Abbasid Caliphate

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Abbasid Caliphate

  Islam and Christendom under Harun al-Rashid (786-809) and Charlemagne (768-814)


This map shows the islamic and christian worlds around 800, the year in which Charlemagne, the ruler of a precariously united Germanic and Roman Europe, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in Rome. Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel, who had stopped the Muslim armies near Poitiers in 732, was the son of a Merovingian court official; his father, Pippin III, King of the Franks (751-68), was the founder of the Carolingian dynasty. Pippin’s two sons each inherited a share of the Frankish kingdom, and on his brother’s death in 771 Charlemagne became ruler of much of continental western Europe; at their greatest extent his domains ran from Barcelona in the west to the Elbe in the east. His coronation in Rome symbolised the beginning of Europe’s long recovery from the Dark Ages, during which the Roman Empire in the West had been destroyed by incursions of nomadic ‘barbarians’ from the Eurasian steppe. Muslim raids from al-Andalus and North Africa and Viking raids from Scandinavia in the ninth century meant, however, that it was not until the tenth and eleventh centuries that western Europe north of the Alps and the Pyrenees began to experience a relatively uninterrupted period of stability, economic growth and the expansion of cities and of trade (see Map 19)
The late eighth and early ninth centuries were a period of considerable insecurity in the Byzantine Empire, where the controversy over whether or not it was permissible to venerate icons caused deep internal divisions. In addition, a succession of weak rulers coincided with constant if not particularly effective attacks from Muslims in the east and with more pressing threats from the Avars and the Bulgars in the northwest. By 780 the Byzantine Empire had shrunk to less than a third of the size it had been in its heyday under Justinian (527-65); many provincial cities had been raided and pillaged, and trade and prosperity had declined. The Byzantine emperor Constantine VI succeeded his father at the age of ten in 780; in 797, he was blinded by supporters of his ambitious mother, Irene, the former regent, who succeeded him as ruler. In an effort to reunite the West and the East, Charlemagne proposed marriage to Irene, but she was deposed in 802 before the messengers bearing the offer had arrived in Constantinople. In spite of these internal rivalries and religious controversies, which lasted until the end of the ninth century, the Byzantine Empire experienced something of a revival, and eventually managed to hold out against the Muslims in Anatolia until the Seljuk invasions in the eleventh century. Byzantium was given a new lease of life by the gradual conversion of both Bulgaria and Russia to Orthodox Christianity, beginning in the late ninth century
At the beginning of the ninth century, Baghdad and Constantinople were among the largest cities in the world. Baghdad, with about half a million inhabitants, was probably only surpassed in size by the T’ang city of Chang-an (Xi’an) in China. Constantinople, founded in the fourth century on the ancient site of Byzantium, was certainly the largest city in Europe, with some 200,000 inhabitants, but it had not expanded beyond its original walls. In contrast, Aachen, Charlemagne’s capital, was a town of about 5,000 inhabitants.




🗺️ Islam and Christendom under Harun al-Rashid (786-809) and Charlemagne (768-814)



  🕑 Timeline

🕑 Timeline of Muslim history

Timeline of Muslim history (W)



🕑 Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad) 750-1258

Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad) 750-1258 (L)

  • 751: Battle of Talas: Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners of war Tang Dynasty Chronology
  • 765: A school of medicine is established in Baghdad.
  • 750-850: The Four orthodox schools of law are established.
    • 767: Death of Abu Hanifa who founded the Hanafite School of Law.
    • 795: Death of Anas ibn Malik who founded the Malikite School of Law.
    • 820: Death of Shafi'i who founded the Shafi'ite School of Law.
    • 855: Death of Ahmad ibn Hanbal who founded the Hanbalite School of Law.
  • 850-875: The Tradition is formalized.
    • 870: Death of Bukhari who edited one of the important compendia of Tradition.
    • 875: Death of Muslim who edited one of the important compendia of Tradition.
  • 1010: Firdawsi completes his Epic of Kings, the great epic poem of Persia.
  • 1055-1250: Expansion of Islam under the Seljuks and Christian responses.
    • 1055: Seljuk Turks establish a protectorate in Baghdad.
    • 1071: Battle of Manzikert. Seljuks defeat the Byzantines and establish control over Asia Minor.
    • 1096-1099: First Crusade The Crusading Era Chronology
      • 1099: Crusaders take Jerusalem.
    • 1147-1149: Second Crusade
    • 1187: Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders.
    • 1189-1192: Third Crusade
  • 1258: Mongols sack Baghdad. Abbasid Caliphate ends.


