Arap Fetihleri

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 
 

Arap Fetihleri





  🕑 Timeline

🕑 Timeline of Muslim history

Timeline of Muslim history (W)

 

 



🕑 Expansion under the Orthodox Caliphate, the Ommayads and Abbasids: 630-1258

Expansion under the Orthodox Caliphate, the Ommayads and Abbasids: 630-1258 (L)

 



📹 🕑 The History of the Middle East, 622-1570 / Every Year (VİDEO)

The History of the Middle East, 622-1570 / Every Year (LINK)

The history of the Middle East from 622 to 1570 mapped out every year.

 



📹 🕑 The History of the Middle East, from 2500 BC to AD 2017 (VİDEO)

The History of the Middle East, 2500 BC to AD 2017 (LINK)

The entire history of the Middle East mapped out every year. From the origin of civilization to the modern conflicts that impact the world.

The video maps out the entire history of the Middle East. Due to older dates being less certain, the speed changes and the video starts at .500 BC.

2500 - 2000 BC: Every 100 years
2000 - 1000 BC: Every 50 years
1000 - 750 BC: Every 10 years
750 BC - AD 2017: Every year

 



📹 Islamic Caliphates (622-1171) (VİDEO)

Islamic Caliphates (622-1171) (LINK)

The Islamic Caliphates from the birth of Islam to the collapse of the Fatimid Caliphate.

 




  📹 What If the Arabian Empire Reunited Today?

📹 What If the Arabian Empire Reunited Today? (VİDEO)

What If the Arabian Empire Reunited Today? (LINK)

The Arabian Empire once extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the border of India. It was the largest empire that the world had ever seen up to that point, so what would things look like if this empire was suddenly re-created today?

 








  🗺️ The Near East and the Mediterranean at the Advent of Islam c.600

🗺️ The Near East and the Mediterranean at the Advent of Islam c.600


 
 

 








  Araplar ve Komşuları: Doğu Roma ve Sasaniler

Araplar ve Komşuları: Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu ve Sasaniler
  • Kuzeyde Doğu Roma İmparatorluğunda 313’te Konstantin (312-337) Hıristiyanlığa döndü ve Theodosius (379-395) altında Hıristiyanlık devlet dini yapıldı.
  • Doğu Roma imparatorları Batıdaki papalığın yetkesini tanımadılar ve egemenlikleri altındaki dinsel-türlülük kültürüne kendi Yunan kiliselerini dayattılar.
  • Roma ve Konstantinopolis tarafından biçimlendirilen Hıristiyanlık bütününde sayısız boşinanç türü ile yüklü olarak başladı.
  • Doğuda Sasanilerin (İS 224-637) devlet dini Avestan metinleri üzerine dayalı bir Zerdüştlük biçimi idi. Sasani İmparatorluğunun sınırları içerisinde Yahudiler, Hıristiyanlar, ortodoks Zerdüştler, Manikheanlar ve Mazdaistler de bulunuyordu.
  • İslam büyük ölçüde monoteizme doğru ilerleme sürecinde olan bir inançlar türlülüğü alanında olağanüstü bir direnç görmeden yayılmaya başladı ve özsel olmayan ayrımlar yeni inanç tarafından bir hoşgörü politikası ile hafifletildi.
  • Doğu Roma ve Sasani İmparatorlukları arasındaki barış 502’de sona erdi ve 603-28’deki son Pers-Roma çatışmasına dek süren yeni bir savaşlar dizisi başladı.
  • İki İmparatorluk arasındaki sürekli düşmanlık Heraklios (610-641) ve II. Khusrau (591-628) arasındaki savaşlar nedeniyle daha da yeğinleşti. Sonuç iki imparatorluğun da büyük ölçüde güçsüzleşmesi oldu.
610’da Khusrau Konstantinopolis'e saldırdı; 611-614'te orduları Suriye'yi işgal ederek Şam ve Kudüs kentlerini ele geçirdi. 620'de Sasani orduları Mısır'a girerek İskenderiye'yi ele geçirdi ve Etyopya'ya dek yürüdüler.

