Moğol İmparatorluğu

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

VERİLER

Status

Nomadic empire

Capital

1206–1235: Avarga
1235–1260: Karakorum[a]
1260–1368: Khanbaliq (Dadu)[b]

Common languages

Mongolian, Turkic, Chinese, Persian and other languages

Religion

Initially: Tengrism Shamanism Later: Islam, Buddhism, Nestorianism

Government

Elective monarchy
Later also hereditary

Great Khan
• 1206–1227 Genghis Khan
• 1229–1241 Ögedei Khan
• 1246–1248 Güyük Khan
• 1251–1259 Möngke Khan
• 1260–1294 Kublai Khan (nominal)
• 1333–1368 Toghan Temür Khan (nominal)

Legislature

Kurultai

History

• Genghis Khan proclaims the Mongol Empire 1206
• Death of Genghis Khan 1227
• Pax Mongolica 1250–1350
• Empire fragments 1260–1294
• Fall of Yuan dynasty 1368
• Collapse of the Chagatai Khanate
1687

Area
  • 1206 (unification of Mongolia) 4,000,000 km2
  • 1227 (Genghis Khan's death) 13,500,000 km2
  • 1294 (Kublai's death) 23,500,000 km2
  • 1309 (last formal reunification) 24,000,000 km2

 

Preceded by
Khamag Mongol
Khwarazmian Empire
Qara Khitai
Jīn dynasty
Song dynasty
Western Xia
Abbasid Caliphate
Nizari Ismaili state
Kievan Rus'
Volga Bulgaria
Cumania
Alania
Kingdom of Dali
Kimek Khanate
Goryeo

 

Succeeded by
Chagatai Khanate
Golden Horde
Ilkhanate
Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
Timurid Empire
Anatolian Beyliks
Mamluk Sultanate
Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Ming dynasty
Joseon

 

NOTES
[a]Karakorum was founded in 1220 and served as capital from 1235 to 1260.

[b]Following the death of Möngke Khan in 1259, no one city served as capital. Khanbaliq (Dadu), modern-day Beijing, was the Yuan capital between 1271 and 1368.

[c]Including coins such as dirhams and paper currencies based on silver (sukhe) or silk, or the later small amounts of Chinese coins and paper Chao currency of the Yuan dynasty.

(W)

 




Moğol İmparatorluğu



La Statue équestre de Gengis Khan.

(W) Genghis Khan or Temüjin (1162-1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

[His] campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations.

Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and unified the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.

 

Etnik karakter etik değildir.


Salt etnik karakteri ile belirlenen göçebe insan moral nitelikten de yoksundur çünkü özgür değildir. Yasa tanımaz çünkü yasa etnik kimliği tanımaz ve evrenseldir. Göçebe mülkiyet bilincinden de yoksun olduğu için tecim nedir bilmez ve yağmayı yeğler. Moğolların kitle kıyımlarının da eşliğinde şiddet yoluyla kurdukları imparatorluğun başlıca güdülerinden biri talan hırsı idi.

 

  • Etnik gruplar ister göçebe ister yerleşik olsunlar istençsizliklerinden ötürü önder gereksinimi içindedirler.
  • Etnik dünya her zaman bir "postmodern" dünya, bir kültürel türlülük dünyasıdır.
  • Etnik gruplar tikellikleri ya da görelilikleri zemininde başka etnik gruplar ile ya hoşgörü ya da iç-savaş ilişkisi içindedir.

 

Etnik küme henüz bir kümedir, henüz tüzel, moral ve etik bir yapı değildir. Bu kümeler toplumsal, ulusal, dinsel belirlenimleri olmayan türsel insanların soyut bilinçlerine ortak mitsel (gök, yer olarak doğal), soysal (ata olarak doğal) ve yerel (bölge olarak doğal) belirlenimler yüklemeleri yoluyla oluşur. Etnik kültürlerde insan doğasına özünlü hak, ahlak ve etik kavramları etkin değildir.

 

İstençsiz etnik kalabalıklar bir önderin istenci altında kolayca etnik imparatorluklar oluşturur. Ama bu göçebe imparatorlukları önderin yitmesi ile birlikte yiter.

 

  • Etnik grup dinsel bir topluluk değildir. Şamanizm, şintoizm, budizm, "büyü dinleri" denilen şeyler ve fetişizm genel olarak din için zorunlu olan Tanrı kavramından yoksundur.
  • Etnik grup bir gereksinimler dizgesi olarak bir bütün oluşturan toplum değildir.
  • Etnik grup özgürlük ve egemenlik tarafından belirlenen ulus değildir.
  • Etnik karakter homo sapiensin büyüme sürecinde ortadan kaldırılması zorunlu olan alt ve geri evrelerden birini temsil eder.


📹 The Horde (2012 film) (VİDEO)

The Horde (2012 film) (LINK)

(W) The Horde (Russian title: Орда Orda, working title: Святитель Алексий Svjatitelj Alexij) is a 2012 historical film directed by Andrei Proshkin and written by Yuri Arabov. The film is a highly fictionalised narrative of how Saint Alexius healed Taidula Khatun, the mother of the Golden Horde khan Jani Beg, from blindness.

Plot
Jani Beg (Innokenty Dakayarov) kills his brother Khan Tini Beg (Andrey Panin) and replaces him. Soon, his mother Taidula (Roza Hairullina) goes blind and Jani Beg is desperate to have her blindness cured. Meanwhile, Alexius, Metropolitan of Moscow (Maxim Sukhanov) has reached fame as a wondermaker and Jani Beg asks Ivan the Fair (Vitaly Khaev) hand Alexius to him as a healer. Alexius is reluctant but Ivan sees this as a rare opportunity to delay the inevitable Tatar attack on Moscow. Eventually, Alexius succumbs and, accompanied by Jani Beg's retainers Timer (Fedot Lvov) and Badakyul (Aleksey Yegorov), travels to Saray-Jük with his keleynik Fedka (Aleksandr Yatsenko). They fail to cure Taidula's blindness and Alexius is banished, while Fedka is taken as a slave for desecrating the threshold. After a period of suffering and subsequent sanctification of Alexius, Taidula's eyes are healed. Alexius and Fedka return to Moscow. Shortly after, Jani Beg is assassinated by his son Berdi Beg (Moge Oorzhak).

 





Moğollar gibi atlı-okçuların ve Cengiz Han gibi güçlü önderlerin ve yaptıklarının ‘tarihsel’ olduğunu düşünmek Tarihi en çirkin bilim yapacaktır. Bu gerilikleri irdelemek dahaçok antropolojinin işidir. Tarih kendini evrensel Yaşam biçimi yapmakta olan Özgürlüğün bilimidir.

Salt zamanda olmuş olmak tarihsel anlam ve önem taşımak için yeterli değildir. Tarihin ereğinin insanın etik olarak büyümesi olması olgusu bu zorbalık, şiddet ve terör fenomenlerine tarihsel anlamsızlık yükler. Tarih istencin işidir. Tarih-öncesi dürtünün işidir. Ve “moral gelişim” duyuncun kör dürtüye karşı üstünlüğünü anlatır. Göçebe insalıkta henüz olmayan şey istençtir ve bu nedenle evrensel Tarihte yerleri yoktur.

İki milyon kadar nüfusu ve 100.000'in biraz üzerinde bir ordu ile bir etnik kültürün tarihin bildiği en geniş imparatorluğu kurmuş olması Mongol süvariciliğinin, Cengiz Han'ın önderlik yeteneklerinin daha ötesinde açıklamaları gerektirir. Cengiz Han’ın ölümünden sonra da imparatorluk genişlemeyi sürdürdü ve ancak Kubilay Han'ın ölümünden sonra küçülmeye başladı.

 

Moğolların devletinin ayırdedici yanlarından biri sivil nüfusların sürekli yokedilme gözdağı altında kalmasını sağlayan Terör üzerine dayanmasıdır. Boyun eğen kentler fazla zarar görmeden imparatorluğa katılıyor, direnen kentler en son canlıya dek kılıçtan geçiriliyor ve sık sık yerle bir ediliyordu. Moğol ordusu uzakta iken başkaldıranlar kısa bir süre içinde bölgeye ulaşabilecek ordu tarafınan yok edileceklerinden emin oldukları için isyan düşüncesi kimsenin aklından geçmiyordu. Moğol ordusunun sayıca küçük olmasına karşın, bütün imparatorluk topraklarına yayılan iletişim ve ulaşım dizgesi geniş imparatorluk topraklarının denetimini olanaklı kıldı.

On ikinci yüzyılda Moğollar kuzey Çin'i fethetmiş olan Khitan (Kitan) kabilelerinin denetimi altında idiler.

 

On üçüncü yüzyılın başlarında Batı Asya çok sayıda devlet tarafından yönetiliyordu. Mısır, Filistin ve Suriye Selaaddin'in ardılları tarafından yönetilirken, Anadolu Selçuk egemenliği altında idi. Bağdad'da henüz Abbasiler egemenliklerini sürdürüyordu ve Ganj'dan Dicle'ye uzanan topraklarda yaşayan Hint ve Pers nüfuslar Harzemşahların koruması altında bulunuyordu.

 

Yarı-doğal, yarı-tinsel bir karakter taşıyan göçebe kültür kent kültürü için doğal bir gözdağı idi. Şiddete sınır tanımayan atlı okçular için kentlerin az çok düzenli orduları önemli bir engel oluşturmuyordu. Çinliler, Türkler, Persler ve sonra Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu ve en sonunda Avrupa’nın bütünü Moğol gözdağı altına düştü. Ama barbarlığın taşkınlığı nasıl başladıyla öyle çekildi ve Moğollar yüz elli yıl içinde geride "Moğol" izi taşıyan hiçbir kültür bırakmadan buharlaşıp yittiler. Çağdaş Moğollar için Cengiz Han soylu ve yüce bir ata değerinde olmayı sürdürmektedir. Etnik karakterin dayanılmaz utanç duygusundan kaçınma yolu olguları görmezden gelmektir.
İmparatorluk tek-erktir ve başka erk tanımaz. Pax imperium ancak insanlığın genel istençsizliği koşulu altında olanaklıdır.

On ikinci yüzyılın sonlarına doğru birden ortaya çıkan Moğol imparatorluğu bir kabileler konfederasyonu idi. Çadırlarda (yurt) yaşayan ve atlarının sütü ile beslenen göçe Moğollar yerel yaşam koşulunda üretemedikleri minimal gereksinimlerini kentlerden sağlıyorlardı. Yerel törelerin ötesine geçmelerini sağlayacak herhangi bir moral gelişimleri olmayan, yalnızca buyruk dinleyen acımasız, duyunçsuz ve duygusuz insanlardı. Dünya nüfusunun aşağı yukarı %5-10 kadarını kılıçtan geçirdiler ve sayısız kenti baştan sona yerle bir ettiler. Atlı-okçu herhangi bir bireysellikten yoksun olarak yalnızca ait olduğu kabile tininin özeti olan bir insandır. Bu insanlar alışkanlık töresi denebilecek olanın dışında herhangi bir etik yapılanmadan da yoksun idiler ve okur-yazar olmayan Cengiz Han'ın bir imparatorluk için zorunlu olan yasalarının olmasına karşın, bu yasalar "gizli" ve "değiştirilemez" idi.