📹 🕑 The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate (VİDEO)

The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate (LINK)

Following the Abbasid Revolution in 750, the Islamic Caliphate would gradually disintegrate into regional dynasties, finally coming to an end in 1258 (albeit revived in Egypt 1261-1517).


  📜 List of the Abbasid Caliphs

📜 List of the Abbasid Caliphs

List of the Abbasid Caliphs (W)

Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 and 1261-1517)

Caliphs of Baghdad (25 January 750 – 20 February 1258)

(Not accepted by the Muslim dominions in the Umayyad-ruled Iberian Peninsula and the Fatimid and Almohad-ruled parts of North Africa).

# Image Regnal name Personal name Born Reigned from Reigned until Died Parents Notes
20 Balami - Tarikhnama - Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah.jpg As-Sāffaḥ 'Abdallah Abul-'Abbās 721 750 10 June 754
21 Abbasid Dinar - Al Mansur - 140 AH (758 AD).JPG Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far 'Abdallah 714 10 June 754 775
  • Remembered for killing Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was a descendant of Muhammad, the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in Sunni jurisprudence
22 Arab-Sasanian coin of the Tabaristan type issued under Caliph al-Mahdi.jpg Al-Mahdi Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad 744/745 775 4 August 785
  • Named al-Mahdi by al-Mansur in order to turn the attention of his subjects from the ‘Alid family toward the family of 'Abbas
23 Dirhem of Al-Hadi, AH 170.jpg Al-Hadi Abu Muhammad Musa 764 August 785 14 September 786
24 Gold dinar of Harun al-Rashid, AH 170-193.jpg Al-Rashid Harun 763/766 14 September 786 24 March 809
25 Abbasid Dinar - Al Amin - 195 AH (811 AD).jpg Al-Amin Muhammad 787 March 809 24/25 September 813
26 Coin of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun.jpg Al-Ma'mun Abu Jaʿfar 'Abdallah 13/14 September 786 September 813 9 August 833
27 Byzantine emissaries to the Caliph (cropped).jpg Al-Mu'tasim Abū Ishaq Muhammad October 796 9 August 833 5 January 842
28 Dinar of al-Wathiq, AH 227-232.jpg Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 811–813 5 January 842 10 August 847
29 Dinar of Al-Mutawakkil, AH 232-247.jpg Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far February/March 822 10 August 847 11 December 861
30 Dirhem of al-Muntasir, AH 247-248.jpg Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad November 837 861 7 or 8 June 862
31 Dinar of Al-Musta'in, AH 248-252.jpg Al-Musta'in Ahmad 836 862 866 (executed)
32 Dinar of al-Mu'tazz, AH 253.jpg Al-Mu'tazz 847 866 869
33 Dirham of al-Muhtadi, AH 255-256.jpg Al-Muhtadi Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad 869 21 June 870
34 Dinar of al-Mu'tamid, AH 271.jpg Al-Mu'tamid Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad 842 21 June 870 15 October 892
35 Dinar of al-Mu'tadid, AH 285.jpg Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad 854/861 October 892 5 April 902
36 Dinar of al-Muktafi, AH 292.jpg Al-Muktafi Abu Ahmad ʿAlî 877/878 5 April 902 13 August 908
37 Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 895 13 August 908 929 31 October 932
38 Gold dinar of al-Qahir, AH 320-322.jpg Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 929 950
(37) Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 895 929 31 October 932
(38) Gold dinar of al-Qahir, AH 320-322.jpg Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 31 October 932 934 950
39 Gold dinar of al-Radi, 323 AH.jpg Ar-Radi Abu al-'Abbas Muhammad December 909 934 23 December 940
40 Dirham of al-Muttaqi.jpg Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 908 940 944 July 968
41 Al-Mustakfi 'Abdallah 905 September 944 January 946 September/October 949
42 Al-Muti Abu al-Qasim al-Faḍl 914 January 946 974
43 At-Ta'i 932 974 991 3 August 1003
44 Mahmud in robe from the caliph.jpg Al-Qadir 947 1 November 991 29 November 1031
45 Al-Qa'im 1001 29 November 1031 2 April 1075
46 Al-Muqtadi 1056 2 April 1075 February 1094
  • Muhammad, son of Al-Qa'im, Abbasid Caliph
  • Urjuman, Armenian concubine
47 Al-Mustazhir April/May 1078 February 1094 6 August 1118
48 Al-Mustarshid April/May 1092 6 August 1118 29 August 1135
49 Ar-Rashid 1109 29 August 1135 1136 6 June 1138
(killed by Hashshashins)
50 Dinar of Al-Muqtafi, 905-906.jpg Al-Muqtafi 9 March 1096 1136 12 March 1160
51 Al-Mustanjid 1124 12 March 1160 20 December 1170
52 Al-Mustadi Hassan 1142 20 December 1170 30 March 1180
53 An-Nasir 6 August 1158 2 March 1180 4 October 1225
54 Az-Zahir 1176 5 October 1225 11 July 1226
55 Al-Mustansir Abû Ja`far 17 February 1192 11 July 1226 2 December 1242
56 Dinar Abbasside - al-Musta'sim bi-llah - 641 AH.jpg Al-Musta'sim 1213 2 December 1242 20 February 1258
  • Last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad

During the latter period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Sultan.

Caliphs of Cairo (13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)

The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.

# Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents Notes
57 Al-Mustansir II Abu al-Qasim Ahmad 13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261
  • Installed as Caliph in Cairo, Egypt by the Mamluk Sultans in 1261
  • Title caliph also claimed by Al Hakim I who was installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo
58 Al-Hakim I Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad 16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302
  • Abu 'Ali al-Hasan
  • Great-grandson of Al-Mustarshid
  • Installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo in 1261
  • Proclaimed as caliph by Mamluk Sultan after Al-Mustansir II died
59 Al-Mustakfi I Abu ar-Rabi' Sulaiman 20 January 1302 – February 1340
60 Al-Wathiq I Abu Ishaq Ibrahim February 1340 – 17 June 1341
61 Al-Hakim II Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad 1341 – 1352
62 Al-Mu'tadid I Abu Bakr 1352 – 1362
63 Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1362 – 1377
64 Al-Mus'tasim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1377
(63) Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1377 – 1383
65 Al-Wathiq II 'Umar September 1383 – 13 November 1386
(64) Al-Mus'tasim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1386 – 1389
(63) Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1389 – 9 January 1406
66 Al-Musta'in Abu al-Fadl al-'Abbas 22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414
  • Became Sultan of Egypt from 7 May 1412 until 6 November 1412
67 Al-Mu'tadid II Abu al-Fath Dawud 1414 – 1441
68 Al-Mustakfi II Abu ar-Rabi' Sulayman 1441 – 29 January 1451
69 Al-Qa'im Abu Al-Baqa Hamzah 1451 – 1455
70 Al-Mustanjid Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf 1455 – 7 April 1479
71 Al-Mutawakkil II Abu al-'Izz 'Abdul 'Aziz 5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497
72 Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1497 – 1508
73 Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1508 – 1516
(72) Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1516 – 1517
(73) Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1517


  Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 / 1261-1517)

🗺️ Abbasid Caliphate

Though Abbasid rulers occupied the caliphal seat in Iraq from 750 to 1258, when Mongol armies destroyed Baghdad, real political power waned sharply and steadily after 850. The rival caliphates of the Fatimids (909-1171) and Spanish Umayyad (929-976) were comparatively short lived.


Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 / 1261-1517)

Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 / 1261-1517)

Empire (750-1258)
Ceremonial dynasty based in Cairo under the Mamluk Sultanate (1261-1517)
Kufa (750-762)
Baghdad (762-796, 809-836, 892-1258)
Raqqa (796-809)
Samarra (836-892)
Cairo (1261-1517)
Common languages Arabic (central administration); various regional languages
Sunni Islam
Government Caliphate
• 750-754 As-Saffah (first)
• 1242-1258 Al-Musta'sim (last Caliph in Baghdad)
• 1508-1517 al-Mutawakkil III (last Caliph in Cairo)

• Established 750
• Disestablished 1517
Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 / 1261-1517) (W)

The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad’s uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566-653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).

The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon. The Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats (notably the Barmakid family) for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah (national community). Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, and they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture, philosophy and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam.

Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali (clients) and Iranian bureaucrats. They were forced to cede authority over Al-Andalus and the Maghreb to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969.

The political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, which each captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055 respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empirewas gradually reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain. The Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.

Abbasid Revolution (W)

The Abbasid Revolution refers to the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 CE). Coming to power three decades after the death of the Muslim prophet Muhammad and immediately after the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyads were a feudal Arab empire ruling over a population which was overwhelmingly non-Arab as well as primarily non-Muslim. Non-Arabs were treated as second-class citizens regardless of whether or not they converted to Islam, and this discontent cutting across faiths and ethnicities ultimately led to the Umayyads' overthrow. The Abbasid family claimed to have descended from al-Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet.

The revolution essentially marked the end of the Arab empire and the beginning of a more inclusive, multiethnic state in the Middle East. Remembered as one of the most well-organized revolutions during its period in history, it reoriented the focus of the Muslim world to the east.

Abbasid Revolution
Date June 9, 747 – July, 750
Greater Khorasan and present day Iranand Iraq

Abbasid victory

  • Abbasid appropriation of most former Umayyad territory
  • Eventual establishment of the Emirate of Córdoba
  • End of privileged status for Arabs
  • End of official discrimination against non-Arabs
Harun al-Rashid (W)

Harun al-Rashid
(Arabic: هَارُون الرَشِيدHārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Aaron the Orthodox" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri)) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma (“House of Wisdom”) in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria.

A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne’s court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious.

Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad. 1864 painting by Julius Köckert.

The tribute the Caliph Harun al-Rashid to Charlemagne.



Cup with a Poem on Wine
Ibn Sukkara al-Hashimi (d. A.H. 385/ A.D. 995–6)

Drink! For this day has a special boon, which if you had known about it / You would have hurried up with entertainment and hastened with rapture! // [Rosy cheeks, garden roses cut / Smiles are misty and the sun is veiled] // Don’t hold the cup back, but drink it diluted, until you die from it (dead) without reason.

Inscription read and translated by Abdullah Ghouchani.

The poem is from Ibn Sukkara al-Hāshimī and appears in Abu Mansur al-Tha‘ālibī, Yatīmat al-Dah wa ‘Asratu Ahli al-‘Asr. Ed. Muhammad Muhyi al-Din Abdul-Hamid, Dar al-Sa’ada publication, Cairo, 1956, vol.3, p. 19.
(LINK: The Metropolitan Museum of Art)


📹 Wine Cup (TheMet, 82nd & Fifth — Poetic License by Martina Rugiadi) (VİDEO)

Wine Cup (TheMet, 82nd & Fifth — Poetic License by Martina Rugiadi) (LINK)

Met curator Martina Rugiadi on poetic license inIbn Sukkara al-Hashimi’s Wine Cup, second half 10th-11th century.

The decoration of this cup, with a calligraphic band at its rim and a vegetal scroll at its base, is rather austere in appearance, but the inscription, a verse in Arabic, celebrates the pleasures of drinking. The cup compares closely with items in a hoard of silver found in northwest Iran that has been associated with Buyid patronage.

View this work on

Created by The Metropolitan Museum of Art.


📹 The founding of Baghdad city / Eamonn Gearon (VİDEO)

The founding of Baghdad city / Eamonn Gearon (LINK)

After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stood), and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward."


📹 Golden Age of Islam — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Golden Age of Islam — Khan Academy (LINK)

The Abbasid Caliphate becomes a center of learning from the 9th to the 13th centuries, collecting the knowledge of India, China and ancient Greece while also making significant new contributions to mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine and geography.


📹 💣 Abbasid & Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea) (VİDEO)

Abbasid & Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea) (LINK)

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate ( Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566-653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq and spread their influence in Caucasus, Southern Russia & Ukraine and Central Asia.

Kievan Rus Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic: Рѹ́сь (Rus' ), Arabic : رُوس‎ (rūs), Greek: Ῥῶς (Rhôs), Latin: Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federation of East Slavic and Scandinavian peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Scandinavian/Varangian Rurik dynasty.

