 camels were sacrificed in his place. According to Tabari, Abdul Mutallib later also brought the infant Muhammad himself before the image.

After defeat by Muhammad's forces at the Battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, leader of the Quraysh army, is said to have called on Hubal for support to gain victory in their next battle, saying "Show your superiority, Hubal". When Muhammad conquered Mecca in 630, he removed and had destroyed the statue of Hubal, along with the other 360 images at the Kaaba, and dedicated the structure to Allah.

Origins of Hubal

There may be some foundation of truth in the story that Amr travelled in Syria and had brought back from there the cults of the goddesses ʻUzzāʼ and Manāt, and had combined it with that of Hubal, the idol of the Khuza'a. According to Al-Azraqi, the image was brought to Mecca "from the land of Hit in Mesopotamia" (Hīt in modern Iraq). Philip K. Hitti, who relates the name Hubal to an Aramaic word for spirit, suggests that the worship of Hubal was imported to Mecca from the north of Arabia, possibly from Moab or Mesopotamia.

Hubal may have been the combination of Hu, meaning "spirit" or "god", and the Moab god Baal meaning "master" or "lord". Outside South Arabia, Hubal's name appears just once, in a Nabataean inscription; there Hubal is mentioned along with the gods Dushara (ذو الشراة) and Manawatu — the latter, as Manat, was also popular in Mecca. On the basis of such slender evidence, it has been suggested that Hubal “may actually have been a Nabataean.” There are also inscriptions in which the word Hubal appears to be part of personal names, translatable as "Son of Hubal" or "made by Hubal".

Pre-Islamic Arabian deities

Pre-Islamic Arabian deities



Allah (W)

Allah (Arabic: الله‎, translit. Allāh) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means “the god,” and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.

The word Allah has been used by Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times. More specifically, it has been used as a term for God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and Arab Christians.

Usage (Pre-Islamic Arabians)

Regional variants of the word Allah occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon. The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion. According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods. However, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities. According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad. Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we know nothing precise about this use. Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities. There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult. No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed. Allah is the only god in Mecca that did not have an idol. Muhammad's father's name was ʿAbd-Allāh meaning "the slave of Allāh".

Usage (Christianity)

The Aramaic word for "God" in the language of Assyrian Christians is ʼĔlāhā, or Alaha. Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word “Allah” to mean “God.” The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for “God” than “Allah.” (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses Alla for “God.”) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms Allāh al-ab (الله الأب) for God the Father, Allāh al-ibn (الله الابن) for God the Son, and Allāh al-rūḥ al-quds (الله الروح القدس) for God the Holy Spirit. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)

Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim bismillāh, and also created their own Trinitized bismillāh as early as the 8th century. The Muslim bismillāh reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized bismillāh reads: “In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God.” The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.

According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.

Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the servant/slave of Allah".

The name Allah can be found countless times in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms.

A Christian leader named Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said "Allah is my lord".

In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to Allah can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic, which called him "Allah" and "Alaha", and the inscription starts with the statement "By the Help of Allah".

In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was “Allah,” as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.

Pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry "Ya La Ibad Allah" (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.

"Allah" was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.

Usage (Islam)

In Islam, Allah is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions.

According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common word to represent God, and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind." "He is unique (wāḥid) and inherently one (aḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures."

In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God (al-asmā’ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: 'the best names' or 'the most beautiful names'), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Merciful” (al-Raḥmān) and “the Compassionate” (al-Raḥīm).

Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase in shā’ Allāh (meaning ‘if God wills’) after references to future events. Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of bismillāh (meaning 'in the name of God').

There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including “Subḥān Allāh” (Holiness be to God), "al-ḥamdu lillāh" (Praise be to God), “lā ilāha illā Allāh” (There is no deity but God) and "Allāhu akbar" (God is greater) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (dhikr).In a Sufi practice known as dhikr Allah (lit. remembrance of God), the Sufi repeats and contemplates on the name Allah or other divine names while controlling his or her breath.




  • Kuran Arap dilinin en güzel yazın yapıtı olarak görülür.
  • Kuran’ın şimdiki biçimi uylaşımsal olarak halife Osman’a (644-56) dayandırılır.
  • Kuran’ın bildirilişinin 23 yıl sürdüğü kabul edilir (609-632).
  • Kuran Muhammed’in ve onu önceleyen başka peygamberlerin sonlu insanlıklarını ve ölümlü doğalarını belirtir (14:11).

