Umayyad Caliphate

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 
 

Umayyad Caliphate





  🕑 Timeline

🕑 Timeline of Muslim history

Timeline of Muslim history (W)

 

 



🕑 Omayyad Caliphate (Damascus) 661-750

Omayyad Caliphate (Damascus) 661-750 (L)

 




  List of the Umayyad Caliphs

List of the Umayyad Caliphs

List of the Umayyad Caliphs (W)

Umayyad Caliphate (661 – 6 August 750)

# Calligraphic/Coin Name (and titles) Born Reigned from Reigned until Died Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents Notes
6 Caliph Muawiya Calligaprhy.png Mu'awiyah I
(معاوية)
602 661 29 April or 1 May 680
  • Worked as one of at least 29 scribes during the time of Muhammad
  • Became Governor of Syria during 'Umar's reign until his bay'ah as caliph
7 Drachm of Yazid I, 676-677.jpg Yazid I
(يزيد)
647 680 11 November 683
8 Mu'awiyah II
(معاوية الثاني)
664 November 683 684
  • Last Ummayad Caliph from Sufyanid line
  • Abdicated without children
9 Marwan I
(مروان بن الحکم)
623–626 684 7 May 685
  • Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan (the "Sufyanids") to those of Hakam (the "Marwanids"), both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named)
10 Dinar of Abd al-Malik, AH 75.jpg 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(عبد الملك بن مروان)
646 685 8 October 705
  • Marwan I, Ummayad Caliph
  • 'Aisha bint Muawiya ibn Al-Mughira
11 الوليد بن عبد الملك.png Al-Walid I
(الوليد الأول)
668 October 705 23 February 715
12 سليمان بن عبد الملك.png Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(سلیمان بن عبدالملک)
674 February 715 22 September 717
13 عمر بن عبد العزيز.png 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz
(عمر بن عبد العزيز)
2 November 682 September 717 February 720
  • Grandson of Marwan I
  • First cousin of Al-Walid I and Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Great-grandson of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab from female-line
14 يزيد بن عبد الملك.png Yazid II
(يزيد الثاني)
687 10 February 720 26 January 724
15 2هشام بن عبد الملك.png Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(هشام بن عبد الملك)
691 26 January 724 6 February 743
16 (أمير المؤمنين أبي العباس الوليد بن يزيد الأموي القرشي العبشمي (رحمه الله.png Al-Walid II
(الوليد الثاني)
709 6 February 743 17 April 744 (assassinated)
  • Son of Yazid II
  • Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
17 Yazid ibn Muawiya.jpg Yazid III
(يزيد الثالث)
701 17 April 744 3/4 October 744
18 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid
(ابراهيم ابن الوليد)
744 (few weeks) 25 January 750
(executed)
19 Marwan II
(مروان بن محمد)
691 744 6 August 750
(killed)
  • Grandson of Marwan I
 

 








  🗺️ The Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus 661-750

🗺️ The Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus 661-750


 

 








  Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)

🗺️ Umayyad Caliphate

 



🗺️ Umayyad Caliphate & World

 



  • Emeviler (661-750)

  • Arap İmparatorluklarının gelişimi birincil olarak engin bir bedevi, yarı-göçebe, yarı-yerleşik nüfusun moral ve etik büyüme sürecidir.
  • Daha başından süreç dinsel fetih karakterini olmaktan önce dünyasal istenç tarafından güdülenen politik bir karakter sergiler.

'Umar said to Salman:
“Am I a king or a Caliph?” and Salman answered: “If you have levied from the lands of the Muslims one dirham, or more, or less, and applied it unlawfully, you are a king, not a Caliph.” And 'Umar wept.

(Al-Tabarl, Ta'rikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk)

  •  
     
         
    Emeviler dünyasal bir imparatorluk kurdular ve inançta hoşgörü ilkesine sınır getirmediler.
  • Muaviye İslamik bir teokrasiden bütünüyle uzak bir Arap monarşisi yarattı — “halifelik” yerine bir tür “krallık” (Mulk).
  • Muaviye zamanında İmparatorluk doğuda Orta Asya’ya ve batıda Atlantik Okyanusu’na doğru genişlemeyi sürdürdü.
  • Göçebe kültür fetihler yapabilir ama bir imparatorluğu yönetemez.
  • Göçebe Araplar ele geçirdikleri topraklardaki gelişmiş Roma ve Sasani yönetimlerinden ve bürokrasilerinden yararlandılar.

Struggle for leadership

Struggle for leadership (B)

In Arabia offices were generally hereditary and elective, but on Muhammad’s death Abū Bakr, the first caliph, aided by his own eventual successor, ʿUmar, gained the leadership that Quraysh might have lost to others. They were not of the house of Hāshim, which, from the outset, felt cheated of its rights.

ʿAlī, Muhammad’s stepbrother and son-in-law, became the focus of legitimist claims to succeed the Prophet.