Abbasid explorers, portmaster, diplomat & geographers with contact with Viking Rus'

Ibn Khordadbeh
Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh (c. 820 – 912 CE) . He was 'Director of Posts and Intelligence' in the northwest iran during Abbasid Caliphate. Around 846-847CE ibn Khordadbeh wrote Kitāb al Masālik w’al Mamālik (The Book of Roads and Kingdoms). His book contains information of how trade routes was organized between Khazars & Rus along with political forces involved.

Ahmad ibn Rustah
Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī . He was well known explorers in the Abbasid Caliphate and He wrote a geographical compendium known as 'Book of Precious Records'. He travelled to Novgorod with the Rus' and compiled books relating his own travels, as well as second-hand knowledge of the Khazars, Magyars, Slavs, Bulgars and other peoples.

Abu al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī al-Masʿūdī; (c. 896–956) was a historian, geographer and traveler in the Abbasid Caliphate. Al-Mas‘udi was one of the first to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems (مروج الذهب و معادن الجوهر‎), a world history. His account of the Rūs is an important early source for the study of Russian history and the history of Ukraine. Al-Mas‘udi presented most of his material based on his personal observations and contacts made while traveling to the land of the Rūs.

Ahmad ibn Fadlan
Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, (921–22 CE) was an Arab traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal").His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings (rūs), including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.

Viking Raid on Caspian Sea
913 CE - The Viking Rus' attacked in the Gorgan region around Abaskun, as well as Tabaristan, pillaging the countrysides as they went.An attempt to repel them as they lay in anchor near islands in the southwestern part of the Caspian Sea proved unsuccessful.I their reurn along the Volga Delta, the Rus' were attacked by Khazars and finished off by the Burtas and Volga Bulgars.
1031 CE - The Viking Rus' targeted Baku area and their raid was repulsed by local forces.

Ingvar the far-travelled
Ingvar led an unsuccessful large Swedish Viking attack against Persia in 1036–1042.

Music Stuart Chatwood - A Fight of Light & Darkness (Prince of Persia 2008 Soundtrack) Garmarna - Herr Mannelig (Guds Spelemän) Adam Skorupa - Round Shield Invader (Ancestors Legacy Soundtrack)


📹 💣 Abbasid Al Mu’tasim & Byzantines (VİDEO)

Abbasid Al Mu’tasim & Byzantines (LINK)

822 CE — Constantinople
Theophilos was crowned as co-emperor of Amorian dynasty. He follows his predecessor's policy of Iconoclasm, issuing an edict in 832 forbidding the veneration of icons.
During his reign Eastern Roman Empire was under threat by Bulgarian Empire, Aghlabid in Sicily, Andalusian in Crete, Rus' from Ukraine and Abbasid Caliphate in Anatolia

828 CE — Alexandria
Venetian merchants stole relic of St. Mark body from Egyptian Church in Abbasid Egypt and took it to Venice. The relic was covered by pork & cabbage to to prevent the Abbasid custom from inspecting it too closely. While relic of St. mark head remains in Alexandria. The relic then kept privately by Venetian Doge (Duke) until the construction of Basilica two centuries later.

833 CE — Baghdad
Al-Mu'tasim proclaimed as Abbasid Caliph. He recruited more Turkic people as mercenary battling in Anatolian frontiers. Al-Mu'tasim also formed elite Turkish corps (Shurṭa) under general Ītākh. Turkic people lives near the Black sea all the way to central asia.
The Corps acted as caliph personal bodyguard, among them was prominent soldier Wasif al-Turki. He appointed Turkic Heydar Nasr from Bukhara as Governor-general of Egypt controlling Egypt, Syria and Jazira (North Iraq).
During his reign, Great astronomers Ahmad al- Farghani (Alfraganus) from Central Asia writes his observation to astronomy in 'Kitāb fī Jawāmiʿ ʿIlm al-Nujūm'. The translated book in latin later used by Colombus to estimate for the Earth's circumference.

836 CE — Bulgaria
Emperor Theopilus battling the Bulgars in Thrace. The Bulgars under Khan Malamir retaliate and captured Philippopolis (Plovdiv), then continue pushing Eastern roman army all the way to Adrianople (Edirne). The Romans are forced to peace.