Kuran Muhammed’in ölümlü bir insan olduğunu bildirirken (14:11) , gizemci-Sufi düşünürler (örneğin Sahl al-Tustarī, ö. 896) Muhammed’i önceden varolan bir “arı ışığın bedenselleşmesi” yaparlar ("Muhammed ışığı" ya da al-nūr al-Muḥammadī; Nūr Muḥammadī).


Kuran Muhammed’in Tanrıdan günahlarını bağışlamasını istediğini belirtir (40:55, 47:19, 48:2), Kuran’ın bir pasajında (80:1-10) Tanrı açıkça Muhammed'i ona öğrenme "isteği ile ve [Allah] korkusu ile gelen" bir körü gözardı etmekle ve kibirle kendisinin "hiçbirşeye gereksinimi olmadığını düşünen" biri ile ilgilenmeyi yeğlemekle yerer.


Mistik-Sufiler böyle pasajları bir yana atarak Muhammed’in ve başka peygamberlerin günahtan bağışık olduklarını ve Muhammed'in "eksiksiz insan" (al-insān al-kāmil) olduğunu ileri sürerler. (LINK: Enc. Britannica, “Status In The Qurʾān And In Post-Qurʾānic Islam”)

6:50 “Say, [O Muhammad], ‘I do not tell you that I have the depositories [containing the provision] of Allah or that I know the unseen, nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.’”


Kuran Muhammed'in karşıtlarının ondan tansıklar yaparak peygamberlik niteliğini tanıtlamasını istediğini yazar (örneğin bir meleğin eşliğinde olduğunu göstermesi gibi, 11:12, 43:53). Buna karşılık olarak Muhammed'e "Allah'ın hazinelerine iye olma," "görünmeyenin bilgisini taşıma," ya da bir melek olma (6:50) gibi nitelikleri yadsıması bildirilir ve Muhammed yalnızca bir "uyarıcı" olarak betimlenir. Kuran açıkça Muhammed'i mucizeler yapan biri olarak sunmaz ve Muhammed mucizeler yaptığını ileri sürmez. Ama sonraki mistik gelenek onu melek Gabriel'in aracılığı temelinde bilinmeyen konularda olağanüstü bilgili biri olarak ve doğaüstü işlere yetenekli olarak sunar. Yine Kuran'da (54:1) Ayın yarılması ile ilgili bilmecemsi sözler İslamik yorumcular tarafından sık sık Muhammed'in Mekkeli paganların onu çürütme isteklerine karşılık olmak üzere yerine getirdiği bir tansık olarak gösterilir. Salt bir "elçi" olarak, ölümlü "normal" bir insan olarak Muhammed böyle "doğaüstü" yetenekler ileri sürmez.

  • Kuran aracı bir dinadamları sınıfı ileri sürmez.
  • Kuran başkaları için karar verecek ve onların istencini üstlenecek sözde doğaüstü, kutsal, tanrısal bireylerin (12 imam, dede, şeyh, pir vb.) varlığını ileri sürmez.
  • İnanan her insan inandığını kendi yorumlamada özgürdür ve hiçbir mistik, hiçbir yorumcu inanan insanın kendi özgür duyuncunun yerini dolduramaz.
  • Yorumların (tafsir, exegesis) kendileri yorum konusudur ve her yorum inanan insanın kendi duyuncunun ussal, özgür yargısı altında durur.
  • Duyunç ancak özgürlük koşulunda büyüyebilir.
  • Yorumun bilişsel bir geçerliği yoktur, görelidir, pekin değildir, kişiseldir, özneldir.
  • Yorum bilgi değildir, gerçeklik değeri taşımaz.
  • Etik ve moral gelişimin biricik öngereği bu duyunç ve istenç özgürlüğüdür ve İslam dini insanın insana moral üstünlüğü gibi bir eşitsizliğe izin vermez.
  • İslam Tanrıya, gerçekliğe, usallığa boyuneğmeyi buyurur, insana değil.
  • “İslamik mistisizm” terimi bir oxymorondur, çünkü bilinemeyene ve anlaşılamayana (batıni, gizli olana) inanç moronlukta (μωρόν-küt) oxy (ὀξύ-keskin) olmayı, bilinemez olanı bilmeyi gerektirir.
  • İnanç bilinene, gerçekliğe inançtır.
  • “Hakikat,” حقيقة‎/ḥaqīqa, “truth” — mistik tanıma göre — “bilinemez ve anlaşılamaz” gerçekliktir.
  • Böyle oxymoronları anlamayı başarmak düşünme yetisinde keskin bir kütlükte sonlanmak zorundadır.