ʿUthmān, however, the third caliph, was descended from both the Umayyah and Hāshim branches of ʿAbd Manāf. The latter half of ʿUthmān’s reign coincided with a slackening in the tide of conquest.

ʿUthmān was censured for diverting property, revenues, and booty in Iraq and Egypt to his Quraysh relatives. Squabbles with the tribes resulted in ʿUthmān’s murder at Medina by opponents from Egypt.

ʿAlī was proclaimed caliph by the anṣār, but he lost the political battle with ʿUthmān’s powerful relative Muʿāwiyah, governor of Syria, who demanded retaliation against the murderers. ʿAlī was later murdered by a Khārijite, a member of a dissident group. ʿAlī had quitted Medina for Iraq, and the political power centre of Islam left the peninsula, never to return. ʿAlī’s posterity, however, played a key role in subsequent Arabian history.

 




First Fitna (First Civil War)

First Fitna (W)

The First Fitna ("strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by Egyptian rebels in 656 and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman's successor Ali ibn Abi Talib. It ended in 661 when Ali's heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyah, the first Umayyad caliph.

Background

The Islamic caliphate expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. In 639 Muawiyah I was appointed the Governor of Syria by Umar after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah (the Governor before him) and 25,000 other people.

The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival. The Sassanid Dynasty in Persia had already collapsed.


Qurra dispute

There was also the movement towards more autonomous tribal groupings, which was particularly strong in Kufa, in Mesopotamia; they wanted to rule their own states. Among them developed a group called the Qurra, which later became known as the Kharijites.

The Qurra were mainly based in Kufa. They had not been involved in Syria. But later when Uthman declined to give them more lands in Persia they felt that their status was being reduced and therefore started to cause trouble. He also removed the distinction between the Ridda and pre-Ridda tribesmen which was not to their liking and lessened their prestige. As a result, they rebelled.

In 655 the Qurra stopped Uthman's governor Sa'id ibn al-'As at Jara'a, preventing him from entering Kufa and declared Abu Musa al-Ashari to be their governor.


Siege of Uthman

As Muawiyah and Caliph Uthman were preparing to besiege Constantinople, in 656, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr showed some Egyptians the house of Uthman ibn al-Affan. Finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Qurra climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. Hassan and Hussein were also guarding Uthman at the time. The rebels entered his room and struck him on the head.

Uthman had been besieged in his palace for 49 days before he was killed. Ali had done a great deal to attempt to save Uthman; however, Marwan prevented Ali from being able to help Uthman. Uthman only listened to the advice of Marwan and Saeed bin Aas, and Marwan did his best to act as a barrier between Ali and Uthman.

Uthman’s death had a polarizing effect in the Muslim world at the time. Questions were raised not only regarding his character and policies but also about the relationship between Muslims and the state, religious beliefs regarding rebellion and governance, and the qualifications of rulership in Islam.

Succession of Ali

The people of Medina asked Ali, who had been chief judge in Medina, to become the Caliph and he accepted. Unlike many of the other companions of Muhammad, Ali had not been involved in the camel caravan trade and had less business and administrative experience. Ali was convinced to make Kufa the capital.

Muawiyah I the governor of Syria, a relative of Uthman ibn al-Affan, and Marwan I wanted the murderers of Uthman arrested. In Mesopotamia, many people hated the Syrians. Some of Ali's supporters were also very extreme in their views and considered everyone to be their enemy. They also felt that if there were peace, they would be arrested for the killing of Uthman. Many of them later became the Kharijites and eventually killed Ali.


Battle of the Camel (656) (W)

The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at BasraIraq on 7 November 656 (13 Jumada Al-Awwal 36 AH). The battle was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was the cousin and son-in-law of the deceased Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, considered the fourth Rashidun Caliph of the Sunnis and the first Imam of the Shias, and A’isha (the wife of Muhammad), Talhah and Zubayr who led the war against Ali claiming that they want to take revenge on the killers of the third caliph Uthman who was recently killed as a result of rebellion. Marking the second chapter of the First Fitna, the fateful battle ended with victory of Ali and defeat of Ayesha who later apologized for her wrongdoing and was pardoned by Ali.

Battle of Siffin (657)

(W) The Battle of Siffin (Arabicوقعة صفين‎; May–July 657 occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talibwho ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now RaqqaSyria.

(W) Ali’s inability to punish the murderers of Uthman and Muawiyah’s refusal to pledge allegiance eventually led Ali to move his army north to confront Muawiyah. The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Neither side wanted to fight. Then on 29 July 657 (11th Safar), the Mesopotamians under Ashtar's command, the Qurra in Ali's army, who had their own camp, started the fighting in earnest. The battle lasted three days. The loss of life was terrible. Suddenly one of the Syrians, Ibn Lahiya, out of fear of further civil war and unable to bear the spectacle rode forward with a copy of the Quran on the ears of his horse to call for judgement by the book of Allah, and the other Syrians followed suit. Everyone on both sides took up the cry, eager to avoid killing their fellow Muslims — except for the conspirators.