836 CE — Iraq
Al Mu'tasim founded the new capital city of Samarra near Baghdad.

837 CE - Anatolia
Emperor Theopilus led Eastern Roman Army battling the Abbasids and captured Melitene, and moving all the way to Sōzópetra (Doğanşehir), bithplace of Caliph Al-mu'tasim.
Abbasid forces dealing with revolt unable to mount serious defence, and left the Eastern roman army with minimum resistance.
After capturing Sōzópetra, the Romans execute all male prisoners. Theophilus then return to Constantinople with triumph.

838 CE — Western Anatolia
Caliph Al-Mu'tasim led an Abbasid army retaliate to Roman attack. Abbasid forces marching in two direction converging to Amorium, birthplace of Emperor Theophilus.
The army was divided under Governor Umar al-Aqta & turkish cavalry in the north and Main Abbasid army under Caliph Al-Mu'tasim in the center.

838 CE — Northern Anatolia
Eastern roman forces under Emperor Theophilus confronted Abbasid Northern contingent near Dazimon (Dazmana). Numerically superior Roman army initially successful pushing the Abbasid. Later Abbasid turkish horse-archers manage to deal a severe blow to the Roman army. Emperor Theophilos was surrounded and forced to flee from the battlefield.

838 CE — Central Anatolia
After the defeat of Imperial army, Abbasid forces marched unimpended. Two contingent met in Ancyra (ankara) and captured the city. Abbasid forces then marched toward their main goal, the city of Amorium.
After several days of siege, Abbasid army made a breach in the city wall and rushed to the city. The city fell to the abbasid forces,this shock the emperor Theopilus and made him remove iconoclasm edit

843 CE — Iraq
Al Mu'tasim died and burried in Samarra. His son, Al Wathiq succeeded the Abbasid Caliphate, with the influential and experienced council of Turkish bureaucrat of Itakh, Wasif and Ashinas.


📹 Abbasid-Aghlabid conquest of Sicily (Byzantine/Roman Empire) (VİDEO)

Abbasid-Aghlabid conquest of Sicily (Byzantine/Roman Empire) (LINK)

Abbasid-Aghlabid conquest of Sicily (827 - 902 CE)

The Aghlabids (Arabic: الأغالبة‎) were an Arab dynasty of emirs who ruled Ifriqiya (North Africa) with their capital at Kairouan (Tunisia), Aghlabid ruled Ifriqiya nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliphate centered in Baghdad. They expanded their realm to Sicily and invaded southern Italy held by Eastern Roman Empire.

The Theme of Sicily (Greek: θέμα Σικελίας) was a Eastern Roman province (theme) created after re-capturing the Island from the Ostrogoth. It existed from the late 7th to the 10th century, encompassing the island of Sicily and the region of Calabria in the Italian mainland. Following the Aghlabid conquest of Sicily, the theme was limited to Calabria in Southern Italy but retain its former name.


Battle of Talas

Battle of Talas, 751 (W)

The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (Chinese: 怛羅斯戰役; Arabic: معركة نهر طلاس‎) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong. In July 751 CE, Tang and Abbasid forces met in the valley of the Talas River to vie for control over the Syr Darya region of central Asia. After several days of stalemate, the Karluks originally allied to the Tang defected to the Abbasids and tipped over the balance of power, resulting in a Tang rout. The defeat marked the end of Tang westward expansion and resulted in Muslim control of Transoxiana for the next 400 years. Control of this region was economically beneficial for the Abbasids because it was on the Silk Road. Historians debate whether or not Chinese prisoners captured in the aftermath of the battle brought paper-making technology to the Middle East, where it eventually spread to Europe.

Map of the Transoxiana area, with the Talas River

Map of the Tang Dynasty circa 700 CE showing its expanded western territories at that time, connected to the main part of the empire by the long and narrow Hexi Corridor.

Aftermath and historical significance (W)

A small minority of Karluks converted to Islam after the battle. The majority of Karluks did not convert to Islam until the mid 10th century under Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan when they established the Kara-Khanid Khanate. This was long after the Tang dynasty was gone from Central Asia.

In 760, a large scale massacre of wealthy Arab and Persian merchants occurred in China during the Yangzhou massacre (760), at the hands of Chinese rebels led by Tian Shengong. In 879 during the Guangzhou massacre, 120,000 to 200,000 Arab Muslim, Persian Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian foreign merchants in Guangzhou were massacred by Chinese rebels under Huang Chao.