Quran (W)

The Quran (Arabic: القرآن‎, translit. al-Qurʾān, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters (Arabic: سورة sūrah, plural سور sūwar), which are subdivided into verses (Arabic: آية āyāh, plural آيات āyāt).

Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.

Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, and the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad. The word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, and other names and words are also said to refer to the Quran.

According to tradition, several of Muhammad’s companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it. The codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman’s codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning.

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.

Hadith are additional oral and written traditions supplementing the Quran; from careful authentication they are believed to describe words and actions of Muhammad, and in some traditions also those closest to him. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia (Islamic) law; in a small number of denominations, only the Quran is used as a source, an approach called Quranism. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse (ayah) is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.

Significance in Islam

Muslims believe the Quran to be the book of divine guidance revealed from God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel over a period of 23 years and view the Quran as God's final revelation to humanity.

Revelation in Islamic and Quranic contexts means the act of God addressing an individual, conveying a message for a greater number of recipients. The process by which the divine message comes to the heart of a messenger of God is tanzil (to send down) or nuzūl (to come down). As the Quran says, "With the truth we (God) have sent it down and with the truth it has come down."

The Quran frequently asserts in its text that it is divinely ordained. Some verses in the Quran seem to imply that even those who do not speak Arabic would understand the Quran if it were recited to them. The Quran refers to a written pre-text, "the preserved tablet", that records God's speech even before it was sent down.

The issue of whether the Quran is eternal or created became a theological debate (Quran's createdness) in the ninth century. Mu’tazilas, an Islamic school of theology based on reason and rational thought, held that the Quran was created while the most widespread varieties of Muslim theologians considered the Quran to be co-eternal with God and therefore uncreated. Sufi philosophers view the question as artificial or wrongly framed.


Early social changes under Islam

Early social changes under Islam (W)

Many social changes took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammad's mission and the rule of his four immediate successors who established the Rashidun Caliphate.

A number of historians stated that changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women improved on what was present in existing Arab society. For example, according to Bernard Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents.” Other scholars disagree, with Leila Ahmed stating that historical evidence shows that pre-Islamic Arabia already contained many of the same supposedly progressive customs that scholars like Lewis attribute to Islam.

Advent of Islam

Bernard Lewis believes that the advent of Islam was a revolution which only partially succeeded due to tensions between the new religion and very old societies that the Muslims conquered. He thinks that one such area of tension was a consequence of what he sees as the egalitarian nature of Islamic doctrine. Islam from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents. Lewis however notes that the equality in Islam was restricted to free adult male Muslims, but even that “represented a very considerable advance on the practice of both the Greco-Roman and the ancient Iranian world.”

Bernard Lewis writes about the significance of Muhammad's achievements:

He had achieved a great deal. To the pagan peoples of western Arabia he had brought a new religion which, with its monotheism and its ethical doctrines, stood on an incomparably higher level than the paganism it replaced. He had provided that religion with a revelation which was to become in the centuries to follow the guide to thought and count of countless millions of Believers. But he had done more than that; he had established a community and a well organized and armed state, the power and prestige of which made it a dominant factor in Arabia.
  Bernard Lewis, Arabs in History, p.45-46  

Constitution of Medina (İS 622)

The Constitution of Medina, also known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by Muhammad in 622. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans. The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of bringing to an end the bitter intertribal fighting between the clans of the Aws (Banu Aus) and Banu Khazraj within Medina. To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, and pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community-the Ummah.