So the fighting stopped.


Conflict with Kharijites (659)

In 659 Ali's forces finally moved against the Kharijites and they finally met in the Battle of Nahrawan. Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. Tom Holland writes "Ali won a victory over them as crushing as it was to prove pyrrhic: for all he had done, in effect was to fertilise the soil of Mesopotamia with the blood of their martyrs. Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: a Kharijite assassin.”

While dealing with the Iraqis, Ali found it hard to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions to exert control over his areas and as a result later spent a lot of time fighting the Kharijites. As a result, on the Eastern front, Ali found it hard to expand the state.

Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. On the 19th of Ramadan, while Praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Ali was attacked by the Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.

When Alī was assassinated, Muawiyah had the largest and the most organized and disciplined force in the Muslim Empire.


 





Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)

Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) (W)

Capital
Damascus (661-744)
Harran (744-750)
Common languages Classical Arabic (official) — Coptic, Greek, Latin, Persian (official in certain regions until the reign of Abd al-Malik) – Aramaic, Armenian, Berber languages, African Romance, Mozarabic, Sindhi, Georgian, Prakrit
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Caliphate
Caliph
• 661-680 Muawiya I
• 680-683 Yazid I
• 683-684 Muawiya II
History
• Muawiya I becomes Caliph— estimated from 660 to 665
• Defeat and death of Marwan II by the Abbasids — 750
Area
720 11,100,000 km2
Population
• 724 33,000,000

   
   
Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) (W)


The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, translit. al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty (Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644-656), was a member of the Umayyad clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, who became the fifth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661. After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital.

The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km2 and 33 million people, making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in 750. Survivors of the dynasty established themselves in Cordoba in the form of an Emirate and then a Caliphate, lasting until 1031.

The Umayyad Caliphs were considered too secular by some of their Muslim subjects. Christians, who still constituted a majority of the Caliphate's population, and Jews were allowed to practice their own religion but had to pay a head tax (the jizya) from which Muslims were exempt. There was, however, the Muslim-only zakat tax, which was earmarked explicitly for various welfare progammes.

Muawiya’s wife Maysum (Yazid’s mother) was also a Christian. The relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time. The Umayyads were involved in frequent battles with the Christian Byzantines without being concerned with protecting themselves in Syria, which had remained largely Christian like many other parts of the empire. Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious accommodation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy also boosted Muawiya's popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.

📹 The Umayyad Caliphate / Every Year (LINK)


Beginning with the Umayyads, the title of the caliph became hereditary.


Ummayad Cavalry around 700.

Muawiyah I (W)

Muawiyah I (Arabicمعاوية بن أبي سفيان‎, translit. Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the first who established the Umayyad dynasty in Islam of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

Muawiyah was appointed as the Governor of Syria after his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan died. In 657, Muawiya's army attacked the army of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the Battle of Siffin. After the death of Ali in 661, Muawiya's army approached that of Ali's son and successor, Hasan ibn Ali. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Hasan signed a peace treaty with Muawiyah. Muawiyah then assumed power; however, Muawiyah ended up breaking all his requirements set out by the peace treaty.

In power, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as naval bases.



Roman Empire By 650 CE.

First Fitna (W)

After Caliph Uthman was assassinated in 656, his successor Ali failed to arrest and punish the perpetrators. Because of this, Mu’awiyah saw Ali as an accomplice and did not want to acknowledge Ali's rule. Their troops confronted each other in the Battle of Siffin in 657, which was finally resolved by negotiations. These negotiations made Ali's claim to the caliphate dubious and some of his supporters broke away into a group known as the Kharijites. The Kharijite rebellion against Ali culminated in his assassination in 661. At the time, Mu'awiyah already controlled Syria and Egypt, and with the largest force in the Muslim realm, he laid the strongest claim on the caliphate.


Muawiyah as Caliph (W)

Muawiyah was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem in 661.

He came to Madina and spoke to the people, saying, "I desired the way followed by Abu Bakr and 'Umar, but I was unable to follow it, and so I have followed a course with you which contains fortune and benefits for you despite some bias, so be pleased with what comes to you from me even if it is little. When good is continuous, even if it is little, it enriches. Discontent makes life grim."

He also said in an address which he delivered to the people, "O people! By Allah, it is easier to move the firm mountains than to follow Abu Bakr and 'Umar in their behaviour. But I have followed their way of conduct falling short of those before me, but none after me will equal me in it."

Ali's caliphate lasted for around 4 years. After the treaty with Ali's son Hassan, Muawiyah ruled for nearly 20 years most of which were spent expanding the state.

Conduct towards non-Muslim subjects (W)

Muawiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate caliphate, which now spread from north Africa in the west to Afghanistan in the east, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.

