Haçlı Seferleri
CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı




Haçlı Seferleri

  Crusades (1095-1291)
A map of the crusaders’ journey during the first to fourth crusades

  Haçlı Seferleri (1095-1291) — Güdüler, Nedenler, Etkiler
  • Din Kavramında “kutsal toprak” gibi bir dışsallığa yer yoktur; ya da, yeryüzünün tüm “toprakları” eşit ölçüde kutsaldır.
  Tinsel olmayan nesnelere “kutsallık” yüklemek putperestliğe özgü bir boşinançtır; doğal nesne özdekseldir, tanrısal ya da dinsel değil.
  • Haçlı Seferleri Latin Kilisesi tarafından onaylanan “dinsel savaşlar” ya da “kutsal savaşlar”dır (İspanya’nın kurtarılması (reconquisita) ile aynı zamanda yer aldılar).

Özgürlük bilincinin yokluğu ile belirlenen despotik ön-modern dönemde zor ve şiddet hak sorunlarını çözmenin biricik geçerli yoludur. Despotik kültür özgürlük bilincinin yoksunluğu ile belirlenir ve bunun birinci sonucu moral yargının yokluğu ve hak sorunlarının güç yoluyla çözülmesidir. Şiddet devletin tekeline alınıncaya dek, halklar ve bireyler tarafından üstlenilir.


Ön-modern devlet tekerkliktir ve istençsiz uyrukların boyun-eğmesi üzerine dayanır. Toplumsal düzen özgür insan ilişkilerinin değil, korkunun ürünüdür. Avrupa’nın karanlık orta çağları bütününde devletlerin yokluğu ile belirlenir ve "Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu" bir "imparatorluk" değil, yalnızca bir zor ve şiddet kültürü olan feodalizme uyarlanmış bir tür Germanik konfederasyon idi. Feodal Avrupa’da Roma Katolik Kilisesi başlıca dünyasal bir güç olmakla ilgileniyordu ve Hıristiyanlık ile salt göstermelik bir ilişkisi vardı. Haçlı seferlerinin güdüsü Katolik Kilisenin boşinançları tarafından beslendi ve feodal derebeyler tarafından yerine getirildi. Görünürdeki dinsel amaçların altında, gerçekte birer yağma ve fetih eylemleri idiler.

  • Haçlı Seferleri Roma İmparatorluğunu yıkan feodal-barbar kitlelerin Roma Katolik Kilisesi tarafından güdülendirilen eylemleri olarak tarihsel bir anomalidir.
  • Haçlı Seferleri 1095’te başladı ve 1291’de Latin Hıristiyanların Suriye’deki krallıklarının yok edilmesi ile sonlandı.
  • Yüzeysel gerekçeleri:
    — paganizmin ve heretikliğin bastırılması;
    — Roma Katoliği gruplar arasındaki çatışmaların çözüme bağlanması;
    — politik üstünlük ve toprak kazanımı.
  • Seferler birçok Hıristiyan tarafından günahların bağışlanması için bir araç olarak görüldü; başkaları tarafından bir yağma aracı olarak.
  • 14’üncü yüzyılda Osmanlılara karşı da sürdürülen Haçlı Seferleri Protestan Reformasyondan sonra papalık yetkesinin zayıflaması ile hızla ortadan kalktı.

The Crusades — Top 10 Victories

The Crusades — Top 10 Victories (W)


“I find it very sad that people today view the Crusades as a disgrace. Even Christians don't like to bring it up. It has been used by Hollywood, politicians, and mainstream media as a bludgeon with which to bash over people heads that religion causes wars. The legacy of some of the greatest leaders and military campaigns in history has been utterly destroyed.”

“If only the Crusade to Varna was a success, the tables would have turned on the Ottoman right there.”

“Truly the Crusades were the pinnacle of human history.  Deus Vult, brudder.  Love your enthusiastic narrative.”


Peter the Hermit Preaching the First Crusade.

  • 1095’te Papa Urban II ilk haçlı seferleri için çağrıda bulundu.

Urban II (1088-1099): Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095

Urban II (1088-1099): Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095 (L)

In 1094 or 1095, Alexios I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor, sent to the pope, Urban II, and asked for aid from the west against the Seljuq Turks, who taken nearly all of Asia Minor from him. At the council of Clermont Urban addressed a great crowd and urged all to go to the aid of the Greeks and to recover Palestine from the rule of the Muslims. The acts of the council have not been preserved, but we have five accounts of the speech of Urban which were written by men who were present and heard him.

Urban II (1088-1099): Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095 (LINK)
Urban II (1088-1099): Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095

1.  Fulcher of Chartres

[adapted from Thatcher] Here is the one by the chronicler Fulcher of Chartres. Note how the traditions of the peace and truce of God - aimed at bringing about peace in Christendom - ties in directly with the call for a Crusade. Does this amount to the export of violence?

Most beloved brethren: Urged by necessity, I, Urban, by the permission of God chief bishop and prelate over the whole world, have come into these parts as an ambassador with a divine admonition to you, the servants of God. I hoped to find you as faithful and as zealous in the service of God as I had supposed you to be. But if there is in you any deformity or crookedness contrary to God's law, with divine help I will do my best to remove it. For God has put you as stewards over his family to minister to it. Happy indeed will you be if he finds you faithful in your stewardship. You are called shepherds; see that you do not act as hirelings. But be true shepherds, with your crooks always in your hands. Do not go to sleep, but guard on all sides the flock committed to you. For if through your carelessness or negligence a wolf carries away one of your sheep, you will surely lose the reward laid up for you with God. And after you have been bitterly scourged with remorse for your faults-, you will be fiercely overwhelmed in hell, the abode of death. For according to the gospel you are the salt of the earth [Matt. 5:13]. But if you fall short in your duty, how, it may be asked, can it be salted? O how great the need of salting! It is indeed necessary for you to correct with the salt of wisdom this foolish people which is so devoted to the pleasures of this -world, lest the Lord, when He may wish to speak to them, find them putrefied by their sins unsalted and stinking. For if He, shall find worms, that is, sins, In them, because you have been negligent in your duty, He will command them as worthless to be thrown into the abyss of unclean things. And because you cannot restore to Him His great loss, He will surely condemn you and drive you from His loving presence. But the man who applies this salt should be prudent, provident, modest, learned, peaceable, watchful, pious, just, equitable, and pure. For how can the ignorant teach others? How can the licentious make others modest? And how can the impure make others pure? If anyone hates peace, how can he make others peaceable ? Or if anyone has soiled his hands with baseness, how can he cleanse the impurities of another? We read also that if the blind lead the blind, both will fall into the ditch [Matt. 15:14]. But first correct yourselves, in order that, free from blame , you may be able to correct those who are subject to you. If you wish to be the friends of God, gladly do the things which you know will please Him. You must especially let all matters that pertain to the church be controlled by the law of the church. And be careful that simony does not take root among you, lest both those who buy and those who sell [church offices] be beaten with the scourges of the Lord through narrow streets and driven into the place of destruction and confusion. Keep the church and the clergy in all its grades entirely free from the secular power. See that the tithes that belong to God are faithfully paid from all the produce of the land; let them not be sold or withheld. If anyone seizes a bishop let him be treated as an outlaw. If anyone seizes or robs monks, or clergymen, or nuns, or their servants, or pilgrims, or merchants, let him be anathema [that is, cursed]. Let robbers and incendiaries and all their accomplices be expelled from the church and anthematized. If a man who does not give a part of his goods as alms is punished with the damnation of hell, how should he be punished who robs another of his goods? For thus it happened to the rich man in the gospel [Luke 16:19]; he was not punished because he had stolen the goods of another, but because he had not used well the things which were his.

