Ayyubid Dynasty

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 
 

Ayyubid Dynasty





  🗺️ Salah al-Din and the Rise of the Ayyubids c.1170-1250
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Timeline of Muslim history (W)

 




  Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1260)

  • Eyyübi Hanedanı Mısır ve Suriye’de Selahaddin Eyyübi tarafından kuruldu.
  • Selahaddin’in babası Eyüp 12’nci yüzyılda Irak ve Suriye’deki Selçuk Türk egemenlerinin altında hizmet eden bir Kürt ailesinin üyesi idi.
  • the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty
  • Saladin’s father,  Ayyūb (in full, Najm al-Dīn Ayyūb ibn Shādhī), for whom the Ayyūbid dynasty is named, was a member of a family of Kurdish soldiers of fortune who in the 12th century took service under the Seljuq Turkish rulers in Iraq and Syria

Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1260)

Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1260) (W)

Capital
Cairo (1174-1250)
Aleppo (1250-1260)
Common languages Arabic, Kurdish
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate (principality confederation)
Sultan
• 1174-1193 Saladin (first)
• 1193-1198 Al-Aziz
• 1198-1200 Al-Mansur
• 1200-1218 Al-Adil I
• 1218-1238 Al-Kamil
• 1238-1240 Al-Adil II
• 1240-1249 As-Salih Ayyub
• 1250-1254 Al-Ashraf
History
• Established 1171
• Disestablished 1260
Area
1190 est. 2,000,000 km2
Population
12th century 7,200,000 (estimate)

📹 Battle of Hattin, 1187 — Saladin's Greatest Victory (VİDEO)

Battle of Hattin, 1187 — Saladin’s Greatest Victory (LINK)

 

 




Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1260) (W)

Capital Cairo (1171-1174); Damascus (1174-1218); Cairo (1218-1250); Aleppo (1250-1260)
Common languages Arabic, Kurdish
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate (princely confederation)
Sultan
• 1174–1193 Saladin (first)
• 1193–1198 Al-Aziz
• 1198–1200 Al-Mansur
• 1200–1218 Al-Adil I
• 1218–1238 Al-Kamil
• 1238–1240 Al-Adil II
• 1240–1249 As-Salih Ayyub
• 1250–1254 Al-Ashraf
History
• Established 1171
• Disestablished 1260a
Area
1190 est. 2,000,000 km2
1200 est. 1,700,000 km2
Population
• 12th century 7,200,000 (estimate)
Preceded by
Fatimid Caliphate
Zengid dynasty
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Zurayids
Succeeded by
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
Rasulid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (Arabic: الأيوبيونal-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish: خانەدانی ئەیووبیانXanedana Eyûbîyan) was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din.

For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, their domains encompassed Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Crusader states including the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s.

After Saladin's death in 1193, his sons contested control of the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil ultimately became the paramount sultan in 1200. All of the later Ayyubid sultans of Egypt were his descendants.

In the 1230s, the emirs of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and the Ayyubid realm remained divided until Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored its unity by conquering most of Syria, except Aleppo, by 1247. By then, local Muslim dynasties had driven out the Ayyubids from Yemen, the Hejaz and parts of Mesopotamia. After his death in 1249, as-Salih Ayyub was succeeded in Egypt by al-Mu'azzam Turanshah. However, the latter was soon overthrown by his Mamluk generals who had repelled a Crusader invasion of the Nile Delta. This effectively ended Ayyubid power in Egypt; attempts by the emirs of Syria, led by an-Nasir Yusuf of Aleppo, to wrest back Egypt failed. In 1260, the Mongols sacked Aleppo and conquered the Ayyubids' remaining territories soon after.

The Mamluks, who expelled the Mongols, maintained the Ayyubid principality of Hama until deposing its last ruler in 1341.

During their relatively short tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled, and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas (Islamic schools of law) in their major cities.



Map of the Ayyubid empire and the surrounding empires in the 12th century. (LINK)
Saladin (1174-1193) (W)


Statue of Saladin in Damascus.


An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub
(Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎ / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; Kurdish: سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی‎ / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin(/ˈsælədɪn/; 1137 – 4 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and other parts of North Africa.