Muawiya's wife Maysum (Yazid’s mother) was also a Jacobite Christian from the Kalb tribe. His marriage to Maysum was also politically motivated, as she was the daughter of the chief of the Kalb tribe, that was a large Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria. The Kalb tribe had remained largely neutral when the Muslims first went into Syria. After the plague that killed much of the Muslim army in Syria, by marrying Maysum, Muawiyah also used the Jacobite Christians, against the Romans.

Tom Holland writes “Christians, Jews, Samaritans and Manichaeans were all treated well by Muawiyah. Muawiyah even restored Edessa's cathedral after it had been toppled by an earthquake. Savagely though Muawiyah prosecuted his wars against the Romans, yet his subjects, no longer trampled by rival armies, no longer divided by hostile watchtowers, knew only peace at last. Justice flourished in his time, and there was great peace in the regions under his control. He allowed everyone to live as they wanted.”

Dome of the Rock (W)



The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: قبة الصخرة‎ Qubbat al-Sakhrah, Hebrew: כיפת הסלע‎ Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. It was initially completed in 691-92 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna on the site of the Second Jewish Temple, destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The Dome of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture.

Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces, although its outside appearance has been significantly changed in the Ottoman period and again in the modern period, notably with the addition of the gold-plated roof, in 1959-61 and again in 1993. The octagonal plan of the structure may have been influenced by the Byzantine Church of the Seat of Mary (also known as Kathisma in Greek and al-Qadismu in Arabic) built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

The Foundation Stone the temple was built over bears great significance in Judaism as the place where God created the world and the first human, Adam. It is also believed to be the site where Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son, and as the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, towards which Jews turn during prayer. The site's great significance for Muslims derives from traditions connecting it to the creation of the world and the belief that the Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey to heaven started from the rock at the center of the structure.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it has been called "Jerusalem's most recognizable landmark," along with two nearby Old City structures, the Western Wall, and the "Resurrection Rotunda" in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

 

 




📹 Siege of Constantinople (717-718) — Arab-Byzantine Wars (VİDEO)

Siege of Constantinople (717-718) — Arab-Byzantine Wars (LINK)

The forces of the Rashidun Caliphate achieved a decisive victory against the Byzantines at Yarmouk in 636. This allowed the Muslims to take over Syria and Egypt. But the Eastern Roman Empire was still strong and continued its resistance. The next 80 years Byzantines fought against the onslaught and the Arab-Byzantine wars reached their peak during the Siege of Constantinople in 717-718 where emperor Leo assisted by the Bulgars of Khan Tervel faced the overwhelming odds against the Umayyad forces. This battle is often overlooked in comparison to the battle of Tours that happened in France, but it was bigger and scale and had an even bigger impact on the fate of Europe.

 




Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (Northwest Africa) (W)


Maghreb: Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia , Western Sahara (6,045,741 km2)

The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (Arabic: الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ‎) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa. In a series of three stages, the conquest of the Maghreb commenced in 647 and concluded in 709 with the "Byzantine" Roman Empire losing its last remaining strongholds to the then-Umayyad Caliphate.

By 642 AD, under Caliph Umar, Arab Muslim forces had laid control of Mesopotamia (638), Syria (641), Egypt (642), and had invaded Armenia, all previously territories split between the warring Byzantine and Persian Empires, and were concluding their conquest of the Persian Empire with their defeat of the Persian army at the Battle of Nahāvand. It was at this point that Arab military expeditions into North African regions west of Egypt were first launched, continuing for years and furthering the spread of Islam.

In 644 at Madinah, Caliph Umar (Omar) was succeeded by Uthman ibn Affan (Othman), during whose twelve-year rule Armenia, Cyprus, and all of Iran, would be added to the growing Islamic empire; Afghanistan and North Africa would receive major invasions; and Muslim sea raids would range from Rhodes to the southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. The Byzantine navy would be defeated in the eastern Mediterranean.

 



 

💣 Battle of Tours (Battle of Poitiers), 732

Battle of Tours (Battle of Poitiers), 732 (W)


Charles de Steuben's Bataille de Poitiers en octobre 732 romantically depicts a triumphant Charles Martel (mounted) facing Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (right) at the Battle of Tours.

The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎, translit. Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā') – marked the victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the invasion forces of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in the Aquitaine of west-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and the then-independent Duchy of Aquitaine under Odo the Great.

The Franks were victorious. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed, and Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south. Details of the battle, including its exact location and the number of combatants, cannot be determined from accounts that have survived. Notably, the Frankish troops won the battle without cavalry.

There is little dispute that the battle helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and Frankish domination of Europe for the next century. Most historians agree that "the establishment of Frankish power in western Europe shaped that continent's destiny and the Battle of Tours confirmed that power."


The Saracen Army outside Paris, 730-32 AD

The exoticism of Saracen invaders is stressed in this detail from The Saracen Army outside Paris, by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, painted 1822-27, which actually depicts a fictional incident from Ludovico Ariosto (Cassino Massimo, Rome).