"You have seen for a long time the great disorder in the world caused by these crimes. It is so bad in some of your provinces, I am told, and you are so weak in the administration of justice, that one can hardly go along the road by day or night without being attacked by robbers; and whether at home or abroad one is in danger of being despoiled either by force or fraud. Therefore it is necessary to reenact the truce, as it is commonly called, which was proclaimed a long time ago by our holy fathers. I exhort and demand that you, each, try hard to have the truce kept in your diocese. And if anyone shall be led by his cupidity or arrogance to break this truce, by the authority of God and with the sanction of this council he shall be anathematized."

After these and various other matters had been attended to, all who were present, clergy and people, gave thanks to God and agreed to the pope's proposition. They all faithfully promised to keep the decrees. Then the pope said that in another part of the world Christianity was suffering from a state of affairs that was worse than the one just mentioned. He continued:

"Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace among yourselves and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an important work for you to do. Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God. For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it.

"All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor. Behold! on this side will be the sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on that, his friends. Let those who go not put off the journey, but rent their lands and collect money for their expenses; and as soon as winter is over and spring comes, let hem eagerly set out on the way with God as their guide."


Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos, 1, pp. 382 f., trans in Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), 513-17 


  • Aamaç Anadolu’yu kolonileştiren Türklere karşı Roma İmparatorluğunu korumak idi ve bunun için 40.000 kişilik bir güç oluşturuldu.
  • Birinci Haçlı Seferi Fransa ve Almanya’da pogromlar ile başladı, sayısız Yahudi yok edildi ve malları yağmalandı.

Siege of Antioch, (20 October 1097-28 June 1098). This marked the arrival of the First Crusade in the Holy Land. Events set a pattern of betrayal, massacre, and heroism that was to mark future campaigns. By capturing Antioch, the crusaders secured lines of supply and reinforcement to the west. — Scenes from the First Crusade (People's Crusade), illustration by Sebastian Marmoret, c. 1490.

  • 1097’de İznik ele geçirildi.
  • Selçuklu bölüngüler kendi aralarında savaşırken Fatımiler (al-Afdal) Haçlılara yansızlık güvencesi verdiler.
  • 1098’de Antakya, 1099’da Kudüs alındı.
  • Altı büyük Seferin yanısıra birçok önemsiz sefer de yer aldı.
  • Birinci Haçlı Seferi başarılı oldu ve dört Haçlı devleti kuruldu (Antakya, Edessa (Urfa), Kudüs ve Tripoli (Trablus)).
  • İki yüzyıl süren Haçlı Seferleri bütününde başarısızlıkla sonuçlandı.
  • Seferler sırasında binlerce Müslüman, Hıristiyan ve Yahudi yok edildi.

Eleanor of Aquitaine marrying Louis VII in 1137 (left scene) and Louis VII departing on the Second Crusade (1147), drawing from Les Chroniques de Saint-Denis, late 14th century.

Avrupa’da 1000 Yıllık Karanlık

  • “Orta Çağlar” anlatımı yalnızca Avrupa tarihine aittir (5 ve 15’inci yüzyıllar arası), ve Batı Asya’yı kapsamaz.
  • Göreli olarak uygar Akdeniz bölgesi dışında, barbar kültüründen feodal şiddet kültürüne geçiş sürecinde Avrupa birincil olarak bir gerilik ve şiddet arenası idi.
  • Henüz herhangi bir moral nitelikten bütünüyle yoksundu ve etik bir yapılanmanın başlangıcı yüzyıllar boyu uzakta yatıyordu.
  • Katolik Hıristiyanlık açıkça yeni bir putperestlik türü idi ve bir boşinanç yapısı olan Roma Katolik Kilisesi nüfusun moral, etik ve kültürel gelişimi için tüm yolları kapamıştı.
  • 11’inci yüzyıl sonunda Hıristiyan dünyanın yaklaşık üçte ikisi Müslümanlar tarafından ele geçirilmişti ve bütünsel bir istila korkusu yaygındı.
  • Feodal Avrupa politik bir yapılanmadan, devletlerden, yasa egemenliği denebilecek herhangi bir düzenden bütünüyle yoksundu.
  • Varolan ‘krallar’ gerçekte yalnızca yoksul feodal derebeyleri idi.
  • Feodal yaşamın dünyasal bir anlamı ve ereği yoktur ve duyunçsuz ve istençsiz bir kültür olarak herhangi bir değişim dinamiğinden de yoksundur.
  • Doğumdan ölüme tüm yaşamı denetleyen Roma Katolik Kilisesi betimlenemez yozluğu içinde sürüsünü ‘dünyanın sonu’ için hazırlamakla ilgileniyordu.
  • “Karolen Rönesansı” sırasında, Charlemagne ve yanındaki soylular adlarını nasıl yazacaklarını öğrenme çabasına girişmişlerdi.
  • Katolik karakterli Rönesans ile karşıtlık içinde, dinsel yetkeyi yadsıyan Protestan Reformasyon Avrupa’da, aslında bütün bir Dünya Tarihinde duyunç özgürlüğünün, böylece bireysel özgürlüğün, ve böylece modern dönemin doğuşunun yolunu açtı.
  • Modern Tinin gelişimi, tıpkı onun tarihsel öncülü olan İslamik dünyada uygar olan herşey durumunda olduğu gibi, Klasik dünyanın ussal kültürel birikimi üzerine koşulludur.

Eastern Hemisphere, 1025 AD.


  🕑 Timeline of Major Events of the Crusades

🕑 Timeline of Major Events of the Crusades

Timeline of Major Events of the Crusades (LINK)