Heraklios Ortodoks kilesinin büyük yardımı ile Sasanileri ilkin Anadolu'dan ve sonra Ermenistan, Azerbeycan ve Mısır'dan çıkarmayı başardı. Konstantinopolis üzerine bir başka saldırının da üstesinden gelerek 628'de Sasani başkenti Ctesiphon'u kuşattı. Barış yapmayı kabul etmeyen Khusrau tahttan indirildi ve oğlu II. Kavad tarafından öldürüldü. Arkadan savaşların ve taht kavgalarının yol açtığı bir kaos dönemi geldi.
  • İç zayıflıktan ve iki yanın birbirlerine verdikleri zarar nedeniyle ne Romalılar ne de Sasaniler yedinci yüzyılda başlayan Arap fetihlerine direnecek durumda idi.
  • Arap saldırıları sonucunda Sasani hanedanı birkaç yıl içinde bütünüyle tükendi ve toprakları Arap egemenliği altına alındı.


  • The Byzantine Empire in 650 — by this year it had lost all of its southern provinces except the Exarchate of Africa.
     
       
  • Romalılar ise Araplar tarafından Mısır, Kuzey Afrika ve doğu Akdeniz’den atılmalarına karşın çok daha uzun süre dayandılar. İmparatorlukları Anadolu’da ve Balkanlar’da yüzyıllarca sürdü ve ancak on dört ve on beşinci yüzyıllardaki sürekli Osmanlı baskısı karşısında çöktü.
  • Ele geçirilen Roma ve Sasani topraklarında Arapların genellikle insanları inanç değiştirmeye zorlamaktan uzak durmaları geçiş sürecini kolaylaştırdı.
  • Erken Müslüman yönetimi altında Hıristiyanlar, Yahudiler ve Zerdüştler (“Kitabın Halkları” olarak kabul edilen gruplar) çoğunlukla kendi dinlerine bağlı kalmada özgür bırakıldılar. Bu nedenle İslama dönüş süreci yüzyıllar sürdü ve sonuçta Müslümanlar ancak on birinci yüzyılda yönettikleri topraklarda çoğunluğu oluşturmaya başladılar.

🗺️ The Expansion of Islam under the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs (c.622-661)

The Expansion of Islam under the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs (c.622-661)


The Expansion of Islam under the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs c.622-661

 








  Islamic Conquests (622-750)
The Qur’an says:
“There shall be no compulsion in the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong.”
(2:256 — Al-Baqara).


Early Muslim conquests

Early Muslim conquests (W)

The early Muslim conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion.

The resulting empire stretched from the borders of China and the Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe (Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula to the Pyrenees). Edward Gibbon writes in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire:

“Under the last of the Umayyads, the Arabian empire extended two hundred days journey from east to west, from the confines of Tartary and India to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean ... We should vainly seek the indissoluble union and easy obedience that pervaded the government of Augustus and the Antonines; but the progress of Islam diffused over this ample space a general resemblance of manners and opinions. The language and laws of the Quran were studied with equal devotion at Samarcand and Seville: the Moor and the Indian embraced as countrymen and brothers in the pilgrimage of Mecca; and the Arabian language was adopted as the popular idiom in all the provinces to the westward of the Tigris.”


The Muslim conquests brought about the collapse of the Sassanid Empire and a great territorial loss for the Byzantine Empire.
The reasons for the Muslim success are hard to reconstruct in hindsight, primarily because only fragmentary sources from the period have survived. Fred McGraw Donner suggests that formation of a state in the Arabian peninsula and ideological (i.e., religious) coherence and mobilization was a primary reason why the Muslim armies in the space of a hundred years were able to establish the largest pre-modern empire until that time. The estimates for the size of the Islamic Caliphate suggest it was more than thirteen million square kilometers (five million square miles). Most historians agree as well that the Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were militarily and economically exhausted from decades of fighting one another.

It has been suggested that some Jews and Christians in the Sassanid Empire and Jews and Monophysites in Syria were dissatisfied and welcomed the Muslim forces, largely because of religious conflict in both empires. It has also been suggested that later Syriac Christians reinterpreted the events of the conquest to serve a political or religious interest. At other times, such as in the Battle of Firaz, Arab Christians allied themselves with the Persians and Byzantines against the invaders. In the case of Byzantine Egypt, Palestine and Syria, these lands had been reclaimed from the Persians only a few years before.