The precise dating of the Constitution of Medina remains debated but generally scholars agree it was written shortly after the hijra (622). It effectively established the first Islamic state. The Constitution established: the security of the community, religious freedoms, the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons), the security of women, stable tribal relations within Medina, a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict, parameters for exogenous political alliances, a system for granting protection of individuals, a judicial system for resolving disputes, and also regulated the paying of blood-wite (the payment between families or tribes for the slaying of an individual in lieu of lex talionis).


The Qur'an makes numerous references to slavery ([Quran 2:178], [Quran 16:75], [Quran 30:28]), regulating but thereby also implicitly accepting this already existing institution. Lewis states that Islam brought two major changes to ancient slavery which were to have far-reaching consequences. "One of these was the presumption of freedom; the other, the ban on the enslavement of free persons except in strictly defined circumstances," Lewis continues. The position of the Arabian slave was “enormously improved”: the Arabian slave "was now no longer merely a chattel but was also a human being with a certain religious and hence a social status and with certain quasi-legal rights.”

Lewis states that in Muslim lands slaves had a certain legal status and had obligations as well as rights to the slave owner, an improvement over slavery in the ancient world. Due to these reforms the practice of slavery in the Islamic empire represented a "vast improvement on that inherited from antiquity, from Rome, and from Byzantium."

Women’s rights

To evaluate the effect of Islam on the status of women, many writers have discussed the status of women in pre-Islamic Arabia, and their findings have been mixed. Some writers have argued that women before Islam were more liberated, drawing most often on the first marriage of Muhammad and that of Muhammad's parents, but also on other points such as worship of female idols at Mecca. Other writers, on the contrary, have argued that women’s status in pre-Islamic Arabia was poor, citing practices of female infanticide, unlimited polygyny, patrilineal marriage and others.

Majid Khadduri writes that under the Arabian pre-Islamic law of status, women had virtually no rights, whereas Sharia (Islamic law) provided women with a number of rights. John Esposito states that the reforms affected marriage, divorce, and inheritance. According to Karen Armstrong, there were cultures, in the West and elsewhere, where women were not accorded the rights of inheritance and divorce until centuries later. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam states that the general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide, and recognizing women's full personhood.Gerhard Endress states: "The social system ... build up a new system of marriage, family and inheritance; this system treated women as an individual too and guaranteed social security to her as well as to her children. Legally controlled polygamy was an important advance on the various loosely defined arrangements which had previously been both possible and current; it was only by this provision (backed up by severe punishment for adultery), that the family, the core of any sedentary society could be placed on a firm footing."

But other scholars point out that there are records of women in pre-Islamic Mecca owning businesses, working as single women, and inheriting property, bringing into question the argument that Islam represented a clear advancement in the rights of women. Leila Ahmed argues that the independence and financial success of Muhammad’s first wife Khadijah, including “her economic independence, her initiating of her own marriage, and not even needing, apparently, a male guardian to act as intermediary (as was to be required by Islam), her marriage to a man many years younger than herself, and her remaining with him in a monogamous marriage (Mohamad had no other wife till after her death), all must reflect Jahilia, not Islamic, practice."


History of the Quran

History of the Quran (W)

The history of Quran refers to the oral revelation of the Quran to Islamic prophet Muhammad and its subsequent written compilation into a manuscript. It spans several decades and forms an important part of early Islamic history.

According to Muslim belief and Islamic scholarly accounts, the revelation of the Quran began in 610 C.E. when the angel Gabriel (Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل, Jibrāʾīl) appeared to Muhammad in the cave Hira near Mecca, reciting to him the first verses of Sura Iqra (al-`Alaq). Throughout his life, Muhammad continued to have revelations until before his death in 632. The Quran as it is known in the present, was first compiled into book format by Zayd ibn Thabit and other scribes under the third caliph Uthman (r. 644-56). For this reason, the Quran as it exists today is also known as the Uthmanic codex. According to Professor Francis Edward Peters(1927), what was done to the Quran in the process seems to have been extremely conservative and the content was formed in a mechanical fashion to avoid redactional bias.

Origin according to Islamic tradition

According to traditional Islamic beliefs, the Quran was revealed to Muhammad, starting one night during the month of Ramadan in 610 AD, when he, at the age of forty, received the first revelation from the angel Gabriel, who had given him the responsibility for inscribing these messages from God to give to mankind.