Date(s) Event
1040 – 1055 Turks migrate from central Asia to southwest Asia, conquer Persia, and invade Armenia and Iraq, finally capturing Baghdad, the Abbasid capital city
1067 – 1070 Turks invade Byzantine territory in Asia Minor (today’s Turkey); Turkic forces take Jerusalem from the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa
1071 Turkic forces defeat Byzantine forces at the Battle of Manzikert and found the Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor
1054 Schism (split) of the Christian Church into the Roman Catholic centered in the Papacy in Rome, and Greek Orthodox centered in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople
1061 – 1091 Christian forces under the Normans invade and defeat Muslim ruled Sicily, but retain Muslim cultural influence under Norman rule.
1085 Antioch in northern Syria conquered by Turks; in Spain, the Muslim city of Toledo is captured by Christian forces under Alfonso VI
1096 Start of the First Crusade
March 1095 Byzantine Empire requests Pope Urban II's help against Turkic warrior tribes who have migrated into Asia Minor
November 27, 1095 Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade
1096 Fatimids retake Jerusalem from Seljuk Turks
Spring, Summer 1096 Crusaders massacre Jews in Europe
Spring 1096 People's Crusade leaves for Holy Land but most end the march near Hungary by August 1096
August 15, 1096 Official beginning of First Crusade set by Pope Urban II
October 6, 1096 Crusader armies under Peter and Walter destroyed at Nicaea by Kilij Arslan
Fall 1096 Crusaders of official First Crusade reach Constantinople; Alexius I Comnenus accepts their oaths of loyalty and pledges to return lands under Byzantine control
April 1097 Crusaders cross the Bosporus into Asia
Early June 1097 Crusaders arrive at Nicaea while Kilij Arslan is away fighting his opponent Danishmend
June 19, 1097 Nicaea surrenders to Byzantine forces
June 26–28, 1097 Crusaders invade Asia Minor
July 1, 1097 Turks under Kilij Arslan fail to defeat Crusaders at Dorlyaeum
October 21, 1097 Crusaders reach Antioch, ruled by Turkic leader Yaghi-Suyan
Early February 1098 Muslim relief force under the Turkish leadership moves toward Antioch
February 6, 1098 Baldwin reaches Edessa (al-Ruha in Arabic)
March 9, 1098 Edessa's ruler is killed in a riot
March 10, 1098 Edessa established as the first Latin settlement in the East under Crusade leader Baldwin after its Turkic leader flees
June 5, 1098 Muslim army relief force arrives and besieges Crusaders in Antioch
Mid-November 1098 Armies of Raymond of St. Gilles and Robert of Flanders arrive at Ma'arat en Nu'man, spurred on by ordinary soldiers
December 11-2, 1098 Ma'arat en Nu'man falls to the Crusaders
January/March 1099 Crusader armies force their leader Raymond to continue to Jerusalem
February/May 1099 Crusaders besiege 'Arqah but abandon siege and go on to Jerusalem
June 6, 1099 Crusader leader Tancred seizes Bethlehem
June 7, 1099 Main body of Crusaders arrives at Jerusalem
July 15, 1099 Crusaders seize and sack the city of Jerusalem and massacre Muslims, Eastern Christians, and Jews; Godfrey elected ruler of the city
July 19–22, 1099 Pope Urban II dies, never hearing news of capture of Jerusalem
August 11–12, 1099 Crusaders defeat Egyptian army at Ashdod
1099 Al-Harawi of Damascus leads group of refugees to Baghdad to plead for help (see poem)
1100 Baldwin chosen first Crusader king of Jerusalem
Summer 1100 Turkic leader Danishmend captures Crusader leader Bohemund
November 15, 1100 Pope Paschal II preaches new crusade, threatening excommunication for failure to fulfill their vows
1101 New wave of Crusaders defeated in Asia Minor
1104 Crusader leader Baldwin takes port city of Acre
1104 Muslims defeat Franks at Harran, preventing them from moving further east into Muslim territory
1109 Tripoli falls to the Crusader armies after a brutal siege of 2000 days
1110 Crusaders seize cities of Beirut and Saida
1111 Aleppo's chief judge Ibn al-Khashab organizes riot in Baghdad to force the government to send military help against the Franks
1112 Muslim forces keep Franks from seizing Tyre
1113 Hospitallers, knightly Order of St. John is founded as Crusader force
Spring 1115 Alliance of Muslims and Franks in Syria fight Seljuk Sultan Muhammad ibn Malikshah
1119 Ilghazi of Aleppo defeats Franks at Sarmada
1120 Order of the Knights Templar is founded as Crusader force
July 1124 Franks seize Tyre, giving them entire coastline up to Ascalon
1125 Beirut peasants revolt
1127 Zangi becomes the ruler of Mosul and leader of resistance to the Franks
1128 Franks fail to seize Damascus
1128 Zangi takes the city of Aleppo
1135 Zangi fails to take Damascus
1137 Zangi captures King Fulk of Jerusalem but releases him
1139 Zangi unsuccessfully besieges Damascus
1144 Zangi seizes Edessa, defeating the first crusader state
1146 Zangi dies, and his son Nur al-Din inherits Aleppo
1147-1149 The Second Crusade begins, which includes Crusades in parts of Muslim-ruled Spain, Eastern Germany and the East (Outremer in French)
1147 Spanish Crusaders take Lisbon from Muslim rule
1148 Crusader armies under Conrad of Germany and Louis VII of France besiege Damascus, but are turned back by Nur al-Din's forces
1154 Nur al-Din takes Damascus, unifying Muslim territories in Syria
1163 – 1169 Nur al-Din's general Shirkuh fights to deliver Egypt to Nur al-Din
1169 Shirkuh rules Egypt as vizier, but soon dies; Saladin, his nephew, becomes ruler of Egypt
1170 Nur al-Din's brother dies, giving him control of Mosul
1171 Saladin ends Fatimid rule in Egypt and establishes Ayyubid dynasty; Competition between Nur al-Din and Saladin ensues
1174 Nur al-Din dies; Saladin seizes control of Damascus
1183 – 1185 Saladin takes control of Aleppo, uniting Egypt and Syria under his rule, then takes control of Mosul
1185 Saladin officially controls Egypt and Damascus, Aleppo and Mosul
July 4, 1187 Saladin defeats Frankish Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin
October 2, 1187 Saladin retakes Jerusalem and lands under Frankish control; Franks retain only cities of Tyre, Tripoli, and Antioch
1189 – 1192 Third Crusade brings famous Crusader leaders Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I
June 1190 Frederick I dies en route to the Holy Land
Summer 1191 Kings Richard and Philip take the city of Acre and name Jerusalem's ruler; Philip leaves for home, while Richard takes Arsuf and Jaffa and fortifies Ascalon
September 2, 1192 Richard and Saladin end their fighting with a treaty, and Richard leaves for home in England
1193 Saladin dies, and after his succession is contested, Saladin's brother al-Adil rules.
Spring 1197 Frederick I's son Henry VI departs to join the Crusade, but dies in the same year.
July 1, 1198 Henry VI's supporters negotiate a treaty with Muslim rulers and return home
1198 Crusader Order of Teutonic Knights is founded with Acre as its base.
1202 – 1204 Fourth Crusade begins
July 17, 1203 Crusaders invade and sack Byzantine capital of Constantinople, naming Alexius IV as ruler
April 12, 1204 Crusaders take Constantinople and make Byzantine lands into a Latin Empire
1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade turns against heretics at home in southern France
1212 Children's Crusade begins and ends in tragedy
1213 – 1216 Pope Innocent III begins planning the Fifth Crusade; he dies, and Pope Honorius III continues his plan
1217 – 1221 Fifth Crusade begins; Invasion of Egypt under the rule of al-Malik al-Kamil is led by Cardinal Pelagius; Crusaders besiege Damietta and try to Crusaders try take Cairo; Al-Kamil's forces and rising Nile isolates and defeats Crusader army; Al-Kamil provides bread and supplies to save Crusader army from starvation
1219 Sultan al-Kamil receives Francis of Assisi at his court for interreligious discussion and allows Francis to preach; Francis's stay at court influences his views of Islam and faith practice
1228 – 1229 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II crusades in Egypt without papal support; al-Kamil negotiates treaty with Frederick II over control of Jerusalem.
1235 Byzantines retake Asia Minor
1236 – 1238 In Spain, Ferdinand III of Castile attacks the city of Cordova, the Christian army of Aragon takes the city of Valencia from Muslim rule
1244 Franks lose Jerusalem for the final time
1245 Pope Innocent IV sends missionaries to Mongols to attempt alliance against Muslims in Asia and Near East
1247 Louis IX plans a Crusade, but contact with Frederick divulges his plans to al-Kamil's son, Ayyub
1248 – 1254 Sixth Crusade
1248-1250 Louis IX of France invades Egypt; he seizes Damietta, but is defeated and captured at the city of Mansurah; released for ransom and return of Damietta
1248 – 1250 Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt ends, Mamluk rule begins
February 1258 Mongols under Genghis Khan's grandson Hülegü invade and destroy Baghdad, massacre inhabitants and kill the last 'Abbasid caliph
January 1260 Mongols under Hülegü take Aleppo and Damascus; Mongol ruler dies and Hulegu returns to Asia, relieving invasion threat to Europe
September 3, 1260 Mamluk armies defeat Mongols at the Battle of 'Ayn Jalut (Goliath Spring), and take city of Damascus; Baybars becomes ruler of Egypt
July 25, 1261 Byzantines recapture Constantinople, ending the Latin Empire in the East
May 18, 1268 Baybars seizes Antioch and Jaffa
1270 Seventh Crusade begins with Louis IX forces attacking Tunis; death of Louis IX
April 26 or 27, 1289 Mamluk sultans Qalawun and son Khalil retake Tripoli and Acre from Franks
1291 Effective end of the Great Crusades; remaining Crusaders retreat to the island of Cyprus