Explanations of success of the early conquests

The rapidity of the early conquests has received various explanations. Contemporary Christian writers conceived them as God's punishment visited on their fellow Christians for their sins. Early Muslim historians viewed them as a reflection of the religious zeal of the conquerors and evidence of divine favor. The theory that the conquests are explainable as an Arab migration triggered by economic pressures enjoyed popularity early in the 20th century, but has largely fallen out of favor among historians, especially those who distinguish the migration from the conquests that preceded and enabled it.

There are indications that the conquests started as initially disorganized pillaging raids launched partly by non-Muslim Arab tribes in the aftermath of the Ridda wars, and were soon extended into a war of conquest by the Rashidun caliphs, although other scholars argue that the conquests were a planned military venture already underway during Muhammad's lifetime. Fred Donner writes that the advent of Islam “revolutionized both the ideological bases and the political structures of the Arabian society, giving rise for the first time to a state capable of an expansionist movement.” According to Chase F. Robinson, it is likely that Muslim forces were often outnumbered, but, unlike their opponents, they were fast, well coordinated and highly motivated.

Another key reason was the weakness of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, caused by the wars they had waged against each other in the preceding decades with alternating success. It was aggravated by a plague that had struck densely populated areas and impeded conscription of new imperial troops, while the Arab armies could draw recruits from nomadic populations. The Sasanian empire, which had lost the latest round of hostilities with the Byzantines, was also affected by a crisis of confidence, and its elites suspected that the ruling dynasty had forfeited the favor of the gods.

 



The Problem of Succession (Bernard Lewis)

The Problem of Succession (Bernard Lewis, “The Arabs in History,” p. 48-9)

The death of Muhammad confronted the infant Muslim community with something in the nature of a constitutional crisis. The Prophet had left no provision for the succession, nor had he even created a council on the lines of the tribal Majlis which might have exercised authority during the crucial transition period. The unique and exclusive character of the authority which he claimed as sole exponent of God's will would not have allowed him to nominate a colleague or even a successor-designate during his lifetime. The later tradition of the nomination by the Prophet of his cousin 'All, who married his daughter Fatima, is accepted only by the Shia.

The concept of legitimate succession was foreign to the Arabs at the time, and it is probable that even if Muhammad had left a son the sequence of events would not have been different. The fate of Moses supports this view. The Arab tradition that the Sheikh should be chosen from a single family seems to have had little effect, and in any case the claims of fathers-in-law like Abu Bakr, or sons-in-law like 'All, can have had little force as such in a polygamous society. The Arabs had only one precedent to guide them — the election of a new tribal chief. The Medinese proceeded to choose one from among the tribe of Khazraj, thus incidentally revealing the limitations of their conversion.

The crisis was met by three men: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Abu ‘Ubayda, who by swift and resolute action installed Abu Bakr as ruler in place of the Prophet. The Meccans and the Ansar were confronted the next day with a fait accompli which they seem to have rather reluctantly accepted. Abu Bakr was given the title of Khalifa or ‘Deputy’ (of the Prophet), usually rendered 'Caliph' in European writings, and his election marks the inauguration of the great historic institution of the Caliphate. His electors can have had no idea of the later functions and development of the office. At the time they made no attempt to delimit his duties or powers. The sole condition of his appointment was the maintenance intact of the heritage of the Prophet.”

 



💣 List of expeditions of Muhammad

List of expeditions of Muhammad (W)

The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Some sources use the word ghazwa and its plural maghazi in a narrow technical sense to refer to the expeditions in which Muhammad took part, while using the word sariyya (pl. saraya) for those early Muslim expeditions where he was not personally present. Other sources use the terms ghazwa and maghazi generically to refer to both types of expeditions.

Early Islamic sources contain significant divergences in the chronology of expeditions. Unless noted otherwise, the dates given in this list are based on Muhammad at Medina by Montgomery Watt, who in turn follows the chronology proposed by Leone Caetani.