He was originally sent to Fatimid Egypt in 1164 accompanying his uncle Shirkuh, a general of the Zengid army, on orders of their lord Nur ad-Din, an atabeg of the Seljuks, to consolidate Shawar amid his ongoing power struggle for vizier to the teenage Fatimid caliph al-Adid. With Shawar reinstated as vizier, he engaged in a power struggle with Shirkuh, which saw the former realigning himself with Crusader king Amalric. Saladin climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government by virtue of his military successes against Crusader assaults against its territory and his personal closeness to al-Adid. With Shawar assassinated in 1169 and Shirkuh's natural death later that year, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Isma'ili Shia caliphate. During his tenure as vizier, Saladin began to undermine the Fatimid establishment and, following al-Adid's death in 1171, he abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and realigned the country's allegiance with the Sunni, Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphate.

In the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestine, commissioned the successful conquest of Yemen, and staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt. Not long after Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin launched his conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. By mid-1175, Saladin had conquered Hama and Homs, inviting the animosity of other Zengid lords, the official rulers of Syria's various regions. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was thereafter proclaimed the “Sultan of Egypt and Syria” by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi. Saladin made further conquests in northern Syria and Jazira, escaping two attempts on his life by the "Assassins", before returning to Egypt in 1177 to address issues there. By 1182, Saladin had completed the conquest of Muslim Syria after capturing Aleppo, but ultimately failed to take over the Zengid stronghold of Mosul.

Under Saladin's command, the Ayyubid army defeated the Crusaders at the decisive Battle of Hattin in 1187, and thereafter wrested control of Palestine – including the city of Jerusalem – from the Crusaders, who had conquered the area 88 years earlier.

Although the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist until the late 13th century, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region. Saladin died in Damascus in 1193, having given away much of his personal wealth to his subjects. He is buried in a mausoleum adjacent to the Umayyad Mosque. Saladin has become a prominent figure in Muslim, Arab, Turkish and Kurdish culture, and he has often been described as being the most famous Kurd in history.


Battle of Hattin, 1187 (W)

The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin. It is also known as the Battle of the Horns of Hattin, from a nearby extinct volcano.

The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and most of the other Crusader-held cities. These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the Battle of Hattin.



Modern interpretation of Saladin accepting the surrender of Guy of Lusignan.

 



📹 Battle of Hattin (Saladin/Salah ad-Din) (VİDEO)

Battle of Hattin (Saladin/Salah ad-Din) (LINK)

Battle of Hattin

In 4 July 1187CE/25 Rabī’ al-Ākhir 583H was a decisive battle between Ayyubid Sultanate led by Sultan Salah Ad-Din Al Ayyubi and Frankish-Crusader states coalition led by Guy de Lusignan in Hattin, Palestine, near Sea of Galilee.

Notable Ayyubid general was Al-Muzaffar Umar (Taqi Ad-Din) and Muzaffar ad-Din Gökböri. While notable Crusader commanders were Raymond III of Tripoli, Raynald of Châtillon, Gerard de Rideford and Balian of Ibelin.The Crusader states amassed its largest forces around 20.000, while Ayyubid sultanate also amassed large forces from surrounding mulim countries totalling 30.000 men.

On the March towards the battlefield in 3 July 1187, crusader army was unable to find adequate supply of water for its armies eventhough Crusaders erected their encamptment in favourable & defendable position above the hill. Sultan Salahaddin then used tactics to burn the surrounding dry bushes and grasses, it smoke then suffocated the crusader army, increased thirst to their men, other tactics of beating drums all night long deprived the crusaders stamina as they were forced to kept alert and awake.

In the next day, Ayyubid forces thinly surrounded the Crusader camp. Crusader forces attempted to broke off the encirclement and gain access to fresh water in the sea of Galilee, but Ayyubid army tactically blocked the route to force the Crusaders to begin the battle.Crusaders charged the Ayyubid position repeatedly, buat each charge repulsed by Ayyubid forces and drovve the crusaders back to their camp above the hill.

As the battle progressed, Ayyubid cavalry archer harassing the crusader position and devastating its forces. Then the remaining Ayyubid forces stormed the crusader camp. The battlefield was in Ayyubid control and many crusaders were killed, routed or captured by Ayyubid forces. King of Jerussalem, Guy de Lusignan along several crusader noblemen were captured by Ayyubid forces. Salahaddin successfuly win the battle.

The Ayyubid armies under Salahaddin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war.As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and most of the other Crusader-held cities. These Crusader defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the Battle of Hattin.

 












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