  📜 Lists of Crusades



Crusades (W)

A battle of the Second Crusade (illustration of William of Tyre's Histoire d'Outremer, 1337)

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including

  • the suppression of paganism and heresy,
  • the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or
  • for political and territorial advantage.

At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760.

In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont. He encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call. Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, which had been divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church.

The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean:

The enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church. Some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God’s forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain.

The two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure.

Following the First Crusade there were six major Crusades and numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades; but the gains were longer lasting in Northern and Western Europe. The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444.

Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492. The idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World.

Modern historians hold widely varying opinions of the Crusaders. To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders.

Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, and their leaders generally retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade.

However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets even in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; they consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under papal leadership; and they constituted a wellspring for accounts of heroism, chivalry, and piety that galvanised medieval romance, philosophy, and literature. The Crusades also reinforced a connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism.


Crusades (B)

Crusades (B)

Standard bearers, drummers and trumpeters of a saracen army (13th century).

, military expeditions, beginning in the late 11th century, that were organized by western European Christians in response to centuries of Muslim wars of expansion. Their objectives were to check the spread of Islam, to retake control of the Holy Land in the eastern Mediterranean, to conquer pagan areas, and to recapture formerly Christian territories; they were seen by many of their participants as a means of redemption and expiation for sins. Between 1095, when the First Crusade was launched, and 1291, when the Latin Christians were finally expelled from their kingdom in Syria, there were numerous expeditions to the Holy Land, to Spain, and even to the Baltic; the Crusades continued for several centuries after 1291. Crusading declined rapidly during the 16th century with the advent of the Protestant Reformation and the decline of papal authority.
Approximately two-thirds of the ancient Christian world had been conquered by Muslims by the end of the 11th century, including the important regions of Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia. The Crusades, attempting to check this advance, initially enjoyed success, founding a Christian state in Palestine and Syria, but the continued growth of Islamic states ultimately reversed those gains. By the 14th century the Ottoman Turks had established themselves in the Balkans and would penetrate deeper into Europe despite repeated efforts to repulse them.


📹 Introduction to the Crusades — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Introduction to the Crusades — Khan Academy (LINK)

The Crusades begin in reaction to Pope Urban II's call to help the Byzantine Empire reclaim land from Muslim rule (especially Jerusalem).


📹 An overview of the Crusades (part 2) — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

An overview of the Crusades (part 2) — Khan Academy (LINK)

An overview of the 2nd through 9th Crusades. Saladin retakes Jerusalem after nearly 90 years as a Crusader Kingdom in 1179. The sacking of Constantinople and the possible Children's Crusade. The Reconquista in what will eventually be Spain.


📹 Impact of the Crusades — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Impact of the Crusades — Khan Academy (LINK)

Part 3 of the series on the Crusades. An overview of the human, territorial, commercial and political impact of the Crusades.


A Brief Overview of the First Four Crusades

A Brief Overview of the First Four Crusades

The Crusades began in response to requests for help by the Christian Byzantine emperor Alexios I in defending against incursions into Anatolia by Muslim Seljuk Turks.

Over the course of two centuries and nine crusades, Catholic forces launched campaigns not only to “defend Christendom,” but also for purely economic and political reasons. Crusaders not only fought Muslims in Palestine, but “pagan Slavs, pagan Balts, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the various popes.”


Spiritual Rewards

According to Privileges Granted by Eugene III, those who joined the crusade would be forgiven of all sinswith almost no cost to them”.(Urban and the Crusaders”, loc 23.) Crusaders would also receive plenary indulgence (Pp 1-23) which were, according to The Enchiridion of Indulgences, “ the remission(s) before God of the temporal punishment due for sins already forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned.’ (“Three General Grants of Indulgences,” loc. 11-16) In other words, they would be given permission from the church to sin unlimitedly during the crusades, probably to protect them from divine consequences of murdering heathens. However, this gift ended up misused as the crusaders were known to loot, raze religious sites and brutally attack other cities that were unrelated to the goal of the crusade. Finally, they were promised eternal life, the ultimate goal in the Christian path to salvation.


Earthly Rewards

These rewards were probably more appealing as they were more immediate than rewards that could only be received after death. Firstly, the crusaders were allowed to keep the plunders from their conquests. Looting was arguably a large incentive as according to Ivan Lindsay’s History of Loot and Stolen Art: from Antiquity until the Present Day, “looting was high” on the agenda of the main crusade led by Raymond IV of Toulouse. The crusaders also eradicated and looted the cities of Sozopolis, Iconium, and Caesera even though they were not part of the Holy Land but merely on the way to it, suggesting that many crusaders laid not up for themselves treasures in heaven, but on earth.

Secondly, in the second crusade, the crusaders were promised protection and security from the church. This absolute protection extended to their family, possessions and property, which would be very securely under the shelter of the church authorities. Also, the church promised clearing the individual of all debt, a very appealing boon even until today. They were allowed to mortgage their lands and possessions to the churches and those related to the churches. They also were exempt from taxation.


📹 First Crusade, 1096-1099 (VİDEO)

📹 First Crusade, 1096-1099 (LINK)



📹 Second Crusade, 1147-1149 (VİDEO)

📹 Second Crusade, 1147-1149 (LINK)



📹 Third Crusade, 1187-1192 (VİDEO)

📹 Third Crusade, 1187-1192 (LINK)


📹 Fourth Crusade, 1201-1204 (VİDEO)

📹 Fourth Crusade, 1201-1204 (LINK)


📹 1st-6th Crusades (VİDEO)

📹 1st-6th Crusades (LINK)

History of the Crusades from the beginnings of the First Crusade of to the end of the Sixth.