List of expeditions
   

expeditions in which Muhammad took part (28)     expeditions which Muhammad did not take part (73)

Type Name C.E. date[3] A.H. year[3]
Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib[2] March 623 1
Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith April 623 1
al-Kharrar expedition[3] May 623 1
Patrol of Waddan (al-Abwa'[3]) August 623 1
Patrol of Buwat September 623 2
First Expedition to Badr (Safwan[3]) September 623 2
Patrol of Zul Al-Ushairah December 623 2
Nakhla Raid January 624 2
Battle of Badr 15 March 624 2
Killing of Asma bint Marwan March 624 2
Killing of Abu Afak March 624 2
Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa April 624 2
Invasion of Sawiq May/June 624 2
Al Kudr Invasion May 624 3
Killing of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf August/September 624 3
Dhu Amarr raid September 624 3
Invasion of Buhran October/November 624 3
Al-Qarada raid November 624 3
Battle of Uhud 23 March 625 3
Battle of Hamra al-Asad March 625 3
Expedition of Qatan June 625 4
Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais June 625 4
Expedition of Al Raji July 625 4
Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 4
Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 4
Expedition of Badr al-Maw'id April 626 4
Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa June 626 5
Expedition of Dumat al-Jandal August/September 626 5
Expedition of al-Muraysi' January 627 5
Battle of the Trench April 627 5
Invasion of Banu Qurayza May 627 5
Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 6
Invasion of Banu Lahyan July 627 6
Expedition of Dhu Qarad August 627 6
Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan August/September 627 6
First Raid on Banu Thalabah August/September 627 6
Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August/September 627 6
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) September 627 6
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September/October 627 6
Third Raid on Banu Thalabah October/November 627 6
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) October/November 627 6
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Wadi al-Qura) November/December 627 6
Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627/January 628 6
Expedition of Fidak December 627/January 628 6
Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura 628 6
Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri January/February 628 6
Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February/March 628 6
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 6
Conquest of Fidak May 628 7
Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 7
Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 7
Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 7
Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 7
Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 7
Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 7
Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 7
Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629 7
Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629 7
Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) June 629 8
Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 8
Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari July 629 8
Battle of Mu'tah September 629 8
Expedition of Amr ibn al-As October 629 8
Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 8
Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 8
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) December 629 8
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 8
Conquest of Mecca January 630 8
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) January 630 8
Raid of Amr ibn al-As January 630 8
Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali January 630 8
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 8
Battle of Hunayn January 630 8
Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 8
Battle of Autas 630 8
Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 8
Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 8
Siege of Ta'if February 630 8
Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April/May 630 9
Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May/June 630 9
Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June/July 630 9
Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July/August 630 9
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Al-Fuls) July/August 630 9
Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) 630 9
Battle of Tabouk October/December 630 9
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 9
Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 9
Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 9
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 9
Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 9
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June/July 631 10
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 10
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 632 10
Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 10
Expedition of Usama bin Zayd May 632 10

 




  • Muhammed’in ölümünden sonra Arabistan’da İslamdan dönen kabilelere karşı 632-633 yıllarında bir dizi sefer yapıldı.
  • Ebu Bekir halifeliği başlıca yeni devletin yetkesini tanımayan Arap kabilelerine karşı sürdürülen savaşlar (Ridda Savaşları) ile uğraştı.
  • Ebu Bekin bütün Arabistan’ı denetimi altına almakla kalmadı, Suriye ve Irak’ın fethini de başlattı.
  • Halid bin Velid yalnızca ayrılanları geri getirmekle kalmadı, henüz İslama dönmemiş olanları da yeni dine bağladı.
  • Ridda Savaşları anti-apostatik eylemler olmaktan çok fetih savaşlarının başlangıcı olarak görünür.
  • Çünkü İslam inanç özgürlüğünü suç saymaz.

💣 Ridda wars (632-633)

Ridda wars (632-633) (W)

The Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة‎), also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died. The rebels' position was that they had submitted to Muhammad as the prophet of God, but owed nothing to Abu Bakr. Some rebels followed either Tulayha or Musaylima or Sajjah, all of whom claimed prophethood. Most of the tribes were defeated and reintegrated into the Caliphate. The peoples surrounding Mecca did not revolt.

 



  

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Arabia.

📹 Early Islamic Conquest — 3 / Ridda Wars (VİDEO)

Early Islamic Conquest — 3 / Ridda Wars (LINK)

Wars of Ridda (632-634)
Abu Bakr (632-634)
Khalid Ibn al-Walid (585-642)

 









  Lists of Muslim Conquests
 





  Arab-Khazar Wars

Arab-Khazar Wars

Arab-Khazar Wars (W)


Geophysical map of the Caucasus area with major settlements and regions, overlaid with green for Umayyad territory, yellow for Khazar territory, and red for Byzantine territory.


The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphates and their respective vassals.

Historians usually distinguish two major periods of conflict, the First Arab–Khazar War (c. 642-652) and Second Arab-Khazar War (c. 722-737), but the Arab-Khazar military confrontation also involved sporadic raids and isolated clashes from the middle of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century.