The culture of Central Asia, once a mixture of Persian, Indian, and Chinese influences, disappeared under the power struggles between the empires of the Arabs, Chinese, Turks, Tibetans, and Uyghurs. Islam grew as the dominant cultural force of Central Asia.


📹 💣 Battle of Talas River (Abbassids vs Tang Empire) (VİDEO)

Battle of Talas River (Abbassids vs Tang Empire) (LINK)

During July 751 CE, newly formed Abbassid Caliphate in Middle East clashes with Chinese Tang Empire from the Far East near Talas River in Central Asia (present Day Kyrgyzstan & Kazakhstan border). The Battle initially come from local feud with each of the disputing parties were client state of Abbassid Caliphate (Arab-Persian) and Chinese Tang Empire.The battle also involve Tibetan Empire which allied themselves with Abbassid against their common enemy, Chinese Tang Empire.

The Abbassid Forces led by Governor of Samarkand, Ziyad Ibn Salih combined with Tibetan Empire Forces numbering 200.000. While Chinese Tang Forces led by Korean General Go Seon Ji (Gao Xian Zhi) were numbering 100.000 with thousands Ferghana and Turkic-Qarluks allies at their disposal.

The battle was important to determine the future of influence of Central Asia (Turkestan) as neither of the both power wanted a war with tremendous logistical problem (regarding distance and knowledge of the area) and disrupt the lucrative Silk trade route.

While Abbassids and Tang forces engaged in battle for five days, the final blow were carried out by Qarluks Turks. They switches sides to the Abbassid during the height of the battle and attacking Tang forces from the rear, while Abbassid attacks from the front. Surrounded by both direction, Tang forces were utterly destroyed. Go Seon Ji able to withdraw with fraction of his army.

Further rebellion by Tang Turkic General An Lushan in 755 forced Tang to withdraw their forces to interior China. While Abbassid (Arab-Persian) Influence permeated Central Asia.


📹 💣 BATTLE OF TALAS, 751 AD / Abbasid Muslims Defeat the Chinese Tang Dynasty (VİDEO)

BATTLE OF TALAS, 751 AD / Abbasid Muslims Defeat the Chinese Tang Dynasty (LINK)

In July 751 AD, Tang and Abbasid forces met in the valley of the Talas River to vie for control of the Syr Darya region of central Asia. After a stalemate in several days of combat, the Tang lost the battle because the Karluks defected from the Tang side to the Abbasid side.

Following the battle of talas and the start of the anshi rebellion 5 years latter the chinese were unable to challenge the arabs in central asia.


📹 💣 Battle of Talas, 751 / Abbasid-Tang War (VİDEO)

Battle of Talas, 751 / Abbasid-Tang War (LINK)

There are certain historical battles, which had very little influence immediately but changed things through the centuries. The battle of Talas between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Empire in 751 is a good example of such a conflict. It changed the religious outlook of Central Asia as Buddhism was slowly pushed out and Islam took its place, was crucial in changing the faith of the Turkic tribes. Later on the Seljuk Turks moved to the West, and that was one of the reasons for the Crusades. Historians also think that this battle was important for the Renaissance, as the papermaking made its way to Europe after it.


📹 Mongols — Zenith of Empire — Siege of Baghdad 1258 and Battle of Ain Jalut 1260 (VİDEO)

Mongols — Zenith of Empire — Siege of Baghdad 1258 and Battle of Ain Jalut 1260 (LINK)

Even though Genghis Khan was dead and the political situation in the empire was volatile, the Mongol conquests continued.

A big army under Batu and Subutai invaded Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Serbia, and Bulgaria.

Meanwhile, the resurgence of the Khwarezmian empire under Jalal ad-din drew the Mongols back to Iran.

This sparked a conflict with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum that culminated in the battle of Kose Dag (Kösedağ) in 1243.

Under Hulagu, the Mongols attacked the Abbasids and sacked Baghdad in 1258, but with the succession crisis looming he returned to Mongolia. His general Kitbuqa was left in the area with a smaller force and fought the battle of Ain Jalut against the forces of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt under Qutuz and Baybars in 1260. This battle would become the high point of the Mongol invasions in the West.


  🗺️ The Decline of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate and the Rise of the Fatimids, c.900-c.1000

🗺️ The Decline of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate and the Rise of the Fatimids, c.900-c.1000



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