İmparatorluk kavramı gereği zor üzerine dayanır. Egemenliğinin sınırlarını gücünün sınırları çizer ve ancak bir güçler-dengesi ile durdurulabilir. İmparatorluk için güç haktır ve gücü tanrısal yetke tarafından aklanır.


Despotik insan yarı-insandır, dünyaya korkunun bakış açısından bakar, ve korkar ve korkutur. Yaşam ilkesi ya boyun eğdir ya da boyun eğ, ya yok et ya da yok edil ikilemi tarafından belirlenir. Özgürlük kavramının bilincinden yoksun olduğu için, yalnızca kendi tikel dürtüsünü bildiği için, dünyayı algılamada yalnızca düşmanlık kategorilerini kullanır.

 

Despotik devlet kavramı gereği barışçıl değildir ve dış politikası savunma-saldırma ikilemi tarafından belirlenir. İç egemenliği tek-erkin genel istenç rolünü üstlenmesi yoluyla sağlanır. "İmparatorluk" olarak devlet yalnızca genel istençsizliğe karşı bir önlemdir.

Göçebe kabilelerden bir imparatorluk kurmak


Moğolların tarih sahnesinde görünmeleri politik bir gelişmişliğin sonucu değildir. Cengiz'in ilk seferi kuzey batı Çin'deki Tangutlara karşıdır ve bir alış-veriş anlaşmazlığını ilgilendirir. İkinci seferi yine kuzey Çin'de Jin hanedanına karşıdır ve bunun da nedeni ekonomiktir. Üçüncü ve son seferi benzer olarak Orta Asya'da ekonomik bir anlaşmazlığa bağlı bir öç eylemidir.

 

Göçebe kabile kültürü salt geçim ve sağ kulma uğruna belirlenen minimalist bir kültürdür. Bunda dilin gündelik yaşam nesnelerinin ötesine geçen bir sözlüğü yoktur. Bu ilkel yaşam biçimi yazıya ve herhangi bir matematiksel kültüre gereksinim duymaz. Dinsel bir gelişim yoktur ve hastalık sorunları ile ilgilenmek şaman büyücülere düşer. Politik bir yapıdan bütünüyle yoksun kabilelerde yaşam yalnızca gelenekler çevresinde biçimlenir.

Göçebelik insan gelişiminde buzul çağından sonraki ilk evreyi, ilkellik denilen kültürü, kadim zamanları temsil eder.


Avcı-toplayıcı kabileler insanlığın kadim zamanlarına karşılık düşer ve homo sapiensin kültürel gelişiminde ilkellik evresini oluştururlar. Duyunç ve istenç gelişiminin henüz bulunmayışı ile tanımlanan bu kadim zamanlarda ahlak yoktur ve etik bir yapılanma olanaksızdır. İlkel insanlık doğal-içgüdüsel davranış kalıpları içinde yanızca sağ kalma savaşımı vermektedir. Acımasız ve amansız olarak evrensel bir insanlık duygusundan yoksundur ve bu tikellik gruba verilen ‘etnik’ nitelemesinin zeminidir. Etnik karekterde ve duyunç ve istenç yetileri gelişmemiştir, moral yargı ve özgür eylem yoktur, çünkü insan hiçbir zaman birey olarak değil, her zaman grubun bir üyesi olarak davranmak zorundadır. Kabile tikelciliği evrensel dinsel bilincin gelişimi için zemin sağlamaz ve yerel mitler ve mitolojiler üretmekten öteye geçmez.

 

Bir nehir vadisinden bütünüyle başka bir doğa taşıyan Asya steplerinde Moğollar hayvan yetiştirerek yaşamlarını sürdürebilen göçebeler idiler. Tarım yapmıyorlardı ve tarım sürecine eşlik etmesi gereken tüm kültürel yapılanmaya yabancı idiler. Doğal etkinlikleri bütün yaşamlarını dolduruyordu. Kabileler arasındaki kesintisiz çatışmalar ancak az çok konfederatif birleşmeler yoluyla önlenebiliyordu.


📹 What if the Mongol Empire Reunited Today? (VİDEO)

What if the Mongol Empire Reunited Today? (LINK)

The Mongol Empire at it's height took up 16% of all the land on Earth and controlled 1 out of every 4 people on the planet, a 13th century superpower. It's presence was very brief compared to other empires, but what if the Mongol Empire was suddenly recreated today with the same borders they had at their apex? This video attempts to answer that question using data analysis and statistics from readily available information and data.

 



Outline: BRILL — Encyclopaedia of Islam (7)

Outline:  BRILL — Encyclopaedia of Islam (7) (LINK)

“However deplorable his methods, the accomplishments of Temujen, Genghis Khan, are extraordinary.”


MONGOLS — the name of a tribe whose original home was in the eastern part of the present-day Mongolia.

Nomadic horsemen living in tents

(LINK) The Mongols were in the twelfth century a tribe subject to those Kin who had conquered North-east China. They were a horde of nomadic horsemen living in tents, and subsisting mainly upon mare’s milk products and meat. Their occupations were pasturage and hunting, varied by war. They drifted northward as the snows melted for summer pasture, and southward to winter pasture after the custom of the steppes. Their military education began with a successful insurrection against the Kin. The empire of Kin had the resources of half China behind it, and in the struggle the Mongols learnt very much of the military science of the Chinese. By the end of the twelfth century they were already a fighting tribe of exceptional quality.
The Mongols’ definitive formation as a people appears to date from the time of the Liao Dynasty (A.D. 907-1125).
The Liao emperors were Khitans, related ethnically and linguistically to the Mongols.
 
Staggeringly high figures are quoted for the numbers of people alleged to have been massacred by the Mongols when they sacked the great cities of Khurasan: Harat—1,600,000 (Sayfi, 60) or 2,400,000 (Djuzdjani, text, ii, 121); Nishapur— 1,747,000 (Sayfi, 63). Such examples are typical.

The alternative to submission was total war

(LINK) It has been calculated that approximately 5% of the world's population were killed during Turco-Mongol invasions or in their immediate aftermath. If these calculations are accurate, this would make the events the deadliest acts of mass killings in human history.

The alternative to submission was total war: if refused, Mongol leaders ordered the collective slaughter of populations and destruction of property.

(LINK) The reputation of guaranteed wholesale enactment on those who fought them was also the primary reason why the Mongols could hold vast territories long after their main force had moved on. Even if the tumens (tyumens) were hundreds or thousands of miles away, the conquered people would usually not dare to interfere with the token Mongol occupying force, for fear of a likely Mongol return.
Later writers ... do not attempt to minimise the extent of the disaster.
Hamd Allah Mustawfi’s estimate of the death toll (800,000) at the sack of Baghdad in 656/1258 is often quoted.
The 40 years of pagan Ilkhanid government before the accession of Ghazan in 694/1295 seem to have been characterised by ruthless and short-sighted exploitation.
Ghazan on his accession declared his conversion to Islam, and the Mongols of Persia duly followed his example, at least in name.
People had little confidence in the justness of Mongol government even after it had become Muslim.
 
Army

All adult male Mongols below the age of 60 were liable for military service; there were in principle no Mongol civilians.
The Mongols were thus able to mobilise a force, composed exclusively of cavalry, which was highly trained and could consist of an extremely high proportion of the available Mongol manpower. ... Each Mongol soldier went on campaign with a string of five or more horses.

Nomadic Empire

Like all the empires founded by nomads, it was, to begin with, purely a military and administrative empire, a framework rather than a rule. It centered on the personality of the monarch, and its relations with the mass of the populations over which it ruled was simply one of taxation for the maintenance of the horde. But Jengis Khan had called to his aid a very able and experienced administrator of the Kin Empire, who was learned in all the traditions an science of the Chinese.

In 1206 Cingiz-Khan had an army of around 105,000 men; and according to Rashid al-Din the army in Mongolia proper at the death of Cingiz included some 129,000 men.
The Mongols, then, were effective militarily because of their competence rather than as a result of the sheer weight of numbers. Organisationally, the Mongol soldiers were grouped in multiples of 10, rising to the tümen (tuman) of 10,000—a system that had long been conventional in Asian steppe armies.
The elite force was the imperial guard, 10,000 strong in 1206, provided the personnel through whom the empire was administered in its early stages.
 
Law (Great Yasa of Genghis Khan)

One of the indispensable institutional foundations of the Mongol Empire is generally said to have been the “Great Yasa of Cingiz-Khan,” allegedly a comprehensive legal code laid down, in all probability, in 1206, though perhaps supplemented later.
The code has not survived.
 
Taxation

1) Kübür (poll-tax), 1 % levy on the nomads’ flocks and herds, but later the term is used to denote a poll-tax payable by the conquered sedentary population.
2) Kalan (unclear) was a general term used to cover pre-Mongol, Islamic taxation.
3) Tamgha, a levy on commercial transactions whose prominence testifies to the importance in Mongol eyes of trade.
 
Communication

The vast extent of the Mongol’s empire made it necessary for them to establish an effective network of communications.

Such a network, the Yam, was duly set up.

  • Yam was designed to facilitate the travels of envoys going to and from the Mongol courts; for the transportation of goods (especially on the route between North China and Mongolia); for the speedy transmission of royal orders; and to provide a framework whereby the Mongol rulers could receive intelligence.
  • Post stations were erected throughout the empire at stages equivalent to a day's journey: about every 25 or 30 miles, or more in desolate areas, according to Marco Polo.
Urgent messages could travel very much faster than 25 miles a day.
The efficiency of the system impressed European observers. It seems on the whole to have worked well.
 