  First Crusade — Video

📹 The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (VİDEO)

The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (LINK)

The First Crusade (1095-1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land (the Levant), which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as in the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.


  📹 First Crusade (Epic History TV — VİDEO)

📹 The First Crusade (BazBattles — VİDEO)

📹 First Crusade (Part 1 of 2) — EpicHistory (VİDEO)

First Crusade (Part 1 of 2) — EpicHistory (LINK)

The First Crusade was one of the most extraordinary, bloody and significant episodes in medieval history. It began with an appeal for aid from the Christian Byzantine Empire, threatened by the rising power of the Muslim Seljuk Turks. But when Pope Urban II preached a sermon at Clermont in 1095, the result was unlike anything ever seen before. The Pope offered spiritual salvation to those willing to go east to aid their fellow Christians in a holy war, and help liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Knights and peasants alike signed up in their thousands, leading to the disastrous People's, or Peasants', Crusade, then to a much more organised and powerful Princes' Crusade. Their forces gathered at Constantinople, where they made an uneasy alliance with Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. Entering Anatolia, they helped to win back the city of Nicaea, then won a decisive but hard-fought victory at Dorlyaeum, before marching on the great city of Antioch...


📹 First Crusade (Part 2 of 2) — EpicHistory (VİDEO)

First Crusade (Part 2 of 2) — EpicHistory (LINK)

The story of the First Crusade continues as the main army arrives in Constantinople and blazes its way across Asia Minor - meeting near disaster repeatedly.




  📹 The First Crusade (BazBattles — VİDEO)

📹 The First Crusade (BazBattles — VİDEO)

📹 First Crusade (1) Battle of Dorylaeum 1097 AD (VİDEO)

First Crusade (1)
Battle of Dorylaeum 1097 AD (LINK)

First installment of the First Crusade mini-series, featuring Siege of Nicaea and Battle of Dorylaeum.


📹 First Crusade (2) Siege of Antioch 1098 AD (VİDEO)

First Crusade (2)
Siege of Antioch 1098 AD (LINK)

Second installment of the First Crusade mini-series, featuring Siege of Antioch and couple of minor battles that took place during the siege.


📹 First Crusade (3) Siege of Jerusalem 1099 AD (VİDEO)

First Crusade (3)
Siege of Jerusalem 1099 AD (LINK)

Third installment of the First Crusade mini-series, featuring Siege of Jerusalem.


📹 First Crusade (4) Battle of Ascalon 1099 AD (VİDEO)

First Crusade (4)
Battle of Ascalon 1099 AD (LINK)

Fourth and final installment of the First Crusade mini-series, featuring events just after conquest of Jerusalem and the Battle of Ascalon.




  📹 The First Crusade (Extra History — VİDEO)

📹 The First Crusade (Extra History — VİDEO)

📹 The First Crusade #1 — The People’s Crusade (VİDEO)

The First Crusade #1 — The People’s Crusade (LINK)

In 1095CE, Pope Urban gathered the leaders of the Christian community at the Council of Clermont. Urged on by Emperor Alexius Comnenos of Constantinople, he called for a crusade to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims who occupied Jerusalem. Muslims had occupied the Holy Land for over 400 years, but the timing was politically right for the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor. Pope Urban wanted to re-unite Christendom after the anti-Pope kicked him out of Rome, while Alexius Comnenus wanted to retake the territory he had recently lost in Anatolia from the Seljuq Turks. As incentive, the Pope offered crusaders a plenary indulgence: complete forgiveness for past sins in the eyes of God and the church. It worked too well. While the official armies of the Crusade prepared, a charismatic leader named Peter the Hermit began breaching directly to the people, claiming Jesus had sent him to lead them on Crusade. Walter sans Avoir joined him in France, and a man named Count Emicho of Leiningen emulated him in Germany. Both peasant groups met with and created disaster: Walter Sans Avoir's group pillaged Belgrade while Count Emicho's group turned on the local Jewish population as an excuse to slaughter them. Thus the First Crusade began with a disastrous People's Crusade.


📹 The First Crusade #2 — Peter the Hermit (VİDEO)

The First Crusade #2 — Peter the Hermit (LINK)

Emicho of Leiningen and Walters sans Avoir certainly made a mark, but the largest group in the People's Crusade was led by Peter the Hermit. To gain passage through Hungary, they swore an oath not to destroy anything, but the lack of real leadership for their group became clear when they very quickly started a market brawl, stormed the local citadel, then fled to Belgrade and immediately repeated their aggression by turning on the Byzantine troops sent to keep them in line. At the city of Niŝ, the Byzantine troops pinned them down and slaughtered a quarter of the entire crusading "army." The remainder fled to Constantinople and secured passage into Turkey, but the group fractured from within and became two separate factions, with Peter leading one and a man named Reinald leading the other. Both factions competed for bragging rights, committing horrible atrocities to outdo each other. One group actually managed to siege a castle, but it had no water supply, so they were easily starved out by the Turks. The Turks, however, spread a rumor that this group had actually gone on to capture the capitol city, and the remaining crusaders set out to join what they thought would be a loot extravaganza. Instead, they ran into a Turkish ambush that left only 3,000 of their 20,000 soldiers alive. Now led by Geoffrey Burel, they retreated to Constantinople.


📹 The First Crusade #3 — A Good Crusade (VİDEO)

The First Crusade #3 — A Good Crusade (LINK)

Although it finds Peter the Hermit's group from the People's Crusade in shambles, the summer of 1096 finally sees the "official" forces of the First Crusade set out for Jerusalem. This was not one army, however, but five separate armies led by men with very different motivations and sympathies - many of them surprisingly hostile towards the Pope or the Byzantine Empire. Hugh of Vermandois, brother of the King of France, led one army despite his brother having been excommunicated by Pope Urban II. Godfrey de Bouillon from the German territory had actually helped kick the Pope out of Rome and install the anti-Pope. Bohemond of Taranto brought an army whose experience primarily came from fighting the Romans twelve years prior. Raymond of Toulouse led the largest army and believed himself the main leader of the Crusade, despite the fact that he traveled with the Pope's appointed leader, Bishop Adhemar. Only Robert of Flanders could be said to be on good terms with both the Pope and the Eastern Roman Empire. When the five armies arrived in Constantinople, Emperor Alexius Comnenus approached them all privately with bribes and threats to get them to swear an oath that any land they conquered on Crusade would be returned to him. They all took it (except Bohemond's nephew, Tancred) and so the emperor sent them across the Bosphorus to attack the Turks at last.