 




📹 💣 Battle of Poitiers, 732 (VİDEO)

Battle of Poitiers, 732 (LINK)

In 732 the Armies of the Caliphate had conquered a territory that stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River. They crossed into Europe and quickly captured Spain. France was going to be the next battle ground. But at the Battle of Poitiers, the Islamic Conquest came to a dead stop as Charles Martel inflicted a massive defeat on them.

 





In 711 an army of Arabs and Berbers from North Africa, united by their faith in Islam, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and arrived on the Iberian Peninsula.

 

In less than a decade the Muslims brought most of the peninsula under their domination; they called the Iberian lands they controlled al-Andalus.

 

Although the borders of al-Andalus shifted over the centuries, the Muslims remained a powerful force on the peninsula for almost eight hundred years, until 1492, when they were expelled by Ferdinand and Isabella.


📹 💣 Umayyad Conquest of Hispania (Moorish Iberia) (VİDEO)

Umayyad Conquest of Hispania (Moorish Iberia) (LINK)

472 CE - Germanic Visigoth under Euric defeated last bastion of Roman army and conquered roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis (northern Iberia).

Previously Visigoth sacked Rome in 410 CE and the Romans in Iberia already weakened by successive invasion of Germanic tribes such as Vandals, Suebi and Alani in previous decades.

476 CE - Romulus Augustalus, The last Western Roman Emperor was deposed, 'Barbarian' Odoacer became King of Italy.

507 CE - Franks underclovis defeated Visigoth near Vogladensis (Vouillé) and ousted visigoth in Gaul (France).

583 CE - Visigoth king Liuvigild crushed rebellion by Hermenegild who alligned himself with Eastern Romans.

581 CE - Visigoth under Liuvigild defeated the Native Vascones (Basques) and captured Vascones Capital, Pompelo (Pamplona).

585 CE - Visigoth conquered Germanic Suebi Kingdom who controlled Gallicia & Lusitania ( northwest Spain & Portugal)

610 CE - Toletum (Toledo) became capital of the Visigoth Kingdom after they were ousted from Tolosates (Toulouse).

624 CE - Visigoth defeated Eastern Roman Garrison in coastal southern spain, whole Iberian peninsula under Visigoth control.

694 CE - Visigoth king, Egica, passed law to enslave Jews residing in Iberia to be enslaved and their children taken from their parents in the 17th Council of Toledo..

698 CE - Umayyad army defeated Eastern Roman army in north Africa and re-captured Carthage. Just centuries before, the Eastern Romans just taken north africa from Germanic Vandals during Justinian I era.

710 CE - Roderic usurp Visigoth throne against Achila II, King wittiza's son and control most of Iberian peninsula.

710 CE - Count Julian, former roman and now visigoth commander in Septem (Ceuta, nortern morocco) dishonored by Visigoth king Roderic. Musa ibn Nusair and Count Julian made alliance to topple Roderic in Iberia and provided Umayyad with military intelligence and ships.

711 CE - Umayyad army commanded by Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad landed on Iberian peninsula with small forces of 1700 men & horses. In previous millennia north african Carthaginian and levantines Phoenician already settled in
Iberia before being ousted by the Romans.
Visigoth king who still subduing the rebellious Vascones (Basque) in Pompelo (Pamplona) soon turned south to counter Umayyad incursion.

712 CE - Tariq receive reinforcement and facing Visigoth main army near Guadalete river. Outnumbered Umayyad forces under Tariq successfuly defeated Visigoth army who has been plagued by distrust following recent civil war.
Visigoth King, Roderic was killed in the battle. Visigoth capital of Toletum (Toledo) fell to the Umayyad Armies.
Mérida was captured by Umayyad from the Visigoth.
SeJewish population in Iberia who has been exiled by the romans in 70th CE and persecuted by Visigoth helps the conquest of Iberia by Umayyad armies. Umayyad appointed officials in captured cities, but former christian still lives by their own Visigothic Law. so does the Shepardic Jews. Both were subject of taxation (jizya).
The remaining Visigoth forces retreated to mountainous northern spain.

713 CE - Visigoth count Theudimer was defeated by Umayyad forces under ibn Musa, Theudimer then signed allegiance to the Umayyad in exchage of his autonomy over his land around Murcia. The last visigoth King Ardo, retreated to septimania (southeast france).

714 CE - Governor Musa ibn Nusair led umayyad army overrun western Basque and Cantabrian mountains.
Umayyad only kept small garrison in the Basque region while Vascones (Basque) were kept intact and autonomously ruled themselves.
Most of the town captured by Umayyad was kept intact and inhabitants were respected of their culture & religion.
Hispano-Roman Count Cassius became Umayyad client and established Banu Qasi (Cassius Clan) in northern Iberia.

716 CE - Coduba, former carthaginian city of Kart-Juba became capital of Umayyad Al-Andalus Province and called Qurtuba. Subordinate to the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, Levant.