Administration

The Mongols’ approach towards the administration of their empire was a pragmatic one. They were prepared to learn from other peoples.
The most marked influence in the empire’s early decades was exercised by the Uyghurs and the Khitans.
The Mongols speedily adopted both the Uyghur alphabet and elements of Uyghur chancery practice. The Khitans were probably even more influential.
There is little that is identifiably “Mongol” in the governmental institutions of the Mongols’ empire,
 

MONUMENTA ALTAIC / The Secret History of the Mongols
Encyclopædia Iranica / YASA

 




Anahatlar


  • Moğollar dünya tarihinde 13 ve 14’üncü yüzyılları terör yüzyılları yaptılar. İpek Yolunun güvenliğini sağladılar ve sanatların, bilimlerin ve tiyatronun koruyucuları oldular.
According to the works of the Iranian historian Rashid al-Din (1247-1318), the Mongols killed more than 700,000 people in Merv and more than a million in Nishapur. The total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine. (W)

 

  • Cengiz Hanı bir hoşgörü uygulayıcısı olarak ve Moğol terörünü pax mongolica olarak görmek için Moğol kültürünü de başka her kültür ile eşit değerde bir kültür olarak yorumlayan postmodern bakış açısı zorunludur.
Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. While it is tempting to attribute this major decline solely to Mongol ferocity, scholars today have mixed sentiments regarding this subject. (W)

 

  • Moğolların bugün yaşadığı bölgede Eski Çağlardan bu yana göçebe ve avcı toplulukları yaşıyordu.
The Mongols practised biological warfare by catapulting diseased cadavers into the cities they besieged. It is believed that fleas remaining on the bodies of the cadavers may have acted as vectors to spread the bubonic plague. (W)

 

  • Bölgede Moğol egemenliğinden önce birçok göçebe imparatorluk kuruldu:
    — Xiongnu (İÖ 3’üncü yüzyıldan İS 1’inci yüzyıla)
    — Xianbei devleti (yklş. İS 93-234 arası)
    — Rouran Hanlığı (330-555)
    — Türk Hanlığı (552-744)
    ve başkaları.
  • Coğrafi olarak başka etnik gruplardan yalıtılmış olan Moğollar ortak bir dil, mitoloji ve yaşam tarzı temelinde asker ve sivil ayrımı yapmayan türdeş bir horda oluşturdular.
Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's population of two million were victims of the Mongol invasion of Europe. (W)

 

  • Para-Mongolik bir dil kullanan Khitan halkı Orta Asya’da Liao hanedanı (907-1125) olarak bilinen devleti kurdu ve başka yerlerin yanısıra Moğolistan’a da egemen oldu.
The cities of Balkh, Bamiyan, Herat, Kiev, Baghdad, Nishapur, Merv, Urgench, Lahore, Ryazan, Chernigov, Vladimir, and Samarkand suffered serious devastation by the Mongol armies. (W)

 

  • 1206’da Cengiz Han göçebe Moğol kabilelerini birleştirdi ve etik-öncesi bir göçebeler kitlesinden bir imparatorluk (1206-1368) yarattı. Yalnızca bir ‘ad’ çevresinde kurulan ‘imparatorluk’ Cengiz Hanın ölümü ile birlikte dağıldı (Timur İmparatorluğu gibi).
There is a noticeable lack of Chinese literature from the Jin Dynasty, predating the Mongol conquest, and in the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, libraries, books, literature, and hospitals were burned: some of the books were thrown into the river, in quantities sufficient to "turn the Tigris black with ink for several days." (W)

 

  • Moğol ‘devleti’nin yasaları hem ‘gizli’ hem de ‘ değiştirilemez’ idi.
there is a noticeable lack of Chinese literature from the Jin Dynasty, predating the Mongol conquest, and in the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, libraries, books, literature, and hospitals were burned: some of the books were thrown into the river, in quantities sufficient to "turn the Tigris black with ink for several days." (W)

 

  • ‘Etnik’ bir imparatorluk olarak, Moğol ‘İmparatorluğu’nun yaptığı ‘tarih’ dünya nüfusunu %5 oranında azalttı.


Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200 CE. Source unknown. All of Central, North and East Asian states and tribes were located in wrong places. (W)

📹 Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire — Khan Academy (LINK)

 

 








  Statehood on the Territory of Mongolia

Xiongnu State

Xiongnu State (209 BC-93 AD) (W)


Xiongnu Empire



Territory of the Xiongnu which includes Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, Gansu.
 
   

The establishment of the Xiongnu empire in Mongolia in the 3rd century BC marks the beginning of statehood on the territory of Mongolia.

The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses and some scholars, including Paul Pelliot and Byambyn Rinchen, insisted on a Mongolic origin.

Mongolian and other scholars have suggested that the Xiongnu spoke a language related to the Mongolic languages.

The Turkologist Gerhard Doerfer has denied any possibility of a relationship between the Xiongnu language and any other known language and rejected in the strongest terms any connection with Turkic or Mongolian.

An early reference to the Xiongnu was by the Han dynasty historian Sima Qianwho wrote about the Xiongnu in the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC), drawing a distinct line between the settled Huaxia people (Chinese) to the pastoral nomads (Xiongnu), characterizing it as two polar groups in the sense of a civilization versus an uncivilized society: the Hua–Yi distinction.

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.

After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppesof north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known later as Mongolia. The Xiongnu were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansuand Xinjiang. Their relations with adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east were complex, with repeated periods of conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tribute, trade, and marriage treaties.

Attempts to identify the Xiongnu with later groups of the western Eurasian Steppe remain controversial. Scythians and Sarmatians were concurrently to the west. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources. The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of the Huns or the Huna, although this is disputed. Other linguistic links – all of them also controversial – proposed by scholars include Iranian, Mongolic, Turkic, Uralic, Yeniseian, or multi-ethnic.


Gold stag with eagle's head, and ten further heads in the antlers. From a Xiongnu tomb on the frontier, 4th–3rd century BC.
 
   

 


 



Xianbei state

Xianbei state (93?-234 AD) (W) (W2)


The Xianbei state at its maximum extent
 
   

The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156-234. Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.

 


Belt Buckle Xianbei 3-4th century



From the Xianbei Tomb Paintings (of Former Yan) excavated in 1982 at the Zhao-yang 袁台子朝陽 area, across the Daling River, Liao-xi. Painting of Murong Xianbei archer.
 
   

The Xianbei (/ʃjɛnˈb/; Chinese: 鮮卑; pinyin: Xiānbēi; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pi) were originally a nomadic people residing in what is today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China. Along with the Xiongnu, they were one of the major nomadic groups in northern China from the Han Dynasty to the Northern and Southern dynasties. They eventually established their own northern dynasties such as the Northern Wei founded in the 4th century AD by the Tuoba clan.

It is widely theorised that the Xianbei spoke a language related to the Turkic languages or Mongolic languages.

The origins of the Xianbei are unclear. They were a northern or northeastern Asian Mongoloid population. Chinese anthropologist Zhu Hong and Zhang Quan‐chao studied Xianbei crania from several sites of Inner Mongolia and noticed that anthropological features of studied Xianbei crania show that the racial type is closely related to the modern North Asiatic Mongoloids, and some physical characteristics of those skulls are closer to modern Mongols and ancient populations in North China.

 



Rouran Khaganate

Rouran Khaganate (330-555) (W)


The Rouran Khaganate.
 
   

The Rouran Khaganate (Chinese: 柔然; pinyin: Róurán), Ruanruan (Chinese: 蠕蠕; pinyin: Ruǎnruǎn/Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Juan-juan/Ju-ju), Ruru (Chinese: 茹茹; pinyin: Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Ju-ju), or Tantan (Chinese: 檀檀; pinyin: Tántán) was the name of a state of uncertain origin (Proto-Mongols, Turkic, or non-Altaic), from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.

The power of the Rouran was broken in 555 by an alliance of Göktürks, the states of Northern Qi and Northern Zhou, and tribes in Central Asia.

It has sometimes been hypothesized that the Rouran are synonymous with the Pannonian Avars – also known by names such as Varchonites and "Pseudo Avars" – who settled in Eastern Europe during the 6th century.

The Rouran were a confederation led by Xianbei people who remained in the Mongolian steppes after most Xianbei migrated south to Northern China and set up various kingdoms. They considered the Tuoba and Rourans to be descended from common ancestors. Also some contemporary historians studying the history of Northern Wei, like Kwok Kin Poon, proposed that the Rouran descended specifically from Xianbei of Donghu heritage.

The Rourans were the first people who used the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic.


Rouran Khaganate coin.
 
   

 



Turkic Khaganate

Turkic Khaganate (552-659) (W)

Rouran Khaganate circa 500 AD


Gökturk Khaganate, 551–572 AD
 
   

The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük; Chinese: 突厥汗国; pinyin: Tūjué hánguó) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history.

The first Turkic Khaganate collapsed in 581, after which followed a series of conflicts and civil wars which separated the polity into the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Western Turkic Khaganate. The Eastern Turkic Khaganate was subjugated by the Tang dynasty in 630 and the Western Turkic Khaganate was conquest by Tang Empire in 657. The Second Turkic Khaganate emerged in 682 and lasted until 744 when it was overthrown by the Uyghurs, a different Turkic group.


Inscription in Kyzyl using Turkic script
 

The origins of the Turkic Khanate trace back to 546, when Bumin Qaghan made a preemptive strike against the Uyghur and Tiele groups planning a revolt against their overlords, the Rouran Khanate. For this service he expected to be rewarded with a Rouran princess, thus marrying into the royal family. However, the Rouran khagan, Yujiulü Anagui, sent an emissary to Bumin to rebuke him, saying, "You are my blacksmith slave. How dare you utter these words?" As Anagui's "blacksmith slave" (Chinese: ; pinyin: duànnú) comment was recorded in Chinese chronicles, some claim that the Göktürks were indeed blacksmith servants for the Rouran elite, and that "blacksmith slavery" may have indicated a form of vassalage within Rouran society. According to Denis Sinor, this reference indicates that the Türks specialized in metallurgy, although it is unclear if they were miners or, indeed, blacksmiths. Whatever the case, that the Turks were "slaves" need not be taken literally, but probably represented a form of vassalage, or even unequal alliance.

A disappointed Bumin allied with the Western Wei against the Rouran, their common enemy. In 552, Bumin defeated Anagui and his forces north of Huaihuang (modern Zhangjiakou, Hebei).

Having excelled both in battle and diplomacy, Bumin declared himself Illig Khagan of the new khanate at Otukan, but died a year later. His son, Muqan Qaghan, defeated the Hephthalite Empire,Khitan and Kyrgyz. Bumin's brother Istämi (d. 576) bore the title "Yabgu of the West" and collaborated with the Sassanid Empire of Iran to defeat and destroy the Hephthalites, who were allies of the Rouran. This war tightened the Ashina clan's grip on the Silk Road.

The appearance of the Pannonian Avars in the West has been interpreted as a nomadic faction fleeing the westward expansion of the Göktürks, although the specifics are a matter of irreconcilable debate given the lack of clear sources and chronology. Rene Grousset links the Avars with the downfall of the Hephthalites rather than the Rouran, while Denis Sinor argues that Rouran-Avar identification is "repeated from article to article, from book to book with no shred of evidence to support it".