The Arab-Khazar wars were a result of the attempts of the Umayyad Caliphate to secure control of Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus, where the Khazars were already established. The first Arab invasion, in the 640s and early 650s, ended with the defeat of an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar. Hostilities broke out again with the Caliphate in the 710s, with raids back and forth across the Caucasus Mountains. Led by the distinguished generals al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah and Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, the Arabs were able to capture Derbent and even the southern Khazar capital of Balanjar, but these successes had little impact on the nomadic Khazars, who continued to launch devastating raids deep into Transcaucasia. In one such raid in 730, the Khazars inflicted a major defeat on the Umayyad forces at the Battle of Ardabil, killing al-Jarrah, but were in turn defeated the next year and pushed back north. Maslama then recovered Derbent, which became a major Arab military outpost and colony, before being replaced by Marwan ibn Muhammad (the future caliph Marwan II) in 732. A period of relatively localized warfare followed until 737, when Marwan led north a massive expedition that reached the Khazar capital Atil on the Volga. After securing some form of submission by the khagan, the Arabs withdrew.

The 737 campaign marked the end of large-scale warfare between the two powers, establishing Derbent as the northernmost Muslim outpost and securing Muslim dominance over Transcaucasia. At the same time, the continuing warfare weakened the Umayyad army and contributed to the eventual fall of the dynasty to the Abbasid Revolution a few years later. Relations between the Muslims of the Caucasus and the Khazars remained largely peaceful thereafter, apart from two Khazar raids in the 760s and in 799, resulting from failed efforts to secure an alliance through marriage between the Arab governors or local princes of the Caucasus and the Khazar khagan. Occasional warfare continued in the region between the Khazars and the Muslim principalities of the Caucasus until the collapse of the Khazar state in the late 10th century, but the great wars of the 8th century were never repeated.

 



Khazars

Khazars (W)


Khazar Khaganate, 650–850

The Khazars (Persian: خزر‎, Azerbaijani: Xəzərlər; Turkish: Hazarlar; Bashkir: Хазарлар; Tatar: Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; Hebrew: כוזרים‎, Kuzarim; Xazar; Ukrainian: Хоза́ри, Khozáry; Russian: Хаза́ры, Khazáry; Hungarian: Kazárok; Greek: Χάζαροι, Házaroi; Latin: Gazari/Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people with a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century CE established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia. The Khazars created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate. Astride a major artery of commerce between Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading emporia of the medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and Kievan Rus'. For some three centuries (c. 650-965) the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus.

Khazaria long served as a buffer state between the Byzantine Empire and both the nomads of the northern steppes and the Umayyad Caliphate, after serving as Byzantium's proxy against the Sasanian Persian empire. The alliance was dropped around 900. Byzantium began to encourage the Alans to attack Khazaria and weaken its hold on Crimea and the Caucasus, while seeking to obtain an entente with the rising Rus' power to the north, which it aspired to convert to Christianity. Between 965 and 969, the Kievan Rus' ruler Sviatoslav I of Kiev conquered the capital Atil and destroyed the Khazar state.

Determining the origins and nature of the Khazars is closely bound with theories of their languages, but it is a matter of intricate difficulty since no indigenous records in the Khazar language survive, and the state was polyglotand polyethnic. The native religion of the Khazars is thought to have been Tengrism, like that of the North Caucasian Huns and other Turkic peoples. The polyethnic populace of the Khazar Khaganate appears to have been a multiconfessional mosaic of pagan, Tengrist, Jewish, Christian and Muslim worshippers. The ruling elite of the Khazars was said by Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud to have converted to Rabbinic Judaism in the 8th century, but the scope of the conversion within the Khazar Khanate remains uncertain.

Proposals of Khazar origins have been made regarding the Bukharan Jews, the Muslim Kumyks, Kazakhs, the Cossacks of the Don region, the Turkic-speaking Krymchaks and their Crimean neighbours the Karaites to the Moldavian Csángós, the Mountain Jews, Subbotniks and others. In the late 19th century, a theory emerged that the core of today's Ashkenazi Jews descended from a hypothetical Khazarian Jewish diaspora who had migrated westward from modern Russia and Ukraine into modern France and Germany. This theory still finds occasional support, but most scholars view it with scepticism. The theory is sometimes associated with antisemitism and anti-Zionism.