717 CE - Umayyad forces reach the Pyrenees, and conducted raid toward visigoth bastion in Septimania (southeast France).

718 CE - Visigoth count Pelagius revolted in 718 and defeated Umayyad forces in battle of Covadonga (Northern Iberia).

 


📹 Al Hakam II Andalusia (Umayyad, Iberia) (VİDEO)

Al Hakam II Andalusia (Umayyad, Iberia) (LINK)

Al Hakam II (Alhakén II) of Umayyad Iberia (Andalusia)

961 - Al Hakam suceeded the Umayyad caliphate in Córdoba and adopted caliphal title of al-Mustanṣir.
Al Hakam was very well versed in numerous science & knowledge. He erected great libraries in Córdoba. His great library collected more than 400.000 volumes.
Beside that, 70 great library was erected throughout Andalusia, notably in Seville, Malaga and Granada.
Andalusia became producer of high quality Silk centered on Almería.
Trading routes between North Africa, Al Andalus and the rest of Europe was established through northern Iberia.
While lucrative sea routes between Al-Andalus and Northern Europe was monopolized by merchants from Genoa & Pisa. as the Caliph became patron of Art, Science & knowledge.
Day-to-day governance was handled by Grand Vizier Jaʿfar Al Mushafi of Berber Origin.
And military with Able General Ghālib ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣiḳlabī (Ghalib The Slav).

962 - Al Hakam II expanded the great mosque of Córdoba. He also restored Sanco I as the King of Leon. He marries converted Basque, Aurora, later known as Sabiha, Queen of Córdoba.

963 - Sancho I broke the treaty and attacking Umayyad along with the Kingdom of Navarre.
Umayyad army led by Al Hakam himself along ith General General Ghālib the Slav, they defeated the Leonese and Navarrese, and killed King García Sánchez I. Towns of Gormaz, Atienza and Callahora was captured.

966 - Viking fleet from Norway & Denmark under Gundhered (Gudrød) raided coastal Galicia and pillaged the great monastery of Santiago de Compostela and killed the bishop Sisnando Menéndez.
The vikings then headed south to Lisbon under Umayyad Caliphate.
The Viking fleet encountered Umayyad fleet, and naval battle ensued. Several viking ship were destroyed.

971 - After failed attempt to raid andalusian western coast, due to superiro andalusian navy. Viking fleet returned north to coastla Galicia. wherte the Vikings was defeated by Galician count Gonzalo Sánchez.

972 - Ghalib the Slav promoted to rank of Al-qāʾid al-Aʿlā (supreme commander). he also brought law student Ibn Abī ʿĀmir (Almanzor) into Cordoban court.
He was stationed at Medinaceli (Madinat Salim) castle to oversee northern border.

973 - Morocco: Ghalib led an expedition to bring the Idrīsids back under Umayyad allegiance.

975 - Gormaz: King Ramiro III of León besiege Gormaz. General Ghalib succeeded relieving the siege and defeated the Leonese army.
He then move to Castile and defeated Castilian army under Count García Fernández near Langa de Duero.

976 - Al Hakam oversee the completion of Royal capital of Medina Azahara founded in 936.
Female scholar Lubna was employed as Caliph secretary and in charge with managing the Library of Medina Azahara along with sephardim Hasdai ibn Shaprut.
Abū al-Qāsim Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis), considered the greatest surgeon of the Middle ages. His work was compiled in Kitab al-Tasrif, an encyclopedia of surgery It contains information about a wide variety of illnesses, injuries, medical conditions, treatments, and surgical procedures.
Al Hakam died and suceeded by his young son Hisham II.
The administration of the Andalusia was handled by council consisting of Senior Vizier al-Mushafi, Queen Sabiha (Aurora), General Ghalib the Slav and Vizier Ibn Abī ʿĀmir (al-Manṣūr/Almanzor).
Ibn Abī ʿĀmir (al-Manṣūr/Almanzor) soon dominating the politic in Andalusia.

📹 Lamma bada "Muwashah of Arab-Andalusian tradition" (VİDEO)

Lamma bada “Muwashah of Arab-Andalusian tradition” (LINK)

Nabyla Maan-Lamma Bada

 



📹 Farewell of Slavianka - Dina Garipova & Alexandrov Ensemble (2013) (VİDEO)

Farewell of Slavianka — Dina Garipova & Alexandrov Ensemble (2013) (LINK)

 

 



 



📹 Moslem Spain (VİDEO)

Moslem Spain (LINK)

The story of flourishing Muslim civilization of Al Andalusia where progress of architecture, scientific research and trade flourished in the harmonious Muslim-jews-christian society, until the notorious Reconquista and Inquisition of Muslim and Jews by the Catholic monarch occur and wipe out the light of the dark ages.

 



📹 💣 Umayyad Invasion of Gaul (France) (VİDEO)

Umayyad Invasion of Gaul, 711 (France) (LINK)

481 CE - Clovis I united various germanic frankish tribes and became dominant power in Belgica (Belgium & northeast France).

486 CE - Franks under Clovis defeated remnant of Roman Empire in Gaul (Kingdom of Soissons) ruled by Syagrius, Magister of Gaul.