Istämi's policy of western expansion brought the Göktürks into Europe. In 576 the Göktürks crossed the Kerch Strait into the Crimea. Five years later they laid siege to Chersonesus; their cavalry kept roaming the steppes of Crimea until 590. As for the southern borders, they were drawn south of the Amu Darya, bringing the Ashina into conflict with their former allies, the Sasanian Empire. Much of Bactria (including Balkh) remained a dependency of the Ashina until the end of the century.

 



Khitan people

Khitan people (c. 4th century-1218) (W)


Liao dynasty (907-1125) at its greatest extent, c. 1000



Qara Khitai circa 1200
 
   

The Khitan people (Chinese: 契丹; pinyin: Qìdān) were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East. They spoke the Khitan language, which appears to be related to the Mongolic languages. As the Liao dynasty, they dominated a vast area north of and including parts of China. After the fall of the Liao dynasty in 1125 following the Jurchen invasion, many Khitans followed Yelü Dashi's group westward to establish the Qara Khitai, or Western Liao dynasty, in Central Asia, which lasted several decades before falling to the Mongol Empire in 1218.

The para-Mongol Khitan people founded a state known as the Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Central Asia and ruled Mongolia and portions of the eastern coast of Siberia now known as the Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China. Over the next few hundred years, the Chinese subtly encouraged warfare among the Mongols as a way of keeping them distracted from invading China.


Depiction of Khitans by Hugui (胡瓌, 9th/10th century), hunting with eagles
 
   

The Khitan language is now extinct. Some scholars believe that Khitan is Proto-Mongolic, while others have suggested that it is a Para-Mongolic language. Khitan has loanwords borrowed from the Turkic Uyghur language and Koreanic languages.

The Khitans practiced shamanism in which animals played an important role. Hunters would offer a sacrifice to the spirit of the animal they were hunting and wore a pelt from the same animal during the hunt. There were festivals to mark the catching of the first fish and wild goose, and annual sacrifices of animals to the sky, earth, ancestors, mountains, rivers, and others. Every male member of the Khitan would sacrifice a white horse, white sheep, and white goose during the Winter solstice.

When a Khitan nobleman died, burnt offerings were sacrificed at the full and new moons. The body was exposed for three years in the mountains, after which the bones would be cremated. The Khitan believed that the souls of the dead rested at a place called the Black Mountain, near Rehe Province.

Khitan tents always faced east, and they revered the sun, but the moon did not have a large role in their religion. They also practiced a form of divination where they went to war if the shoulder blade of a white sheep cracked while being heated.

 



📹 Conquests of Genghis Khan (VİDEO)

Conquests of Genghis Khan (LINK)

The conquests undertaken by Genghis Khan in Asia.

 








  HISTORY OF MONGOLIA

📹 Mongols — From Genghis to Kublai (VİDEO)

Mongols — From Genghis to Kublai (LINK)

In this video we are covering the conquests of China, Central Asia, Iran, Caucasus, Eastern Europe via the battles of Yehuling, Parwan, Indus River, Kalka, Mohi, Legnica, Ain Jalut, Yamen and others, featuring Genghis Khan, Ogedei, Batu, Kublia, Chagatai, Subutai, Jebe, Tolui, Jalal-ad-din, Baibars, Qutuz and others.

 



History of Mongolia

History of Mongolia (W)

Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu (3rd century BCE to 1st century CE), the Xianbei state (c. 93 to 234 CE), the Rouran Khaganate (330-555), the Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded a state known as the Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Central Asia and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China.

In 1206 Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a fighting force which went on to establish the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire (1206-1368). Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan emperors' conversion to Tibetan Buddhism.

 

 



Mongols / Definition

Mongols / Definition (W)

Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper (also known as the Khalkha Mongols) Buryats, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohans, Baarins, Gorlos Mongols, Jalaids, Jaruud, Khishigten, Khuuchid, Muumyangan and Onnigud.

The designation “Mongol” briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau. However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them.

In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan.

 



Mongols / Origin

Mongols / Origin (W)

In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog and the Tungusic peoples. Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. The identity of the Xiongnu (Hünnü) is still debated today. Although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more likely a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes. It has been suggested that the language of the Huns was related to the Hünnü.

The Donghu, however, can be much more easily labeled proto-Mongol since the Chinese histories trace only Mongolic tribes and kingdoms (Xianbei and Wuhuan peoples) from them, although some historical texts claim a mixed Xiongnu-Donghu ancestry for some tribes (e.g. the Khitan).

 



Mongols / Language and Religion

Mongols / Language, Religion (W)

Language. Mongolian is the official national language of Mongolia, where it is spoken by nearly 2.8 million people (2010 estimate), and the official provincial language of China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols. Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate)



Religion. The original religion of the Mongolic peoples was Shamanism. The Xianbei came in contact with Confucianism and Daoism but eventually adopted Buddhism. However, the Xianbeis in Mongolia and Rourans followed a form of Shamanism. In the 5th century the Buddhist monk Dharmapriya was proclaimed State Teacher of the Rouran Khaganate and given 3000 families and some Rouran nobles became Buddhists. In 511 the Rouran Douluofubadoufa Khan sent Hong Xuan to the Tuoba court with a pearl-encrusted statue of the Buddha as a gift. The Tuoba Xianbei and Khitans were mostly Buddhists, although they still retained their original Shamanism.

(LINK) Genghis Khan was by and large tolerant of multiple religions and there are no cases of him or other Mongols engaging in religious war, as long as populations were obedient. He also passed a decree exempting all followers of the Taoist religion from paying taxes.

 



     

Proto-Mongols

Proto-Mongols (W)

The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor hominin species as far back as the Stone Age over 800,000 years ago. The people there went through the Bronze and Iron Ages, forming tribal alliances, peopling, and coming into conflict with early China.

The proto-Mongols formed various tribal kingdoms that fought against each other for supremacy, such as the Rouran Khaganate from 333 to 555 AD until it was defeated by the Göktürks, who founded the Turkic Khaganate (552-744), which in turn was subdued by the growing strength of the Chinese Tang dynasty. The destruction of the Uyghur Khaganate (744-848) by the Yenisei Kirghiz resulted in the end of Turkic dominance in Mongolia.

 



 
 

📹 A day in the life of a Mongolian queen - Anne F. Broadbridge (VİDEO)

A day in the life of a Mongolian queen (LINK)

As dawn breaks over a moveable city of ten thousand yurts, Queen Boraqchin readies her kingdom for departure to their summer camping grounds. While her husband, the grandson of Genghis Khan, is out raiding, she juggles the duties of managing flocks, family and a city of thousands.

Anne F. Broadbridge outlines a day in the life of a Mongolian queen. Lesson by Anne F. Broadbridge, directed by Els Decaluwe.

 



 

Mongol Empire (1206-1368)

Mongol Empire (1206-1368) (W)

  • existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history
  • The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan
  • Moğollar 25 yılda Romalıların 400 yılda fethettikleri kadar yer fethettiler

 



Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294, superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда (“the Horde”) in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, whom a council proclaimed ruler of all the Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the East with the West with an enforced Pax Mongolica, allowing the dissemination and exchange of trade, technologies, commodities and ideologies across Eurasia.

The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued among the descendants of Tolui. A key reason for the split was the dispute over whether the Mongol Empire would become a sedentary, cosmopolitan empire, or would stay true to their nomadic and steppe lifestyle. After Möngke Khan died (1259), rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who fought each other in the Toluid Civil War (1260-1264) and also dealt with challenges from the descendants of other sons of Genghis. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as he sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.

During the reigns of Genghis and Ögedei, the Mongols suffered the occasional defeat when a less skilled general was given a command. The Siberian Tumads defeated the Mongol forces under Borokhula around 1215-1217; Jalal al-Din defeated Shigi-Qutugu at the Battle of Parwan; and the Jin generals Heda and Pu'a defeated Dolqolqu in 1230. In each case, the Mongols returned shortly after with a much larger army led by one of their best generals, and were invariably victorious. The Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee in 1260 marked the first time that the Mongols would not return to immediately avenge a defeat, due to a combination of the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War between Arik Boke and Khubilai, and Berke of the Golden Horde attacking Hulegu in Persia. Although the Mongols launched many more invasions of the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors.

By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives:


In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty, but in 1368 the Han Chinese Ming dynasty took over the Mongol capital. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolian homeland and continued to rule there as the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Ilkhanate disintegrated in the period 1335-1353. The Golden Horde had broken into competing khanates by the end of the 15th century whilst the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another until 1687.

 



Early organization

Early organization

Genghis Khan introduced many innovative ways of organizing his army: for example dividing it into decimal subsections of arbans (10 soldiers), zuuns (100), Mingghans (1000), and tumens (10,000). The Kheshig, the imperial guard, was founded and divided into day (khorchin torghuds) and night (khevtuul) guards. Genghis rewarded those who had been loyal to him and placed them in high positions, as heads of army units and households, even though many of them came from very low-ranking clans.

Compared to the units he gave to his loyal companions, those assigned to his own family members were relatively few. He proclaimed a new code of law of the empire, Ikh Zasag or Yassa; later he expanded it to cover much of the everyday life and political affairs of the nomads. He forbade the selling of women, theft, fighting among the Mongols, and the hunting of animals during the breeding season.

He appointed his adopted brother Shigi-Khuthugh as supreme judge (jarughachi), ordering him to keep records of the empire. In addition to laws regarding family, food, and the army, Genghis also decreed religious freedom and supported domestic and international trade. He exempted the poor and the clergy from taxation. He also encouraged literacy, adopting the Uyghur script, which would form the Uyghur-Mongolian script of the empire, and he ordered the Uyghur Tatatunga, who had previously served the khan of Naimans, to instruct his sons.

 



Religious policies

Religious policies

Prior to the three western khanates’ adoption of Islam, Genghis Khan and a number of his Yuan successors placed restrictions on religious practices they saw as alien. Muslims, including Hui, and Jews, were collectively referred to as Huihui. Muslims were forbidden from Halal or Zabiha butchering, while Jews were similarly forbidden from Kashrut or Shehita butchering. Referring to the conquered subjects as "our slaves," Genghis Khan demanded they no longer be able to refuse food or drink, and imposed restrictions on slaughter. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret.

Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol food”. [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?” He thereupon made them eat. “If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.

Genghis Khan arranged for the Chinese Taoist master Qiu Chuji to visit him in Afghanistan, and also gave his subjects the right to religious freedom, despite his own shamanistic beliefs.

 



Mongol invasions of Islamic World

Mongol invasions of Islamic World (W)

After the Crusades the Mongols invaded in the 13th century, marking the end of the Islamic Golden Age. Some historians assert that the eastern Islamic world never fully recovered. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, The Mongols put an end to the Abbasid era. The Mongol invasion of Central Asia began in 1219 at a huge cost in civilian life and economic devastation. The Mongols spread throughout Central Asia and Persia: the Persian city of Isfahan had fallen to them by 1237.