The Quran uses the term ummi to describe Muhammad. The majority of Muslim scholars interpret this word as a reference to an illiterate individual, though some modern scholars instead interpret it as a reference to those who belong to a community without a scripture.

Muslims believe that Gabriel brought the word of God to Muhammad verbatim, without any alteration or change. The Quran emphasizes that Muhammad was required only to receive the sacred text and that he had no authority to change it. It is also believed that God did not make himself known through the revelations; it was his will that was revealed. There is nothing in the Quran that suggests that Muhammad saw God during his revelations. For Muhammad, the revelations were real and he believed the context was objective, but he was only able to describe the experience through metaphorical terms.

After Muhammad would receive revelations, he would later recite it to his companions, who also memorized it or wrote it down. Before the Quran was commonly available in written form, speaking it from memory prevailed as the mode of teaching it to others. The practice of memorizing the whole Quran is still practiced among Muslims. Millions of people have memorized the entire Quran in Arabic. This fact, taken in the context of 7th-century Arabia, was not an extraordinary feat. People of that time had a penchant for recited poetry and had developed their skills in memorization to a remarkable degree. Events and competitions that featured the recitation of elaborate poetry were of great interest.

The society during the time of Muhammad was predominantly oral and for this reason he would recite the Quranic verses to his Companions for them to memorize. Therefore, it is unknown whether the Quran was ever written and collected during the time of Muhammad. While writing was not a common skill during Muhammad's time, Mecca, being a commercial center, had a number of people who could write. Some scholars believe that up to 48 scribes including Zayd ibn Thabit and Ubay ibn Ka'b recorded verses of the Quran. This provides an explanation as to how the Quran existed in written form during the life of Muhammad, even if it was not compiled into one text.



Topluluk (“Ummah”)


  • “Topluluk” olarak “Ummah” kabile değildir; etnik değil, dinsel bir kümedir.
  • Genel olarak, “topluluk” terimi toplum, kabile, klan, soy kavramlarından ayrı olarak (estetik, dinsel ya da entellektüel) değersel normlar çevresinde kurulan bir birlikteliği anlatır.
  • “Ummah” “toplum” değildir, çünkü ekonomik ilişkiler bağlamında durmaz; “kabile” değildir çünkü etnik bir bağlamı yoktur; “ulus” değildir çünkü egemen değildir.
  • “Ummah” politik bir kavram değildir.
  • İslamik kullanımda “Ummah Wāhidah” (أمة واحدة, “One Nation”) yalnızca etnik değil, dinsel ayrımları da yadsıyan evrensel bir topluluk terimidir.
  • “Ulus” özgür yurttaşların politik birlikteliğidir. “Ummah” politik bir istenç değil, ama bir duygu ve inanç birlikteliğidir.
  • “Ummah” ve “Ulus” arasındaki ayrım İslamik “Ummah”ın inanç bağlamında (Tanrıya) boyun eğmeyi kabul ederken, Ulusun etik bağlamda özgürlük ve egemenlik belirlenimlerini taşımasıdır.
  • Ulus kendi istencine boyun eğer ve kendi istencine boyun eğmek özgürlüktür.
  • “Ummah” evrensel gerçekliğe inançta evrensel topluluğa doğru gelişirken, Ulus özgürlük ve egemenlik yönünde gelişen başka Uluslar ile birlikte evrensel etiğe ya da evrensel politik birliğe doğru gelişir.
  • Ussal ve duygusal insan doğası için erek istenç yönünde olduğu gibi inanç yönünde de tam edimselleşmedir.


  • “Ummah” ve halifelik birlikte durur: Ardılın topluluğun önderi, bir inanç birlikteliğinin önderi olması gerekir. Ama —
  • — bir duyunç sorunu olarak inanç bir istenç ve bir güç sorunu değildir: İnanç bir önder gerektirmez ve duyunç özgürlüğü inancın bilgiye uyarlanmasının, gerçeklik inancı olmasının zeminidir.
  • Egemen güç olarak devlet topluluğu ve önderini (“Ummah” ve halifelik) kendine altgüdümlü kılar (Selçuklular, Nizam al-Mulk; Osmanlılar).
  • Şiilik, İsmailism, Batınilik vb. imparatorun dünyasal egemenliğine karşı boşinancın başkaldırılarıdır: İnsanlığın politik önderi olarak “İmam” kurgusu din kavramına (evrensel eşitlik) aykırı ve usdışıdır.
  • “Ummah”ın moral ve etik türlülüğü gerçek bir evrensel topluluk olmasını önler. “Ummah” istençsiz bir inanç bağıdır.