 








  Video

📹 The Spread of Islam — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

The Spread of Islam — Khan Academy (LINK)

Overview of the spread of Islam from the time of Muhammed to the Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. Discussion of Muslim conquest and conversion.

 



📹 Rise of Islamic Empires (Great Courses / Professor Craig G. Benjamin) (VİDEO)

Rise of Islamic Empires (C.G. Benjamin) (LINK)

Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula under Islam, the tribes of Arabia followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism, lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic communities and often raided their neighbouring tribes.Following the conquests under Muhammad of the Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.

The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established immediately after Muhammad's death in 632. The four Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy.The fourth caliph, Ali, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad (Banu Hashim), is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad.Ali reigned during the First Fitna (656–661), a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, Uthman, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the war led to the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate under Muawiyah I in 661.

 

This video is extracted from 36 lectures course called "The Big History of Civilizations" instructed by Professor Craig G. Benjamin

 



📹 History Of The Arab Slave Trade (VİDEO)

History Of The Arab Slave Trade (LINK)

Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry (LINK)


From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. Pagans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims bought and sold at the slave markets for millennia, trading the human plunder of wars and slave raids that reached from the Russian steppes to the African jungles. But if the Middle East was one of the last regions to renounce slavery, how do we account for its--and especially Islam's--image of racial harmony? How did these long years of slavery affect racial relations? In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millennia.

With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery. Islam, in fact, clearly teaches non-discrimination, but Lewis shows that prejudice often won out over pious sentiments, as he examines how Africans were treated, depicted, and thought of from antiquity to the twentieth century.

"If my color were pink, women would love me/But the Lord has marred me with blackness," lamented a black slave poet in Arabia over a millennium ago--and Lewis deftly draws from these lines and others the nuances of racial relations over time. Islam, he finds, restricted enslavement and greatly improved the lot of slaves--who included, until the early twentieth century, some whites--while blacks occasionally rose to power and renown. But abuses ring throughout the written and visual record, from the horrors of capture to the castration and high mortality which, along with other causes, have left few blacks in many Middle Eastern lands, despite centuries of importing African slaves.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East illuminates the legacy of slavery in the region where it lasted longest, from the days of warrior slaves and palace eunuchs and concubines to the final drive for abolition. Illustrated with outstanding reproductions of striking artwork, it casts a new light on this critical part of the world, and on the nature and interrelation of slavery and racial prejudice.

📹 Why Did Europeans Enslave Africans? (VİDEO)

Why Did Europeans Enslave Africans? (LINK)

Why were most slaves in America from West Africa? Slavery has existed throughout history in various forms across the globe, but who became enslaved was almost always based on military conquest. So why did Europeans travel thousands of miles to enslave people from a particular geographic region? Watch the episode to find out.

 




 



📹 Islam 622-1453 (Every Year) (VİDEO)

Islam 622-1453 (Every Year) (LINK)

The history of all Islamic nations from the birth of the religion in 622, through its rise in the 7th and 8th Centuries, the subsequent Golden Age, and finally its decline following the Sacking of Baghdad in 1258 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453,

 








  Arab-Byzantine wars

Arab-Byzantine wars (DATA)

Arab-Byzantine wars (DATA) (W)



Image from an illuminated manuscript, the Madrid Skylitzes, showing Greek fire in use against the fleet of the rebel en:Thomas the Slav The caption above the left ship reads, στόλος Ρωμαίων πυρπολῶν τὸν τῶν ἐναντίων στόλον, i.e. "the fleet of the Romans setting ablaze the fleet of the enemies." (W)



Sham
region was just the start of Arab expansion.
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

Date 629–1050s
Location
Levant (Syria), Egypt, North Africa, Anatolia, Crete, Sicily, Southern Italy
Territorial
changes
Levant, Mesopotamia, North Africa, and Sicily annexed by Arabs. Southeastern Anatolia, Armenia, northern Levant, southern Italy, and Crete recaptured during Byzantine reconquest. Byzantine resurgence.