With the election of Khan Mongke in 1251, Mongol targeted the Abbasid capital, Baghdad. Mongke's brother, Hulegu, was made leader of the Mongol Army assigned to the task of subduing Baghdad. The fall of Bagdhad in 1258 destroyed what had been the largest city in Islam. The last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta'sim, was captured and killed; and Baghdad was ransacked and destroyed. The cities of Damascus and Aleppo fell in 1260. Plans for the conquest of Egypt were delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time. The Abbasid army lost to the superior Mongol army, but the invaders were finally stopped by Egyptian Mamluks north of Jerusalem in 1260 at the pivotal Battle of Ain Jalut.

 



Islamic Mongol empires

Islamic Mongol empires (W)

Ultimately, the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, and the Chagatai Khanate - three of the four principal Mongol khanates - embraced Islam. In power in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia and further east, over the rest of the 13th century gradually all converted to Islam. Most Ilkhanid rulers were replaced by the new Mongol power founded by Timur (himself a Muslim), who conquered Persia in the 1360s, and moved against the Delhi Sultanate in India and the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia. Timur's ceaseless conquests were accompanied by displays of brutality matched only by Chinggis Khan, whose example Timur consciously imitated. Samarqand, the cosmopolitan capital of Timur's empire, flourished under his rule as never before, while Iran and Iraq suffered large-scale devastation. The Middle East was still recovering from the Black Death, which may have killed one third of the population in the region. The plague began in China, and reached Alexandria in Egypt in 1347, spreading over the following years to most Islamic areas. The combination of the plague and the wars left the Middle Eastern Islamic world in a seriously weakened position. The Timurid dynasty would found many branches of Islam, including the Mughals of India.

 



Push into central Europe

Push into central Europe (W)

The advance into Europe continued with Mongol invasions of Poland and Hungary. When the western flank of the Mongols plundered Polish cities, a European alliance among the Poles, the Moravians, and the Christian military orders of the Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights and the Templars assembled sufficient forces to halt, although briefly, the Mongol advance at Legnica. The Hungarian army, their Croatian allies and the Templar Knights were beaten by Mongols at the banks of the Sajo River on 11 April 1241. Before Batu's forces could continue on to Vienna and northern Albania, news of Ögedei's death in December 1241 brought a halt to the invasion. As was customary in Mongol military tradition, all princes of Genghis's line had to attend the kurultai to elect a successor. Batu and his western Mongol army withdrew from Central Europe the next year.

 



 

📹 Subutai and the Mongol invasion of Europe (VİDEO)

Subutai and the Mongol invasion of Europe (LINK)

 



 

📹 Why were the Mongols so effective — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Why were the Mongols so effective — Khan Academy (LINK)

 

 



 





  GHENGIS KHAN

🙂 Ghengis Khan

Ghengis Khan (1162-1227) (1206-1227)

 

Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.

  • the adoption of the Uyghur script
  • a genocidal ruler

 

 

Genghis Khan, (born Temüjin, c. 1162-August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

Before Genghis Khan died he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor. Later his grandsons split his empire into khanates. Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia. His descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.

 



Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, and unified the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.

Although known for the brutality of his campaigns and considered by many to have been a genocidal ruler, Genghis Khan is also credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This brought communication and trade from Northeast Asia into Muslim Southwest Asia and Christian Europe, thus expanding the horizons of all three cultural areas.

 



     
Three Invasions Led by Chinggis (LINK)


Chinggis Khan personally led three invasions. In each case, an economic issue was involved.

Tanguts. In 1209, Chinggis set forth on a campaign against the Tanguts, who had established a Chinese-style dynasty known as the Xia, in Nort hwest China, along the old silk roads. The Tanguts had become involved in a trade dispute with the Mongols. Chinggis quickly overwhelmed the Tanguts, received what he wanted in terms of a reduction of the tariffs the Tanguts imposed on trade, and returned to Mongolia. He did not capi talize upon his victory, this time, to expand the Mongols’ territory.

Jin. The second campaign was against the Jin dynasty of North China, which controlled China down to the Yangtze River. The Jin were a people from Manchuria and were actually the ancestors of the Manchus. They too had become invo lved in a trade dispute with the Mongols, and the result was an attack by the Mongols, who desp erately needed the products the Jin produced. By 1215, Chinggis’s troops had seized the area now know n as Beijing and defeated the Jin, forcing them to move their capital south. Chinggis had what he wanted in terms of additional trade – again, he returned to Mongolia.

Central Asia. The third campaign was initiated because of the murder of envoys Chinggis had sent to Central Asia. The shah of Central Asia, not knowing anything about Chinggis or the Mongols, killed the envoys for being insolent enough to request changes in the conditions of tradebetween the Mongols and the Central Asians. From the Mongol standpoint, the murder of the ambassadors was the most heinous of crimes, and this campaign against Central Asia was first and foremost an act of revenge.

 


Diagrammatic Familiy Tree of Genghis Khan

Diagrammatic Family Tree of Genghis Khan (W)

Only selected, prominent members are shown. Khagans (Great Khans) are in bold.

 



Borjigin Family

Borjigin Family (W)

This family tree only lists prominent members of the Borjigin family and does not reach the present. Genghis Khan appears in the middle of the tree, and Kublai Khan appears at the bottom of the tree. The Borjigin family was the royal family of the Mongol Empire, dating back to the 13th and 14th centuries.

(W) A Borjigin is a member of the sub-clan, which started with Yesugei (but the Secret History of the Mongols makes it go back to Yesugei's ancestor Bodonchar, of the Kiyat clan. Yesugei's descendants were thus said to be Kiyat-Borjigin. The senior Borjigid provided ruling princes for Mongolia and Inner Mongolia until the 20th century. The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols and some other peoples of Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, although genetic research has shown that descent from Genghis Khan is common in Central Asia.



 



 



📹 🎝 Mongolian Song — Chingges Khaanii Magtaal (In Praise of Genghis Khan) (VİDEO)

Mongolian Monarchist Song — Chingges Khaanii Magtaal (In Praise of Genghis Khan) (LINK)

Sung with the Traditional Mongolian Throat singing method.

 








🙂 Ögedei Khan

Öğedei Khan (1185-1241) (1227-1241) (W)

Ögedei (c.1185-11 December 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China, Iran, and Central Asia.

Ögedei was elected supreme khan in 1229, according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on the Kherlen River after Genghis' death, although this was never really in doubt as it was Genghis' clear wish that he be succeeded by Ögedei.

During the Mongol conquest of Eastern Persia, Ögedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five-month siege in 1219-20 and joined Jochi who was outside the walls of Urganch. Because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy, Ögedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch. They captured the city in 1221. When the rebellion broke out in southeast Persia and Afghanistan, Ögedei also pacified Ghazni.

 



Ögedei was considered to be his father's favorite son, ever since his childhood. As an adult, he was known for his ability to sway doubters in any debate in which he was involved, simply by the force of his personality. He was a physically big, jovial, and very charismatic man, who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times. He was intelligent and steady in character. His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set.

Ögedei fell victim to alcoholism. Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit, but Ögedei managed to drink anyway. It is commonly told that he did so by vowing to reduce the number of cups he drank a day then had cups twice the size created for his personal use. When he died at dawn on 11 December 1241, after a late-night drinking bout with Abd-ur-Rahman,

 



Coin struck after Empress Toregene who was the wife of Ogedei khan, and the regent of the empire after his death.

 



Death of Genghis Khan and expansion under Ögedei (1227–1241)

Death of Genghis Khan and expansion under Ögedei (1227–1241) (W)

Genghis Khan died on 18 August 1227, by which time the Mongol Empire ruled from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea – an empire twice the size of the Roman Empire or the Muslim Caliphate at their height. Genghis named his third son, the charismatic Ögedei, as his heir. According to Mongol tradition, Genghis Khan was buried in a secret location. The regency was originally held by Ögedei's younger brother Tolui until Ögedei's formal election at the kurultai in 1229.

Among his first actions Ögedei sent troops to subjugate the Bashkirs, Bulgars, and other nations in the Kipchak-controlled steppes. In the east, Ögedei's armies re-established Mongol authority in Manchuria, crushing the Eastern Xia regime and the Water Tatars. In 1230, the great khan personally led his army in the campaign against the Jin dynasty of China. Ögedei's general Subutai captured the capital of Emperor Wanyan Shouxu in the siege of Kaifeng in 1232. The Jin dynasty collapsed in 1234 when the Mongols captured Caizhou, the town to which Wanyan Shouxu had fled. In 1234, three armies commanded by Ögedei's sons Kochu and Koten and the Tangut general Chagan invaded southern China. With the assistance of the Song dynasty the Mongols finished off the Jin in 1234.

Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin. Two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima (劉黑馬, Liu Ni), and the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan. Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols. There were four Han Tumens and three Khitan Tumens, with each Tumen consisting of 10,000 troops. The Yuan dynasty created a Han army 漢軍 from Jin defectors, and another of ex-Song troops called the Newly Submitted Army 新附軍.

In the West Ögedei's general Chormaqan destroyed Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last shah of the Khwarizmian Empire. The small kingdoms in southern Persia voluntarily accepted Mongol supremacy. In East Asia, there were a number of Mongolian campaigns into Goryeo Korea, but Ögedei's attempt to annex the Korean Peninsula met with little success. Gojong, the king of Goryeo, surrendered but later revolted and massacred Mongol darughachis (overseers); he then moved his imperial court from Gaeseong to Ganghwa Island.

 



 








🙂 Güyük Khan

Güyük Khan (1206-1248) (1246-1248 ) (W)

Güyük (or Kuyuk; Mongolian: Гүюг хаан, translit. Güyug khaan Middle Mongolian: ᠭᠦᠶ᠋ᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, güyüg qaγan) (c. March 19, 1206 – April 20, 1248) was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.

Güyük received military training and served as an officer under his grandfather Genghis Khan and later his father Ögedei Khan (after the death of Genghis in 1227).

Güyük participated in the invasion of Russia and Central Europe in 1236-1241 with other Mongol princes, including his cousin Batu and half-brother Kadan.

 

 



Enthronement (1246)

Güyük's enthronement on 24 August 1246, near the Mongol capital at Karakorum, was attended by a large number of foreign ambassadors: the Franciscan friar and envoy of Pope Innocent IV, John of Plano Carpini; Grand Duke Yaroslav II of Vladimir; the incumbents for the throne of Georgia; the brother of the king of Armenia and historian, Sempad the Constable; the future Seljuk Sultan of Rum, Kilij Arslan IV; and ambassadors of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta’sim and Ala ud din Masud of the Delhi Sultanate.

When the papal envoy John of Plano Carpini protested Mongol attacks on the Catholic kingdoms of Europe, Güyük stated that these people had slain Mongol envoys in the time of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. He also claimed that "from the rising of the sun to its setting, all the lands have been made subject to the Great Khan", proclaiming an explicit ideology of world conquest.