  • “Ulama”nın ne dinsel ne de politik bir gücü ya da üstünlüğü vardır.
  • “Ulama”nın işlevi hem “Ummah” için hem de “sultan” için yorumlar sunmaktır.


Ummah [Topluluk] (W)

Ummah (Arabic: أمة‎) is an Arabic word meaning “community.” It is distinguished from Shaʻb (شعب) which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history.

It is a synonym for ummat al-Islām (أمة الإسلام, 'the Islamic community'), and it is commonly used to mean the collective community of Islamic people. In the Quran the ummah typically refers to a single group that shares common religious beliefs, specifically those that are the objects of a divine plan of salvation. In the context of pan-Islamism and politics, the word ummah can be used to mean the concept of a Commonwealth of the Believers (أمة المؤمنين ummat al-muʼminīn).

General usage

The word Ummah (pl. umam) means Nation in Arabic. For example the Arabic term for the United Nations in Arabic is الأمم المتحدة Al-Umam Al-Mutahedah, and the term الأمة العربية Al-Ummah Al-Arabeyah is used to refer to "The Arabic Nation".

The Word Ummah differs from the concept of a country or people. In it is greater context it is used to describe a larger group of people. For example, in Arabic the word شعب Sha’ab (“people”) would be used to describe the citizens of Turkey. However, the term Ummah is used to describe the Turkic Nation as a whole, which includes Turkey, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and other countries and ethnic groups in Central Asia.

Islamic usage and origin

The phrase Ummah Wāhidah in the Quran (أمة واحدة, “One Nation”) refers to all the Islamic world as it existed at the time. The Quran says: "You [Muslims] are the best nation brought out for Mankind, commanding what is righteous (معروف Ma'rūf, lit. "recognized [as good]") and forbidding what is wrong (منكر Munkar, lit. "recognized [as evil]")" [3:110].

The usage is further clarified by the Constitution of Medina, an early document said to have been negotiated by Muhammad in CE 622 with the leading clans of Medina, which explicitly refers to Jewish, Christians and pagan citizens of Medina as members of the Ummah.

Emergence of the Ummah

At the time of Muhammad, before the conception of the ummah, Arab communities were typically governed by kinship. In other words, the political ideology of the Arabs centered around tribal affiliations and blood-relational ties.

In the midst of a tribal society, the religion of Islam emerged and along with it the concept of the ummah. The ummah emerged according to the idea that a messenger or prophet has been sent to a community. But unlike earlier messengers who had been sent to various communities in the past (as can be found among the Prophets in the Old Testament), Muhammad sought to develop a universal ummah and not only for the Arabs. Muhammad saw his purpose as the transmission of a divine message, and the leadership of the Islamic community. Islam sees Muhammad as the messenger to the ummah, transmitting a divine message, and implying that God is directing the life affairs of the ummah. Accordingly, the purpose of the ummah was to be based on religion, following the commands of God, rather than kinship.



Halifelik ya da Ardıllık


  • “Ardıllık” genel bir terimdir ve krallık, imparatorluk, padişahlık demek değildir.
  • Halife (خَليفةkhalife) İslam peygamberi Muhammed’e dinsel ardıldır.
  • Halife dinsel topluluğun (“Ummah”) önderidir.
  • İslamik Halifeler şura (“shura”) tarafından seçim yoluyla belirleniyordu.
  • Dinsel Topluluk bir inanç birliği olarak politik bir nitelik taşımaz.
  • Topluluk önderinin politik bir niteliği yoktur, çünkü “topluluk” ne ulustur ne de devlet.
  • İmparatorluk bütün bir toplumun tek istenç, tek-erk altındaki politik birliğidir.
  • Ardıllık zorunlu olarak kalıtsal değildir. Seçim, devrim, darbe vb. yoluyla da belirlenmeye açıktır.
  • İmparatorlukta ardıllık için hanedan biçimi en ussal biçimdir.