Belligerents
Byzantine Empire
Ghassanids
Mardaites
Armenian principalities
Bulgarian Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Italian city-states
Rashidun Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
Aghlabids
Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Bari
Emirate of Crete
Hamdanids of Aleppo
Fatimid Caliphate
Mirdasids of Aleppo
Commanders and leaders
Heraclius
Theodore Trithyrius
Gregory the Patrician
Constans II
Constantine IV
Justinian II
Leontios
Heraclius
Constantine V
Leo V the Armenian
Michael Lachanodrakon
Tatzates
Irene of Athens
Nikephoros I
Theophilos
Manuel the Armenian
Niketas Ooryphas
Himerios
John Kourkouas
Bardas Phokas the Elder
Nikephoros II Phokas
Leo Phokas the Younger
John I Tzimiskes
Michael Bourtzes
Basil II
Nikephoros Ouranos
George Maniakes
Tervel of Bulgaria

Muhammad
Zayd ibn Harithah
Ja'far ibn Abī Tālib
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah
Abu Bakr
Umar
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Shurahbil ibn Hasana
'Amr ibn al-'As
Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan
Abdullah ibn Saad
Muawiyah I
Yazid I
Muhammad ibn Marwan
Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik
Abdallah al-Battal
Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham
Harun al-Rashid
Abd al-Malik ibn Salih
Al-Ma'mun
Al-Mu'tasim
Asad ibn al-Furat (DOW)
Abbas ibn al-Fadl
Khafaga ibn Sufyan
Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya
Leo of Tripoli
Umar al-Aqta

Sayf al-Dawla
Al-Aziz Billah
Manjutakin

 



   
   

Arab-Byzantine wars

Arab-Byzantine wars (W)

The Arab-Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.

The emergence of Muslim Arabs from Arabia in the 630s resulted in the rapid loss of Byzantium's southern provinces (Syria and Egypt) to the Arab Caliphate. Over the next fifty years, under the Umayyad caliphs, the Arabs would launch repeated raids into still-Byzantine Asia Minor, twice threaten the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, with conquest, and outright conquer the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. The situation did not stabilize until after the failure of the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople in 718, when the Taurus Mountains on the eastern rim of Asia Minor became established as the mutual, heavily fortified and largely depopulated frontier. Under the Abbasid Empire, relations became more normal, with embassies exchanged and even periods of truce, but conflict remained the norm, with almost annual raids and counter-raids, sponsored either by the Abbasid government or by local rulers, well into the 10th century.

During the first centuries, the Byzantines were usually on the defensive, and avoided open field battles, preferring to retreat to their fortified strongholds. Only after 740 did they begin to launch counterstrikes of their own, but still the Abbasid Empire was able to retaliate with often massive and destructive invasions of Asia Minor. With the decline and fragmentation of the Abbasid state after 861 and the concurrent strengthening of the Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty, the tide gradually turned. Over a period of fifty years from ca. 920 to 976, the Byzantines finally broke through the Muslim defences and restored their control over northern Syria and Greater Armenia. The last century of the Arab–Byzantine wars was dominated by frontier conflicts with the Fatimids in Syria, but the border remained stable until the appearance of a new people, the Seljuk Turks, after 1060.

The Arabs also took to the sea, and from the 650s on, the entire Mediterranean Sea became a battleground, with raids and counter-raids being launched against islands and the coastal settlements. Arab raids reached a peak in the 9th and early 10th centuries, after the conquests of Crete, Malta and Sicily, with their fleets reaching the coasts of France and Dalmatia and even the suburbs of Constantinople.

 



📹 Siege of Constantinople 717-718 / Arab-Byzantine Wars (VİDEO)

Siege of Constantinople 717-718 / Arab-Byzantine Wars (LINK)

The forces of the Rashidun Caliphate achieved a decisive victory against the Byzantines at Yarmouk in 636. This allowed the Muslims to take over Syria and Egypt. But the Eastern Roman Empire was still strong and continued its resistance. The next 80 years Byzantines fought against the onslaught and the Arab-Byzantine wars reached their peak during the Siege of Constantinople in 717-718 where emperor Leo assisted by the Bulgars of Khan Tervel faced the overwhelming odds against the Umayyad forces. This battle is often overlooked in comparison to the battle of Tours that happened in France, but it was bigger and scale and had an even bigger impact on the fate of Europe.

 








  🗺️ Byzantine-Arab naval competition in the Mediterranean, 7th to 11th centuries

🗺️ A map of the Byzantine-Arab naval competition in the Mediterranean, 7th to 11th centuries


 
 

 










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