The death of Güyük had a profound effect on history. Güyük wanted to turn the Mongol power against Europe. Because of Güyük's premature death, Mongol family politics caused the Mongol efforts to be directed against southern China, which was eventually conquered in the time of Kublai Khan.

 



   

Letter of the Great Khan Güyük Güyük Khan to Pope Innocent IV, Persian version, brought to Europe by John de Carpini.

 



 








🙂 Möngke Khan

Möngke Khan (1209-1259) (1251-1259) (W)

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

  • The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (brother of the khagan Möngke Khan)

  • Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom

  • executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents

  • The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age



The Mongol ruler Hulagu in Baghdad interns the Caliph of Baghdad among his treasures.

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (or Hulegu Khan), brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Iran.

Hulagu began his campaign in Iran with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, who lost their stronghold of Alamut. He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids’ vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. The Mongols executed Al-Musta’sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements.

 



 

Möngke (Mongolian: ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ Möngke / Мөнх Mönkh; Chinese: 蒙哥; pinyin: Ménggē; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Dali.

Möngke, "eternal" in the Mongolian language.

Möngke also engaged in hand-to-hand combat during the Mongol invasion of Rus'.

The Mongols captured the Alan capital Maghas and massacred its inhabitants.

He also participated in the Siege of Kiev (1240). Möngke was apparently taken by the splendour of Kiev and offered the city surrender, but his envoys were killed. After Batu's army joined Möngke's soldiers, they sacked the city.

 


The Mongol Empire during the reign of Möngke Khan (r.1251-59)

Religious policy

During Möngke's reign, Louis IX of France sent William of Rubruck as a diplomat seeking an alliance with the Mongols against the Muslims. By that time Möngke's khatun Oghul-Khoimish was already dead. After making the French envoy wait for many months, Möngke officially received William Rubruck on May 24, 1254. Rubruck informed him that he had come to spread the word of Jesus. Then he stayed to help the Christians in Karakorum and attended debates among rival religions organized by the Mongols. Möngke Khan summoned William Rubruck to send him back home in 1255. He told Rubruck:

Ambassadors from the Latin Empire and the Empire of Nicaea came to the Mongol court to negotiate terms with Möngke Khan as well. In 1252 King Hethum I of Lesser Armenia began his journey to Mongolia. He brought many sumptuous presents and met with Möngke at Karakorum. He had an audience with Möngke on September 13, 1254, advised the Khagan on Christian matters in Western Asia, and obtained from Möngke documents guaranteeing the inviolability of his person and his kingdom. Hethum asked the Khagan and his officials to convert to Christianity. In reply, Möngke explained that he wished his subjects to truly worship the Messiah, but he could not force them to change their religion.

Möngke drafted his own decrees and kept close watch on their revision. Möngke forbade practices of extravagant costs of the Borjigin and non-Borjigid nobles. He also limited gifts to the princes, converting them into regular salaries, and made the merchants subject to taxes. Möngke limited notorious abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the business of the merchants who were sponsored by the Mongols. ... The generals and princes (including his son) who allowed their troops to plunder civilians without authorization were repeatedly punished by Möngke Khan. He used North Chinese, Muslim, and Uyghur officials. The Khagan's chief judge (darughachi) was the Jait-Jalayir official Menggeser, while the chief scribe was the Bulghai of the Keraites, who was a Christian. Nine of the 16 chief provincial officials of Möngke Khan were certainly Muslims. He reappointed Güyük's three officials: Mahmud Yalavach in China, Masud Beg in Turkestan, and Arghun Aqa of the Oirat in Iran. Möngke separated the position of the great judge at court from that of chief scribe.

In 1253, Möngke established the Department of Monetary affairs to control the issuance of paper money in order to eliminate the over-issue of the currency by Mongol and non-Mongol nobles since the reign of Great Khan Ögedei. His authority established united measure based on sukhe or silver ingot, however, the Mongols allowed their foreign subjects to mint coins in the denominations and use weight they traditionally used. During the reigns of Ögedei, Güyük, and Möngke, Mongol coinage increased with gold and silver coinage in Central Asia and copper and silver coins in the Caucasus, Iran, and Bolghar.

"Struck by the Georgian King David in the name of his overlord Möngke, by the power of Heaven" (Persian, dated 1253)


Original description: ISLAMIC, Mongols. Great Khans. Möngke. AH 649-658 / AD 1251-1260. AR Dirhem (2.82 g, 6h). Tiflis mint. Struck under Davit VII Ulu, King of Gerogia; Dated AH 650 (AD 1252/3). Legend citing Möngke as overlord in three lines across field; formula “by the power of Heaven” above / Name and title of Davit in three lines across field; mint below. Nyamaa, p. 136; Kapanadze 86; Album -. VF, some deposits.

Conquest of the Middle East

When Möngke called a kurultai to prepare the next conquest in 1252/53, the Sultanate of Rum and the Lu'lu'id dynasty of Mosul were subject to the Mongol Empire. The Ayyubid ruler of Mayyafariqin, Malik Kamil, and his cousin in Aleppo and future Sultan, Malik Nasir Yusuf, sent envoys to Möngke Khan, who imposed darughachis (overseers) and a census on the Diyarbakır area.

Some sources say the Ismaili-Hashashin's imam Alaud-Din dispatched hundreds of assassins to kill Möngke in his palace. Shams-ud-Din, the chief judge of Qazvin, had denounced the menace of the Ismailis. Hence, Möngke decided to exterminate the sect. Möngke ordered the Jochid and Chagataid families to join Hulagu's expedition to Iran and strengthened the army with 1,000 siege engineers from China. Möngke's armies, led by his brother Hulagu, launched an attack on the Ismailis in Iran, crushing the last major resistance there by the end of 1256. The Hashashin Imam Rukn ad-Din requested permission to travel to Karakorum to meet with the Great Khan Möngke himself. Hulagu sent him on the long journey to Mongolia, but once the Imam arrived there, Möngke criticized his action and dismissed him. Rukn ad-Din was killed in uncertain circumstances.

For the Abbasids, envoys from Baghdad attended the coronation of Möngke in 1251 to come to terms with the Mongols. However, Möngke told Hulagu that if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused to meet him in person, then Hulagu was to destroy Baghdad. Hulagu then advanced on Iraq, taking the capital at Baghdad in 1258. Hulagu sent Möngke some of his war booty with the news of his conquest of Baghdad. Möngke dispatched a Chinese messenger to congratulate him for his victory. Outraged by the attack on the caliphate, Malik Kamil revolted, killing his Mongol overseer. Hulagu's son Yoshumut invested Mayyafariqin and executed Malik Kamil. From there they moved into Syria in 1259, took Damascus and Aleppo, and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Fearing the Mongol advance, the Ayyubid Sultan Malik Nasir Yusuf refused to see Hulagu and fled. However, the Mongols captured him at Gaza.

 

 








🙂 Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan



Kublai was the fifth Khagan(Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls). reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War lasting until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire.

In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China, Korea, and some adjacent areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China.

 



Kublai succeeded in building a powerful empire, created an academy, offices, trade ports and canals and sponsored science and the arts. The record of the Mongols lists 20,166 public schools created during Kublai's reign. Having achieved real or nominal dominion over much of Eurasia, and having successfully conquered China, Kublai was in a position to look beyond China. However, Kublai's costly invasions of Vietnam (1258), Sakhalin (1264), Burma (1277), Champa (1282), and Vietnam again (1285) secured only the vassal status of those countries. Mongol invasions of Japan (1274 and 1280), the third invasion of Vietnam (1287–8), and the invasion of Java (1293) failed.

 



Mongol invasions of Japan

Mongol invasions of Japan (W)

The Mongol invasions of Japan (元寇 Genkō), which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom. Ultimately a failure, the invasion attempts are of macro-historical importance because they set a limit on Mongol expansion and rank as nation-defining events in the history of Japan.

The Mongol invasions are considered a precursor to early modern warfare. One of the most notable technological innovations during the war was the use of explosive, hand-thrown bombs.

The invasions are referred to in many works of fiction, and are the earliest events for which the word kamikaze ("divine wind") is widely used, originating in reference to the two typhoons faced by the Mongol fleets.

 



 








  The Division of the Mongol Empire

The Division of the Mongol Empire

The Division of the Mongol Empire (W)



Map of the Mongol Empire c. 1300, after its four subdivisions into the: Golden Horde (yellow) Chagatai Khanate (gray) Great YuanYuan Dynasty (green) Ilkhanate (purple). Credits (Partially based on Atlas of World History (2007) - The World 1200-1300, map)

 



 

Golden Horde

Golden Horde (W)

  • after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate
  • The Golden Horde was the longest lasting of the four successor qanates


Golden Horde 1300

The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Russian: Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.

After the death of Batu Khan (the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312–1341), who adopted Islam. The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate.

The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited (1381-1395) under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined steadily in power. At the start of the 15th century, the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466, it was being referred to simply as the "Great Horde". Within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the "Tatar Yoke" at the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively.


Disintegration (1420–1480)

Disintegration (1420-1480)

After 1419, Olug Moxammat became Khan of the Golden Horde. However, his authority was limited to the lower banks of the Volga where Tokhtamysh's other son Kepek reigned. Together with the Khan claimant Dawlat Berdi, they were beaten by Baraq of the Uzbeks in 1421. The latter was assassinated in 1427 and Olug Moxammat reenthroned. The Lithuanian monarch Svitrigaila supported Olugh Moxammat's rival Sayid Ahmad I, who in 1433 gained the Golden Horde throne. Vasili II of Russia also supported Sayid Ahmad in order to weaken Olugh Moxammat who established the Khanate of Kazan and made Moscow a tributary. Sayid supported Švitrigaila during the Lithuanian Civil War (1431–1435).

The Horde (Great Horde) broke up into separate Khanates:

  1. Tyumen Khanate (1468, later Khanate of Sibir)
  2. Khanate of Kazan (1438) – Qasim Khanate (1452)
  3. Khanate of Crimea (1441)
  4. Nogai Horde (1440s)
  5. Kazakh Khanate (1456)
  6. Khanate of Astrakhan (1466)

In the summer of 1470 (other sources give 1469), the last prominent Khan, Ahmed, organized an attack against Moldavia, the Kingdom of Poland, and Lithuania. By August 20, the Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great defeated the Tatars at the battle of Lipnic.

In 1474 and 1476, Ahmed insisted that Ivan III should recognize Russia's vassal dependence on the Horde. However, the correlation of forces was not in the Horde's favor. In 1480, Ahmed organized another military campaign against Moscow, which would result in the Horde's failure. Russia finally freed itself from the Horde, thus ending over 250 years of Tatar-Mongol control. On 6 January 1481, the Khan was killed by Ibak Khan, the prince of Tyumen, and Nogays at the mouth of the Donets River.