Caliphate (Ardıllık) (W)

A caliphate (خِلافةkhilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفةkhalīfah [khalife]), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates.

Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the tribes of Arabia under Islam, Arabs followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism, lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic communities, and often raided their neighbouring tribes. Following the early Muslim conquests of the Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.

The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established immediately after Muhammad's death in 632. The four Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy. The fourth caliph, Ali, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad (Banu Hashim), is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Ali reigned during the First Fitna (656-661), a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, Uthman, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the war led to the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate under Muawiyah I in 661.

The second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. The caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers, especially in the region of Syria. Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746-750, which primarily arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750.

The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin which descended from Hashim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, making them part of Banu Hashim, via Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, hence the name. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in 762 which became a major scientific, cultural and art centre, as did the territory as a whole during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad. From 945 to 1157, the Abbasid Caliphate came under Buyid and then Seljuq military control. In 1250, a non-Arab army created by the Abbasids called the Mamluks came to power in Egypt. In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, and in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517.

The fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, previously controlled by the Mamluks. The Ottomans gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Muslim world.[12] Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and French Third Republic, and on 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate.[13] A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa (909–1171), the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia (929–1031), the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco(1121–1269) and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria (1804–1903).

The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph may come to power in one of four ways: either through an election, through nomination, through a selection by a committee, or by force.[14] Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", referring to Muhammad's family).

In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and defeat of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State", there has seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims and the appeal of a caliphate as a "idealized future Muslim state" has grown ever stronger.[15]



Shura (Danışma) (W)

Shura (Arabic: شورىshūrā) is an Arabic word for “consultation.” The Quran and the Prophet Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision.

Shura is mentioned as a praiseworthy activity often used in organizing the affairs of a mosque, Islamic organizations, and is a common term involved in naming parliaments.

Shura in Islam

Sunni Muslims believe that Islam requires all decisions made by and for the Muslim societies to be made by shura of the Muslim community and believe this to be the basis for implementing representative democracy. Traditionally however, the Amir/Sultan/Khalifa would consult with his Wazirs (Advisors) and make a decision, after taking into consideration their opinions.

Shia Muslims say that Islam requires submission to existing rulers if they are correctly appointed, so long as they govern according to Sharia or Islamic law. This is a more traditional approach, characteristic of many centuries of Islamic history (see History of Islam).

The difference between the two appears more semantic than actual — the latter accept that the rulers must be accounted in all aspects of ruling, to ensure affairs are managed in the best possible way whether decisions were taken through consultation or not.

@@@ (W)

The 159th verse of 3rd Sura orders Muhammad to consult with believers. The verse makes a direct reference to those (Muslims) who disobeyed Muhammad, indicating that ordinary, fallible Muslims should be consulted. The Qur'an says:

Thus it is due to mercy from God that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you; pardon them therefore and ask pardon for them, and take counsel with them in the affair; so when you have decided, then place your trust in God; surely God loves those who trust.[4]



📹 Life of Muhammad and Beginnings of Islam part 1 — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Life of Muhammad and Beginnings of Islam part 1 — Khan Academy (LINK)

The early life of Muhammad including his work as a merchant, his marriage to Khadijah, his early revelations and the persecution of early Muslims by his own Quraysh tribe.


📹 Life of Muhammad and Beginnings of Islam part 2 — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Life of Muhammad and Beginnings of Islam part 2 — Khan Academy (LINK)

Early Muslims escape Quraysh persecution by migrating to Medina in 622. With Medina as the base of their community, they are able to convert Mecca and most of Arabia to Islam during the remainder of the life of Muhammed (next 10 years).


📹 Introduction to Islam — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Introduction to Islam — Khan Academy (LINK)

A high level overview of Islam, the 5 pillars of Sunni Islam, and the Muslim belief that Islam is the extension of the faith of Abraham, Moses and Jesus.


📹 Contextualization — Islam — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Contextualization — Islam — Khan Academy (LINK)

Why did Islam emerge and spread when and where it did? Why was it so rapid?


📹 Common misconceptions about Islam (VİDEO)

Common misconceptions about Islam (LINK)

Business Insider / Produced by Emmanuel Ocbazghi.


İslamic Lands — From 1450 to 2000

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