507 CE - Germanic Franks under Clovis defeated Germanic Visigoth under Alaric near Poitiers. Visigoth retreated to south to Iberia (Spain & Portugal) and Septimania (Southeast France).

711 CE - Umayyad armies crossed Gibraltar strait (Jabl at-Tariq) with the help of Count Julian.

712 CE - Outnumbered Umayyad forces defeated larger Visigoth forces near Guadalete (Oued al-Laka) in southern Spain.
Visigoth king, Roderic was killed in the battle.

719 CE - Franks under Prince Charles defeated and subjugated other Germanic tribe of Bavaria, Allemania, Saxons and Frisia, expanding Frankish kingdom to the heart of Germanic lands.

720 CE - Umayyad armies crossed Pyrenees and pursuing Visigoth to Septimania (Southeast France).

721 CE - Umayyad armies led by governor of Andalus (spain) Al-Samh Al-Khawlani (Zama) seized Narbonensis (Narbonne) in southeast france, and continue to besieging city of Tolosates
(Touluse) in Aquitaine (southwest France).
Duke Eudes (Odo) attacked Umayyad with Aquitanian and Franks. Intially umayyad could drove away Odo forces and became overconfident. Then Odo forces surprisingly returned & destroyed Umayyad forces. Al-Samh Al Khawlani (Zama) , governor of Al Andalus, was killed in the Battle.

731 CE - Abdul Rahman Al-Ghafiqi was appointed as Governor of al-Andalus (Spain & Portugal) in Cordoba

732 CE - Umayyad army returned to Aquitaine and defeated Odo Forces near Bordeaux (River Garonne).
Odo seek help & submitted to his rival, King Charles of the Franks.
After passing Poitiers, Umayyad forces met with main Franks forces blocking their advance to Tours.
Fierce battle ensued between Umayyad & the Frankish army, as Franks took position on high ground, suitable for defence against umayyad lager forces.
Umayyad army initially gained the upper hand, but Charles sent skirmisher to harass umayyad camp in behind.
Umayyad army afraid to lose his precious loots, rushed back to the camp to secure the booty, scattering their formation while the Franks continue to attack them.
Al-Ghafiqi try to keep his men intact with no avail, he was surrounded and killed by Frankish soldiers.
While the rest of the Umayyad forces retreated from the battlefield, tho ones who remain were slaughtered by the Franks.
As the night come, Umayyad forces silently retreated to Narbonne during the night, unnoticed by the Franks.

734 CE - Umayyad province of Arbūnah (Narbonne) with Yusuf al-Fihri as its governor, still held Avignon, Arles and Marseille with the submission of Patrician of Provence, Count Maurontus. 736 CE - Umayyad armada arrived in Narbonne and reinforce Arles and Avignon, aiding Maurontus.

737 CE - Charles Martel besieged Umayyad held Avignon and destroyed it along with their fleet in nearby river.
Umayyad in Andalusia (Spain) sent reinforcement to relieve Narbonne, but intercepted and destroyed by the Franks.
He then continued to besiege Umayyad headquarter in Narbonne, but ended in failure due to rivalry with Hunald of Aquitaine and rebellion from Umayyad-ally, count Maurontus, patrician of Provence.

739 CE - Frankish army defeated and count Maurontus, Umayyad-ally in Marseille who flee to northern Italy (Alps).

741 CE - Charles Martel died, succeeded by King Pépin the Short.

753 CE - Arbūnah (Narbonne) still in the hand of Umayyad forces, administered by Patrician Count Miló with constant supply from Andalusian (Spain) by sea.

759 CE - The spread of Abassid revolution started in 750 CE hampered the reinforcement & supply to Narbonne from Andalusia (Spain), Narbonne supply & manpower soon depleted.
Franks under Pepin besieged Narbonne for several years. As the time pass by, Umayyad garrison unable to withstand the siege due lack of supply and defeated.

 



📹 💣 Battle of Guadalete (Umayyads vs Visigoth) (VİDEO)

Battle of Guadalete, 711 (Umayyads vs Visigoth) (LINK)

Battle of Guadalete/ عركة وادي لكة (Maʿrakat wādī laka)

The Battle fought in 19 July 711 CE/28 Ramadan 92 H near Guadalete River (Wadi al-Laka) on the southern of Iberian peninsula (Spain) between Umayyad Caliphate of Arab-Berber forces led by Tariq Ibn Ziyad and Germanic Visigoth forces led by King Roderic.

Previously Tariq forces had landed near Cartagena with the help of Count Julian, Roman-Governor of Septem (Ceuta) who want to overthrow tyrant Roderic whose legitimacy to the Visigoth throne was opposed by many Visigoth nobility. Arriving on Iberian soil, Tariq burn their ship to boost Omayyad morale and minimizing the option to flee or surrender to the enemy.