 



 



Chagatai Khanate

Chagatai Khanate (W)

  • lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century


The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.

The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanatethat comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304, but became split into two parts in the mid-14th century: the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Moghulistan Khanate.

At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China.

The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, although the western half of the khanate was lost to Timur's empire by 1370. The eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timur's successors, the Timurid dynasty. Finally, in the 17th century, the remaining Chagatai domains fell under the theocratic regime of Afaq Khoja and his descendants, the Khojas, who ruled Xinjiang under Dzungar and Manchu overlordships consecutively.

 




Ilkhanate

Ilkhanate (roughly 1100-1500) (W)

  • after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate


Ilkhanate at its greatest extent

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (Persian: ایلخانان‎, Ilxānān; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan, and the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam.

The Art of the Ilkhanid Period (1256-1353)


(LINK)
Although Mongol conquests initially brought devastation and affected the balance of artistic production, in a short period of time, the control of most of Asia by the Mongols — the so-called Pax Mongolica — created an environment of tremendous cultural exchange. Following the conversion to Islam of Il-Khan Mahmud Ghazan (r. 1295-1304) in 1295 and the establishment of his active cultural policy in support of his new religion, Islamic art flourished once again. East Asian elements absorbed into the existing Perso-Islamic repertoire created a new artistic vocabulary, one that was emulated from Anatolia to India, profoundly affecting artistic production.

 



Yuan dynasty

Yuan dynasty (1368-) (W)

  • established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan)


Yuan dynasty circa 1294

The Yuan dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279. His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368, after which the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty. Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language (i.e. Mongolian) and the 'Phags-pa script.

The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In the Proclamation of the Dynastic Name, Kublai announced the name of the new dynasty as Great Yuan and claimed the succession of former Chinese dynasties from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the Tang dynasty.

In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate. As such, the Yuan was also sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the western khans, their subservience was nominal and each continued its own separate development.

 



📹 Mongol Southwest Asia (VİDEO)

Mongol Southwest Asia (LINK)

This video looks at what made the Mongols successful and focuses a bit on syncretism in the Ilkhanate.

 



 





  The Secret History of the Mongols

Urgunge Onon

Urgunge Onon

THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE MONGOLS
THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CHINGGIS KHAN
TRANSLATED, ANNOTATED, AND WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

Urgunge Onon

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO THE
MONGOLS
OF ALL TIMES, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE




     

As a Shamanist myself, I keep three things in the forefront of my mind: we humans, having long been ruled by logic, including doctrine, should now rule logic; I am the centre of the universe, as you are, too, and as is every human being; and I shall face the challenge in life, as you will too. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 16.)


 

The word ‘Mongol’ was used as a tribal name until 1206, when Temüjin (Chinggis Qahan) was elevated to Great Qahan. The name then became synonymous with the state until 1271, when the Great Qahan Qubilai introduced the name Yuan Dynasty. Since then, ‘Mongol’ has been used as a general name for the Mongol people. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 1.)

Lamaism became popular among the Mongols during the reign of Qubilai Qahan (1215-1294). (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 1.)

Temüjin, the personal name of Chinggis Qahan, was born on the sixteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the year 1162 into the family of a tribal leader. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 2.)

Mongol society developed in three stages. It rose on the basis of a hunting economy in the forest regions to the north of the Mongol heartland. During this period was created the title mergen, meaning ‘a good hunter’ or ‘an intelligent person’. When the Mongols emerged from the forests, they created a new title, ba’atur, or ‘hero’, which shows that the distinct Mongol tribes of the day were at war with one another and were probably engaged in a nomadic way of life. Around the eighth century, two new titles appeared: noyan, meaning ‘lord’, and qan, usually transcribed in English as ‘khan’. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 2.)

The Mongols were a small nomadic tribe in the area of Ergön2 and kölen Na’ur.3 This mongol tribe moved to the Kelüren,4 Onon, and Tula5 districts around the years following 970,6 and was one of the many tribal peoples shifting about nomadically during this period. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 3.)

2 The Ergüne River.
3 Khölön Buyur Lake.
4 Kherlen.
5 Tu’ula.
6 For this date, see Hua-sai and Dugarjab 1984, p. 271, n. 3.

Temüjin was first elevated as Chinggis Qahan by his tribe, in 1189, and confirmed as such by all the Mongols in 1206, at a great gathering of Mongol nobles and highranking commanders of the Mongol cavalry on the Kelüren River. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 4.)

The late Professor Owen Lattimore maintained that Chinggis Qahan was the greatest strategist the world has ever produced. He wrote: ‘As a military genius, able to take over new techniques and improve on them, Chinggis stands above Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar, Attila and Napoleon.’ (More recently, the Washington Post named Chinggis Qahan its Man of the Millennium, describing him as ‘an apostle of extremes who embodies the half-civilised, half-savage duality of the human race’. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 5.)

Between the start of his ascendancy and his death in 1227, he killed none of the generals with whom he built his empire, not one of whom betrayed him. (In this respect, empire-builders of the twentieth century would have done well to learn from him.) (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 7.)

It is generally assumed that Temüjin was illiterate, but there is no written evidence to prove this assumption. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 7.)

Four items of Mongol law illustrate the character of Mongol society under Chinggis. Any person who eats in front of another without offering that person food must be executed. Anyone caught stealing anything of value may be freed after paying back nine times’ its worth. Anyone guilty of hurting a horse’s eyes must be executed. And anyone found indulging in homosexual practices should be executed. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 11.)

Reports by non-Mongols of the Mongol campaigns were often grossly prejudiced and exaggerated. According to one, in 1225 the Mongols killed 1,600,000 people in a small city called Herat to the southwest of Samarkand, capital of the territory; another puts the death toll even higher, at 2,400,000. But these reports can hardly be true, for at the time even Samarkand had a population of no more than 200,000. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 12.)

The Mongol Empire was not just the biggest empire of its time, but it was the first Asian empire with a parliament since as early as 1206; one might even say that this parliament had its Lords and Commoners. In this respect, the Mongol Assembly was unique in the history of East and Central Asia. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 15.)

The Mongols were known as the Tartars in eastern Europe, especially in Russia. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 16.)

Linguistically, non-Dawr Mongols have been influenced by the Orkhon Turks, who reached Mongol lands in the sixth century and spread elements of their Orkhon dialect to the Mongols. (Urgunge Onon, 2001, s. 16.)

 

 








  The Laws of Genghis Khan

Yassa (Cengiz Han Yasaları)

Yassa (Cengiz Han Yasaları) (W)

Cengiz Han Yasaları

Yasser (alternatively: Yasa, Yasaq, Jazag, Zasag, Mongolian: Их засаг, Yehe Zasag) was a secret written code of law created by Genghis Khan. The word Yassa translates into “order” or “decree.” It was the de facto law of the Mongol Empire even though the "law" was kept secret and never made public. The Yassa seems to have its origin as decrees issued in war times. Later, these decrees were codified and expanded to include cultural and life-style conventions. By keeping the Yassa secret, the decrees could be modified and used selectively. It is believed that the Yassa was supervised by Genghis Khan himself and his stepbrother Shihihutag who was then high judge (in Mongolian: улсын их заргач) of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan appointed his second son Chagatai (later Chagatai Khan) to oversee the execution of the laws.

Overview

The Yassa decrees were thought to be comprehensive and specific, although no Mongolian scroll or codex has been found. There are records of excerpts among many chronicles including Makrizi, Vartang, and ibn Batuta, among others. Moreover, copies may have been discovered in Korea as well. The absence of any physical document is historically problematic. Historians are left with secondary sources, conjecture and speculation, which describes much of the content of this overview. Historical certainty about the Yassa is weak compared to the much older Code of Hammurabi18th century BCE or the Edicts of Ashoka, 3rd century BCE. The latter were carved for all to see on stone plinths, 12 to 15 meters high, which were located throughout Ashoka's empire (today's India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan). The Yassa, thought to be written in the Uigur Mongolian script and scribed on scrolls, was preserved in secret archives and known only to and read only by the royal family. Beyond being a code of laws, the Yassa may have included philosophical, spiritual, and mystical elements, and thus may have been thought of as a quasi-sacred or magic text.

The exoteric aspect of Yassa outlined laws for various members of the Mongol community such as soldiers, officers, and doctors. The Yassa aimed at three things: obedience to Genghis Khan, a binding together of the nomad clans, and the merciless punishment of wrongdoing. It concerned itself with people, not property. Unless a man actually confessed, he was not judged guilty. The purpose of many decrees was probably to eliminate social and economic disputes among the Mongols and future allied peoples. Among the rules were no stealing of livestock from other people, sharing food with travelers, no abduction of women from other families, and no defection among soldiers. It represented a day-to-day set of rules for people under Mongol control that was strictly enforced.

The Yassa also addressed and reflected Mongol cultural and lifestyle norms. Death via decapitation was the most common punishment save for when the offender was of noble blood, in which case the offender was killed without shedding blood. Even minor offenses were punishable by death. For example, a soldier would be put to death if he did not pick up something that fell from the person in front of him. Those favored by the Khan were often given preferential treatment within the system of law and were allowed several chances before being punished.

As Genghis Khan had set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, people under his rule were free to worship as they pleased, as long as the laws of the Yassa were observed.