📹 The First Crusade #4 — Men of Iron (VİDEO)

The First Crusade #4 — Men of Iron (LINK)

Having sworn their oaths to Emperor Alexius Comnenus, the Crusaders finally sailed across the Bosphorus River to Turkey. When they disembarked, however, there were no Turkish armies waiting for them. Unopposed, they marched to Nicaea, the capitol of the Sultanate of Rum, and laid siege to it. At last word reached the sultan, Kilij Arslan, who rode back to save his city (and his family) only to realize that this army of crusaders was much larger and better organized than the People's Crusade which had come before. They had not yet realized, however, that the city of Nicaea was being secretly resupplied by ships arriving by night from Lake Askania. Once they did, the Byzantines transported their own ships overland to blockade the lake and launch a coordinated assault with the crusaders to force the city to surrender. The crusaders marched towards Jerusalem, but along the way, the Turks launched a surprise assault on Bohemond's army. He ordered his knights to form a shield wall around the priests and civilians traveling with them, and they held for hours under a burning sun until reinforcements from the other crusading armies arrived. They rallied, defeated the Turks, and resumed their march.


📹 The First Crusade #5 — Siege of Antioch (VİDEO)

The First Crusade #5 — Siege of Antioch (LINK)

After their victory at the Battle of Dorylaeum, the Crusaders have an open path to Antioch and beyond that, Jerusalem. After the Sultan of Rum, Kilij Arslan, ordered the wells destroyed along their path, the Crusaders struggled through the desert and eventually decided to split their forces. Tancred and Baldwin set off towards Tarsus and Tancred tricked the Turkish garrison into surrendering to him, but Baldwin claimed the city for himself and broke his oath to the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenos. Tensions between the two lead to another confrontation in the next city, after which Baldwin abandoned the Crusade entirely and conned his way into becoming the Count of Edessa. Tancred meanwhile returned to the main force of Crusaders, who were besieging Antioch. When a force led by Bohemond and Robert of Flanders met Antioch's Turkish reinforcements on a foraging mission, they attacked them and scared them away. Then Bohemond tricked the Byzantine general into leaving as well, and threatened to leave himself unless the Crusaders let him keep Antioch. They had no choice but to agree to keep their forces together. With this assurance, Bohemond engineered the capture of Antioch: he bribed a Turkish commander to let them through the gates. The Crusaders massacred the people of Antioch when the city fell, but they had no time to rest after their victory: a huge Turkish army was already bearing down on them.


📹 The First Crusade #6 — On to Jerusalem (VİDEO)

The First Crusade — #6 — On to Jerusalem (LINK)

The Crusaders now held Antioch, but not securely. The Turks still control the citadel atop the mountain and had a massive army coming to reinforce them. The situation grew worse when Stephen of Blois deserted from the Crusades, and told the Byzantine reinforcements not to bother: he believed Antioch would fall immediately. Now entirely on their own, the Crusaders held the wall in constant vigil until a mystic named Peter Bartholomew claimed to have received a vision from Saint Andrew. Guided by his vision, he discovered metal which he claimed to be the holy lance of Longinus - nevermind that the church already had the holy lance in its possession. Though the Crusade leaders had doubts, the soldiers were inspired so they launched an assault on the Turkish armies. Surprisingly, they won the day: the Turks did not fully support their leader, Kerbogha, and many took the Crusade counter-attack as an excuse to abandon the siege. Bohemond now kept Antioch, while Raymond of Toulouse - after the disastrous Siege of Maarat led the soldiers to commit acts of cannabalism - took the remains of the army south to Jerusalem. His attempt to capture a small city called Arqa along the way almost fractured the crusade army again, and did lead to the death of Peter Bartholomew. They arrived in Jerusalem to find the local wells poisoned, giving them no choice but to attack the city head-on. After days of intense fighting, they won their way inside the walls and began a massive slaughter of the people who still lived inside Jerusalem - the Christian population had been expelled, leaving only Muslims and Jews still in the city. And thus, with Antioch and Jerusalem both in crusader hands, the First Crusade came to an end.




  Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

Conquest Of Constantinople By The Crusaders In 1204


Fourth Crusade

Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) (W)

The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first conquering the powerful Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate, the strongest Muslim state of the time. However, a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire.

In late 1202, financial issues led to the Crusader army sacking Zara, which was then brought under Venetian control. In January 1203, en-route to Jerusalem, the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as Emperor. The intent of the Crusaders was then to continue to Jerusalem with promised Byzantine financial and military aid. On 23 June 1203, the bulk of the Crusaders reached Constantinople, while smaller contingents continued to Acre. After the siege of Zara the pope excommunicated the crusader army.

In August, following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios was crowned co-Emperor. However, in January 1204, he was deposed by a popular uprising. The Crusaders were no longer able to receive their promised payments from Alexios. Following the murder of Alexios on 8 February, the Crusaders decided on the outright conquest of the city. In April 1204, they captured and plundered the city’s enormous wealth. Only a handful of the Crusaders continued to the Holy Land thereafter.

Partition of the Empire

Partition of the Byzantine Empire into The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, and Despotate of Epirusafter 1204.


The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus. The Crusaders then founded several Crusader states in former Byzantine territory, largely hinged upon the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The presence of the Latin Crusader states almost immediately led to war with the Byzantine successor states and the Bulgarian Empire. The Nicaean Empire eventually recovered Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire in 1261.

The Crusade is considered to be one of the most prominent acts that solidified the schism between the Greek and Latin Christian churches, and dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire, paving the way for Muslim conquests in Anatolia and Balkan Europe in the coming centuries.


📹 Rise and Fall of Latin Empire, 1204-1261 / Every Year (VİDEO)

📹 Rise and Fall of Latin Empire, 1204-1261 / Every Year (LINK)

Latin Empire was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261.


Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. (W)

The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840).
The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was the sack of the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople.

📹 Fourth Crusade — Sack of Constantinople 1204 (VİDEO)

Fourth Crusade — Sack of Constantinople 1204 (LINK)

Although the First Crusade was succeeded in taking Jerusalem and a number of Frankish kingdoms were created in the Levant, by 1187 the Ayyubid leader Saladin managed to reconquer most of the region. The Third Crusade launched by the English king Richard I Lionheart, French king Philip II Augustus and German emperor Frederick I Barbarossa wasn't able to take Jerusalem, so the pope called for the Fourth Crusade led by Enrico Dandolo, Boniface of Montferrat and Baldwin of Flanders, which indeed up in one of the biggest tragedies for the Christian world.


  Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1261)
The Latin Empire
🔎 The Latin Empire with its vassals (in yellow) and the Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire (in red) after the Treaty of Nymphaeum in 1214.

Latin Empire of Constantinople

Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204-1261) (W)

The Empire of Romania (Latin: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors.

• 1204–1205
Baldwin I
• 1206–1216
• 1216–1217
• 1217–1219
Yolanda (regent)
• 1219–1228
Robert I
• 1228–1237
John of Brienne(regent)
• 1237–1261
Baldwin II


Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers that had been established in former Byzantine territories in the wake of the Fourth Crusade, especially Venice, and after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it eventually fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261. The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.



📹 Byzantine Empire successor states / 1204-1261 — Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond (VİDEO)

📹 Byzantine Empire successor states / 1204-1261 — Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond (LINK)

The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the three Byzantine Greek successor states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade. Founded by the Laskaris family, it lasted from 1204 to 1261, when the Nicaean recovered the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople.


Empire of Nicaea

Empire of Nicaea (1204-1261) (W)

The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate of Epirus — the borders are very uncertain. (W)

The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine Greek rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade. Founded by the Laskaris family, it lasted from 1204 to 1261, when the Nicaeans restored the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople.