Ultimately the two armies met. Tariq forces numbered 12.000 mostly light cavalry unit while Visigoth forces numbering 33.000 mostly infantry units just returned from their war in the north with the Basque nations.

The visigoth large army carried attack with lack of cohesivity which was used by Tariq cavalry to perform hit and run tactics with many opening in enemy line. The use of cavalry to harass & encircle the enemy proved crucial to the defeat of Visigoths with larger numbers.

During the battle, Visigoth king Roderic killed along with many of Visigoth troops. While Omayyad forces losses was minimum. The death of its King drop the morale of the Visigoth and the rest of the army flee. The victory shattered Visigoth kingdom and paved the way for Umayyad dominance & influence in Iberian Peninsula for the next centuries.

Source : Mozarabic Chronicle/Continuatio Hispana

 



📹 💣 Fall of Umayyad & Charlemagne Franks (VİDEO)

Fall of Umayyad & Charlemagne Franks (LINK)

750 CE - Dissatisfaction mounted in Umayyad Caliphate due to mismanagement of the empire,
Abbasid revolutionist overthrow Umayyads and took over the Caliphate. an Umayyad prince, Abd ar-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya escaped to Al Andalus (Iberia).

756 CE - Iberian Peninsula : as internal conflict torn Al-Andalus province, many sided with Umayyad loyalist, many sided with Abbasid revolutionist and other wanted to establish independent emirate.
At River Guadalquivir, Abd ar-Rahman army emerge victorious against Emir al-Fihri. Most of central Iberia centered in Cordoba under Umayyad control, while northern Iberia largely under al-Fihri supporter centered in Zaragoza.

763 CE - Abbassid army from Ifriqiyya (north africa) landed Algarve (Southern Portugal) and confronted near Beja (Bajah). Abbassid army was defeated by Umayyad armies under Abd ar-Rahman.

769 CE - Basque Aquitanian under Hunald revolted to the Frankish rule, Charlemagne subdue the rebellion.

773 CE - Germany : Franks under Charlemagne battling Saxons and destroyed their Sacred Irminsul Tree. Saxons under Widukind continued their resistance.

773 CE - Franks under Charlemagne crossed the Alps and battling Lombards in Italy cornering them in Pavia. Most of Italian peninsula was under Frankish control.

776 CE - Germany : Charlemagne defeated Saxon rebels, Rebel leader Widukind fled to Denmark (Viking land).

778 CE - Sulayman al-Kalbi, governor in Barcelona who oppose Abd ar Rahman rule in Andalusia sent delegation to Frankish King, Charlemagne in Paderborn requesting military aid in northeast iberia in return for submission of Barcelona (Barsyaluna) , Girona (Jiruna), Huesca (Washka) against the Umayyad under Abd ar-Rahman.
Umayyad forces under General Ibn Obeid tried to take Zaragoza (Saraqusta) from pro-Abbassid Governor Huseyn. Huseyn forces managed to defeat Umayyad forces and capture Ibn Obeid. as Frankish forces successfully subduing other city in northeast Iberia they finally march to Zaragoza.
But after defeating Umayyad army under ibn Obeid, Huseyn the governor of Zaragoza felt He didn't need aid from Frankish forces and refused to let the Charlemagne & his armies enter the city. Charlemagne besiege Zaragoza.
Saxons rebelled against the Frankish rule, this forced Charlemagne to end the siege of Zaragosa and return to Germany.
As Frankish army crossing the Pyrenees, they destroyed Iruña (Pamplona), capital of the native Basque people and razed surrounding area. eliminating possible attack from basques who oppose Frankish expansion.
During their march through the Pyrenees, Frankish rearguard was ambushed by Basques in retaliation of the sack of Pamplona (Iruña).
The Frankish rearguard was caught off guard and slaughtered by basques warrior, even though the basque was outnumbered by Frankish army but they know the region very well and narrow pass made the Frankish rearguard easily cut off from the rest of the convoy.
Roland, Frankish governor of Briton March was among the one who died in the ambush. Frankish army lose huge quantities of treasures from the campaign and veteran soldiers due to this ambush.

782 CE - Germany : Charlemagne return to Saxony and ban Saxon paganism, Widukind returned to Saxony and re-ignite the rebellion against the Franks.
Charlemagne hasty return able to quell the Saxon rebellion. 4500 Saxon rebels were massively executed in Verden.

784 CE - Abd ar Rahman re-establish Cordoba as capital of Andalusia (Moorish Iberia) and commencing the building of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. He also reinvigorating economy in Andalusia torn by civil war by establishing trade relations with Abbasid controlled North Africa , Levant and Italian coastal states.

792 CE - Charlemagne moved the Frankish capital from Paris (France) to Aachen (Germany) to better control the recently conquered Saxony.
He built Aachen palace and its Palatine Chapel, which later become great Aachen Cathedral.

800 CE - After unifying France, Italy and much of Germany, Charlemagne establish Germanic Holy Roman Empire with him as the first Emperor. Rivaling the Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople.

 















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