In 1204, Byzantine emperor Alexios V Ducas Murtzouphlos fled Constantinople after crusaders invaded the city. Soon after, Theodore I Lascaris, the son-in-law of Emperor Alexios III Angelos, was proclaimed emperor but he too, realizing the situation in Constantinople was hopeless, fled to the city of Nicaea (today İznik) in Bithynia.

The Latin Empire, established by the Crusaders in Constantinople, had poor control over former Byzantine territory, and Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire sprang up in Epirus, Trebizond, and Nicaea. Trebizond had broken away as an independent state a few weeks before the fall of Constantinople. Nicaea, however, was the closest to the Latin Empire and was in the best position to attempt to re-establish the Byzantine Empire.


📹 Wars of the Byzantine Partition / Every Month (4th Crusade) (VİDEO)

Wars of the Byzantine Partition / Every Month (4th Crusade) (LINK)

Following the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine Empire was partitioned between the Latin crusaders who had sacked Constantinople. A 57 year long struggle for control of Greece ensued between the Latin and Greek successor states.


Crusaders Thirsting near Jerusalem, by Francesco Hayez. (L)

  Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229)

Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians (left). Massacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders (right).

Albigensian Crusade →

Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) (W)

The Cathars were a group of dissidents mostly in the South of France, in cities like Toulouse. The sect developed in the 12th century, apparently founded by soldiers from the Second Crusade, who, on their way back, were converted by a Bulgarian sect, the Bogomils.

The Waldensians were mostly in Germany and North Italy. The Waldensians were a group of orthodox laymen concerned about the increasing wealth of the Church. (W)

A map showing the area of the Languedoc region of southern France and its major towns.

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209-1229; French: Croisade des albigeois, Occitan: Crosada dels albigeses) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.

The siege of Carcassonne, 1209. The three knights are identifiable by their arms. (L)

The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavour, resulting in not only a significant reduction in the number of practising Cathars, but also a realignment of the County of Toulouse in Languedoc, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of influence of the Counts of Barcelona.

Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. (L)

The Cathars originated from an anti-materialist reform movement within the Bogomil churches of Dalmatia and Bulgaria calling for a return to the Christian message of perfection, poverty and preaching, combined with a rejection of the physical to the point of starvation. The reforms were a reaction against the often scandalous and dissolute lifestyles of the Catholic clergy in southern France. Their theology, neo-Gnostic in many ways, was basically dualist. Several of their practices, especially their belief in the inherent evil of the physical world, conflicted with the doctrines of the Incarnation of Christ and sacraments, initiated accusations of Gnosticism and brought them the ire of the Catholic establishment. They became known as the Albigensians, because there were many adherents in the city of Albiand the surrounding area in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Between 1022 and 1163, the Cathars were condemned by eight local church councils, the last of which, held at Tours, declared that all Albigenses should be put into prison and have their property confiscated. The Third Lateran Council of 1179 repeated the condemnation. Innocent III's diplomatic attempts to roll back Catharism were met with little success. After the murder of his legate Pierre de Castelnau, in 1208, Innocent III declared a crusade against the Cathars. He offered the lands of the Cathar heretics to any French nobleman willing to take up arms.

From 1209 to 1215, the Crusaders experienced great success, capturing Cathar lands and perpetrating acts of extreme violence, often against civilians. From 1215 to 1225, a series of revolts caused many of the lands to be lost. A renewed crusade resulted in the recapturing of the territory and effectively drove Catharism underground by 1244. The Albigensian Crusade also had a role in the creation and institutionalization of both the Dominican Order and the Medieval Inquisition. The Dominicans promulgated the message of the Church to combat alleged heresies by preaching the Church's teachings in towns and villages, while the Inquisition investigated heresies. Because of these efforts, by the middle of the 14th century, any discernible traces of the Cathar movement had been eradicated.


Cathar theology

Cathar theology (W)

Map showing the development from Paulicianism to Catharism.

The Cathars were a group of dissidents mostly in the South of France, in cities like Toulouse. The sect developed in the 12th century, apparently founded by soldiers from the Second Crusade, who, on their way back, were converted by a Bulgarian sect, the Bogomils.

The Waldensians were mostly in Germany and North Italy. The Waldensians were a group of orthodox laymen concerned about the increasing wealth of the Church. (W)

Derived in part from earlier forms of Gnosticism,
the theology of the Cathars was dualistic, a belief in two equal and comparable transcendental principles: God, the force of good, and the demiurge, the force of evil. They held that the physical world was evil and created by this demiurge, which they called Rex Mundi (Latin, "King of the World"). Rex Mundi encompassed all that was corporeal, chaotic and powerful. The Cathar understanding of God was entirely disincarnate: they viewed God as a being or principle of pure spirit and completely unsullied by the taint of matter. He was the God of love, order, and peace. Jesus was an angel with only a phantom body, and the accounts of him in the New Testament were to be understood allegorically. As the physical world and the human body were the creation of the evil principle, sexual abstinence (even in marriage) was encouraged. Civil authority had no claim on a Cathar, since this was the rule of the physical world. As such, the Cathars refused to take oaths of allegiance or volunteer for military service. Cathar doctrine opposed killing animals and consuming meat.

The spread of Catharism through Europe. (L)

Cathars rejected the Catholic priesthood,
labelling its members, including the pope, unworthy and corrupted. Disagreeing on the Catholic concept of the unique role of the priesthood, they taught that anyone, not just the priest, could consecrate the Eucharistic host or hear a confession. They rejected the dogma of the Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and Catholic teaching on the existence of Purgatory.

Catharism developed its own unique form of "sacrament" known as the consolamentum, to replace the Catholic rite of baptism. Instead of receiving baptism through water, one received the consolamentum by the laying on of hands. They regarded water as unclean because it had been corrupted by the earth, and therefore refused to use it in their ceremonies. The act was typically received just before death, as Cathars believed that this increased one's chances for salvation by wiping away all previous sins. After taking the sacrament, the recipient became known as perfectus. Prior to becoming a "perfect", believing Cathars were encouraged but not required to follow Cathar teaching on abstaining from sex and meat, and most chose not to do so. Once an individual received the consolamentum, these rules became binding.

Despite Cathar anti-clericalism, there were men selected amongst the Cathars to serve as bishops and deacons. The bishops were selected from among the perfect.

The Castle of Puilaurens — a Cathar refuge in the far south. (L)


📹 Albigensian Crusade — 3 Minute History (VİDEO)

Albigensian Crusade — 3 Minute History (LINK)



Cathars-burned--Cathars burned at the time of the Albigensian crusade.

Medieval Inquisition

Medieval Inquisition (W)

The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions (Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184-1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s).

The Medieval Inquisition was established in response to movements considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular Catharism and Waldensians in Southern France and Northern Italy. These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow.

The Cathars were first noted in the 1140s in Southern France, and the Waldensians around 1170 in Northern Italy. Before this point, individual heretics such as Peter of Bruis had often challenged the Church. However, the Cathars were the first mass organization in the second millennium that posed a serious threat to the authority of the Church.

This article covers only these early inquisitions, not the Roman Inquisition of the 16th century onwards, or the somewhat different phenomenon of the Spanish Inquisition of the late 15th century, which was under the control of the Spanish monarchy using local clergy. The Portuguese Inquisition of the 16th century and various colonial branches followed the same pattern.



Inquisition (W)

The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. It started in 12th-century France to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians. Other groups investigated later included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites (followers of Jan Hus) and the Beguines.

Beginning in the 1250s, inquisitors were generally chosen from members of the Dominican Order, replacing the earlier practice of using local clergy as judges. The term Medieval Inquisition covers these courts up to mid-15th century.

During the Late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, the concept and scope of the Inquisition significantly expanded in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. It expanded to other European countries, resulting in the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition.

The Spanish and Portuguese operated inquisitorial courts throughout their empires in Africa, Asia, and the Americas (resulting in the Peruvian Inquisition and Mexican Inquisition). The Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions focused particularly on the issue of Jewish anusim and Muslim converts to Catholicism, partly because these minority groups were more numerous in Spain and Portugal than in many other parts of Europe, and partly because they were often considered suspect due to the assumption that they had secretly reverted to their previous religions.

With the exception of the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas. The institution survived as part of the Roman Curia, but in 1908 it was renamed the "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office". In 1965 it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.


📹 INQUISITION — The Templars & the Cathars (VİDEO)

INQUISITION — The Templars & the Cathars (LINK)

Throughout the centuries, people have been persecuted, hounded, brutalised and punished simply because of their beliefs – and it’s still going on today. This hard-hitting, powerful new series features specially filmed recreations and reconstructions to tell the dramatic stories of how men and women have died for something in which they believe. From the Templars and Cathars, to the bloody Torquemada and the Marian ‘heretics’, we hear stories of incredible courage, raw savagery and brutal torture that go back almost a thousand years.

Episode One: Templars And Cathars
It’s not clear if the process against the Templars was initiated by the Inquisition on the basis of suspected heresy or if the Inquisition itself was exploited by the king of France, Philip the Fair, who wanted the knights’ wealth. But in 1307 the King ordered the arrest of all Knights Templar across Europe and the seizure of all their assets. The Templars had simply become too powerful, too rich and too much of a threat to the crown. Like the Templars, the Cathars were mostly in the South of France, in cities like Toulouse. The Cathars main heresy was their belief in dualism: the evil God created the materialistic world and the good God created the spiritual world. Therefore, Cathars preached poverty, chastity, modesty and all those values which in their view helped people to detach themselves from materialism. To the Church in Rome, this was simply not acceptable.

Episode Two: The Spanish Inquisition
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave. In 1483, Jews were expelled from all of Andalusia. Evidence that was used to identify a Jew included the absence of chimney smoke on Saturdays or the buying of many vegetables before Passover or the purchase of meat from a converted butcher. The court employed physical torture to extract confessions.

Episode Three: The Tudor Heretics
England has a rich and bloody history when it comes to Religious Persecution. The religious persecutions started when Henry Vlll split with Rome in 1534 and started his own ‘Church of England’ with the King being its head. Suddenly, Catholics were persona non grata and arrested in large numbers, suspected of being behind ‘Papist Plots’ to bring down King Henry. In a reversal of fortune, his daughter, Mary I was motivated by a religious zeal to purge this new heresy from her land, and during her short reign about 290 Protestants had been burned at the stake. Later, in another turnaround, Queen Elizabeth 1 hunted down Catholics once more, and executed hundreds for secretly practicing their faith.

Episode Four: The Witch Hunts
There were many witch hunts in the 17th Century across Britain, with dozens of well known ‘witch hunters’ scouring the land. The most famous of which was Mathew Hopkins, the ‘witch finder general’ who was based in Essex. Witches were heretics to Christianity, and the act of witchcraft was considered a crime so foul that all normal legal procedures were superseded, and because the Devil was not going to “confess”, it was necessary to gain a confession from the human involved. By all and any means necessary.


  Northern Crusades (12th and 13th centuries)

Northern Crusades

Northern Crusades (12th and 13th centuries) (W)

Northern countries during the 13th and early 14th centuries.

Conquered by Denmark in 1219

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs). The crusades took place mostly in the 12th and 13th centuries and resulted in the subjugation and forced baptism of indigenous peoples.

The most notable campaigns were the Livonian and Prussian crusades. Some of these wars were called crusades during the Middle Ages, but others, including most of the Swedish ones, were first dubbed crusades by 19th-century romantic nationalist historians. However, crusades against northern pagans were authorized by Pope Alexander III in the bull Non parum animus noster, in 1171 or 1172


Prussian Crusade

Prussian Crusade (1217-1274) (W)

Baltic tribes and Prussian clans c. 1200.
Date 1217–1274
Modern-day Kaliningrad Oblast and northwestern Poland
Result Crusader victory
Territorial changes Teutonic Knights gain control of Prussia

The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to subjugate and exterminate or, alternatively, Christianize under duress the pagan Old Prussians.

Invited after earlier unsuccessful expeditions against the Prussians by Christian Polish kings, the Teutonic Knights began campaigning against the PrussiansLithuanians and Samogitians in 1230. By the end of the century, having quelled several Prussian Uprisings, the Knights had established control over Prussia and administered the conquered Prussians through their monastic state, eventually erasing the Prussian language, culture and pre-Christian religion by a combination of physical and ideological force. The remainder of the Prussians who escaped mass extermination joined the Lithuanian nation.


Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order (W)

Extent of the Teutonic Order in 1300.


The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: LatinOrdo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, GermanOrden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The Teutonic Order was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians in the Holy Land and the Baltics during the Middle Ages.

Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order still confers limited honorary knighthoods. The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, a Protestant chivalric order, is descended from the same medieval military order and also continues to award knighthoods and perform charitable work.



📹 Prussian Crusade — 3 Minute History (VİDEO)

Prussian Crusade — 3 Minute History (LINK)

Great vid, I just think a small detail is worth mentioning, that the old Prussians are not related to modern Germans. From an ethno-linguistic perspective, old Prussians were balts (Lithuanians and Latvians nowadays) and not of Germanic ethno-linguistic group. A vast majority of people when using the term "Prussian" refer to Germans colonists or Germanized balts.


📹 Battle of Grunwald 1410 — Northern Crusades (VİDEO)

Battle of Grunwald 1410 — Northern Crusades (LINK)

The Baltic tribes were the last pagans of Europe and both the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire were interested in baptizing them. However, this process was not peaceful and two knightly orders were tasked with bringing the new faith to the Baltics - Teutonic and Livonian. Their activity, that would be later known as the Northern Crusades, led to a number of wars with the Kingdom of Poland and the Great Duchy of Lithuania. Eventually, these states entered a union. The ensuing war between the Polish-Lithuanian alliance and the Teutonic Order culminated in the battle of Grunwald in 1410.


📹 The Northern Crusades and the Teutonic Order (VİDEO)

The Northern Crusades and the Teutonic Order (LINK)

A brief look at what was going on in the Baltic during the High Middle Ages, and how that shaped the dynamic of the region for centuries to come.


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