 


 



Conjectural laws

Conjectural laws (W)

Conjectural laws

Many sources provide conjectures about the actual laws of the Yassa. The Yassa was so influential that other cultures appropriated and adapted portions of it, or reworked it for ends of negative propaganda. (For instance, the number of offenses for which the death penalty was given was famous among contemporaries of the Yassa.) However, Harold Lamb's Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men quotes a translation by François Pétis de la Croix. Although unable to come upon a complete list of the laws, he compiled several from Persian and Arabic chroniclers, Fras Rubruquis, and Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, among other sources. Those laws are listed here:

  1. “It is ordered to believe that there is only one God, creator of heaven and earth, who alone gives life and death, riches and poverty as pleases Him — and who has over everything an absolute power, a different version states that there was liberty to worship God in whatever way suitable (Plantagenet Somerset Fry).
  2. He [Chingis-Khan] ordered that all religions were to be respected and that no preference was to be shown to any of them. All this he commanded in order that it might be agreeable to Heaven. {al-Makrizi}
  3. Leaders of a religion, lawyers, physicians, scholars, preachers, monks, persons who are dedicated to religious practice, the Muezzin (this latter appearing to be from the later period of Khubilai Khan unless this was further translated there had been no specific reference made to any Muezzin and cities including mosques were levelled), physicians and those who bathe the bodies of the dead are to be freed from public charges. {Al-Makrizi}
  4. It is forbidden under penalty of death that anyone, whoever he be, shall be proclaimed emperor unless he has been elected previously by the princes, khans, officers, and other Mongol nobles in a general council.
  5. Forbidden to ever make peace with a monarch, a prince or a people who have not submitted. [It is apparent they presented certain proposals to the different states or kingdoms that existed that they should participate with them.]
  6. The ruling that divides men of the army into tens, hundreds, thousands, and ten thousands is to be maintained. He put leaders, (princes/bogatyrs/generals/noyans) at the head of the troops and appointed commanders of thousands, hundreds, and tens. {al-Makrizi} This arrangement serves to raise an army in a short time, and to form the units of commands.
  7. The moment a campaign begins, each soldier must receive his arms from the hand of the officer who has them in charge. The soldier must keep them in good order, and have them inspected by his officer before a battle. He ordered his successors to personally examine the troops and their armament before going to battle, to supply the troops with everything they needed for the campaign and to survey everything even to needle and thread, and if any of the soldiers lacked a necessary thing that soldier was to be punished. {al-Makrizi}
  8. Forbidden, under death penalty, to pillage the enemy before the general commanding gives permission; but after this permission is given the soldier must have the same opportunity as the officer, and must be allowed to keep what he has carried off, provided he has paid his share to the receiver for the emperor.
  9. He ordered that soldiers be punished for negligence; and hunters who let an animal escape during a community hunt he ordered to be beaten with sticks and in some cases to be put to death. {Mirhond or Mirkhwand} (may appear excluded from some accounts, can be a more restricted Siberian-originating practice, but seems genuine).
  10. To keep the men of the army exercised, a great hunt shall be held every winter. On this account, it is forbidden any man of the empire to kill from the month of March to October, deer, bucks, roe-bucks, hares, wild ass and some birds.
  11. Forbidden, to cut the throats of animals slain for food; When an animal is to be eaten, its feet must be tied, its belly ripped open and its heart squeezed in the hand until the animal dies; then its meat may be eaten; but if anyone slaughter an animal after the Mohammedan fashion, he is to be himself slaughtered. {al-Makrizi} [Women were not supposed to slaughter animals this way, possibly due to being weaker, there is no prohibition in the Yassa.]
  12. It is permitted to eat the blood and entrails of animals though this was forbidden before now.
  13. Every man who does not go to war must work for the empire, without reward, for a certain time.
  14. The man in whose possession a stolen horse is found must return it to its owner and add nine horses of the same kind: if he is unable to pay this fine, his children must be taken instead of the horses, and if he have no children, he himself shall be slaughtered like a sheep. {al-Makrizi} In the versions where the provisions appear the method of execution is likened to sheep therefore as in accordance it may be presumed with the law for the slaughter of animals [it is unclear in another version as of when their bodies should be cut in two parts] For lesser thefts the punishment shall be, according to the value of the thing stolen, a number of blows of a staff-seven, seventeen, twenty-seven, up to seven hundred. But this bodily punishment may be avoided by paying nine times the worth of the thing stolen. [Another older version mentions no punishment for thefts under the value mentioned, it is not so specified.]
  15. No subject of the empire may take a Mongol for servant or slave. Every man, except in rare cases, must join the army.
  16. Whoever gives food or clothing to a captive without the permission of his captor is to be put to death. {al-Makrizi}
  17. Whoever finds a runaway slave or captive and does not return him to the person to whom he belongs is to be put to death. {al-Makrizi} The word translated as "slave" means "captive taken for labor", the opponents of the Mongols were usually regarded by them as facing a punishment for resisting the universal principles/the Mongol system, or what it aspired to via its codes and measures, the concept was passed on also to their descendants, based on concepts of sedentary populations who degrade the people and criminal tribes, criminal already often simply by their concept of resisting to the above-referred Mongol system, the word is "bo´ol", linked to modern "boolt", band for tying, "booch" (ch as in chaver in Hebrew) is in the modern Mongolian both associated with the type of binding and process used in capture as a verb where it is translated as meaning "slave". However other lands differ in meaning of "slave" though allied.
  18. The law required the payment of a bride price. Though not mentioned in other sources, it may be that this is a dowry reference, given that the bride price is usually a custom restricted to specific Mongol tribes (but that may have appeared later). This may have been practiced earlier, while Chinggis Khan himself had never followed this custom, nor is it much (if at all) referred to in the Nuvs Tobchaan Mongolyn. The bride price might have been considered as a useful deterrent to trade in women, or simply a modernizing experimental inversion from a dowry; however, the Tatar neighbors traded in women (which was prohibited it is reported by the Yassa) and that marriage between the first and second degrees of kinship is forbidden. A man may marry two sisters, or have several concubines; however, under Buddhism and shamanism there was a progressive tendency for a marriage ceremony. Some Buddhist forms revived some casualty without marriage. The women should attend to the care of property, buying and selling at their pleasure, specifically in another version "Os Mongóis" by a Portuguese publisher of summarized histories of culture, the law is quoted as defining trade as their sphere, there is no exclusion from military participation, but this was reported more popular among Tatars as according to Islamic law which was only possible to follow via Sufism. Men should occupy themselves only with hunting and war.
  19. Children born of a concubine are to be considered as legitimate, and receive their share of the heritage according to the disposition of it made by the father. The distribution of property is to be carried out on the basis of the senior son receiving more than the junior, the younger son inheriting the household of the father. The seniority of children depends upon the rank of their mother; one of the wives must always be the senior, this being determined chiefly by the time of her marriage. After the death of his father, a son may dispose of the father's wives, all except his mother; he may marry them or give them in marriage to others. All except the legal heirs are strictly forbidden to make use of any of the property of the deceased. {Vermadsky}
  20. An adulterer is to be put to death without any regard as to whether he is married or not. {al-Makrizi} The Yasa prescribes these rules: to love one another, not to commit adultery, not to steal, not to give false witness, not to be a traitor, and to respect old people and beggars. Whoever violates these commands is put to death. {Mahak'ia] Here are the laws of God which they call Iasax which were given to them [g288]: first, that they love one another; second, that they not commit adultery; not steal; not bear false witness; not betray anyone; and that they honor the aged and the poor. And should perpetrators of such crimes be found among them, they should be killed." {Grigor of Akanc}
  21. If two families wish to be united in marriage and have only young children, the marriage of these children is allowed, if one be a boy and the other a girl. If the children are dead, the marriage contract may still be drawn up.
  22. It is forbidden to bathe or wash garments in running water during thunder.
  23. Whoever intentionally lies, or practices sorcery, or spies upon the behavior of others, or intervenes between the two parties in a quarrel to help the one against the other is also to be put to death. [al-Makrizi] (Intentional liars being included in this section in one of the versions however it is not as definable in practice, and may refer to methodical lying which also appears in areas of earlier Asiatic influence in Europe, but becomes particularly defined together with a Germanic version which may have legal undertones, and a Latin practicality, it is a version intended to cause grievous harm to people and damage them and further particularly as a means of sabotage, but this is not completely clear. It can also have an aspect of those who practice lying with frivolous purposes.)
  24. Officers and chieftains who fail in their duty, or do not come at the summons of the Khan are to be slain, especially in remote districts. If their offense be less grave, they must come in person before the Khan."
  25. Whoever is guilty of sodomy is also to be put to death [al-Makrizi]
  26. Urinating in water or ashes is punishable by death. [al-Makrizi]
  27. It was forbidden to wash clothing until completely worn out. [al-Makrizi]
  28. He forbade his people to eat food offered by another until the one offering the food tasted of it himself, even though one be a prince and the other a captive; he forbade them to eat anything in the presence of another without having invited him to partake of the food; he forbade any man to eat more than his comrades, and to step over a fire on which food was being cooked or a dish from which people were eating. [al-Makrizi]
  29. One may not dip their hands into water and must instead use a vessel for the drawing of water. [al-Makrizi]
  30. When the wayfarer passes by a group of people eating, he must eat with them without asking for permission, and they must not forbid him in this. [al-Makrizi]
  31. It was forbidden to show preference to a sect, or to put emphasis on a word. When talking to someone, do not speak to them with a title, calling them by their name. This applies to even the Khan himself. [al-Makrizi]
  32. At the beginning of each year, all the people must present their daughters to the Khan so he may choose some of them for himself and his children. [al-Makrizi]

 

  • Also that minors not higher than a cart wheel may not be killed in war.
  • Also abduction of women and sexual assault and or abuse of women was forbidden punishable by death.
  • In cases of murder (punishment for murder) one could ransom himself by paying fines which were: for a Mohammedan - 40 golden coins (Balysh); and for a Chinese - one donkey. [Mirhod or Mirkhwand]
  • The Khan established a postal system so that he might quickly learn about events of the empire.
  • He ordered his son Chagatai to see that the Yasa was observed. [al-Makrizi]

 

Verkhovensky reports that the Yassa begins with an exhortation to honor men of all nations based on their virtues. This pragmatic admonition is borne out by the ethnic mixture created by Genghis Khan in the Mongolian medieval army for purpose of unity (Ezent Gueligen Mongolyn), the United Mongol Warriors. The origin of the word Mongol, "mong", means "brave". Thus, at the time, it may have meant as much an army of "the brave", as an army from or made up of people from Mongolia.


 








📹 Myn Bala (Bin Bala) Kazak Filmi (VİDEO KLİP)

Myn Bala (Bin Bala) / Kazak Filmi (LINK)

 








  📷 Resimler

Resimler

Zwei Jurten in der mongolischen Steppe

Zwei Jurten in der mongolischen Steppe (1994) (W)



Göçebe halklarda çadıra bir bağlılık duygusu vardır. Bu kentler ile ilişkilerini problemli kılar.

“Do not become sedentary, for sovereignty resides in those who practice the nomadic Türkmen way of life.” These are the reported words of Qara ʿUthmān Yülük (d. 1435), the founder of the Aqqoyunlu Türkmen state in Eastern Anatolia.1

1 Yazicioglu Ali, fol. 17a, quoted by Woods 1999, 17: “Olmasın ki oturak olasız ki beylik Türkmenlik ve yörüklük edenlerde kalur”.

 

Mongol women in traditional dress

Mongol women in traditional dress (W)

Kalmyks, 19th century

Kalmyks, 19th century (W)


Mongol Empress

Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281-1311) (W)

Ancient sources described Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in certain geographical regions, causing great demographic changes in Asia. According to the works of the Iranian historian Rashid al-Din (1247-1318), the Mongols killed more than 700,000 people in Merv and more than a million in Nishapur. The total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine. Population exchanges did also in some cases occur but depends as of when.
...
China reportedly suffered a drastic decline in population during the 13th and 14th centuries. Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. (W)

Buryat Mongols

Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840) (W)

A 20th-century Mongol Khan

A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren (W)

Buryat Mongol shaman

Buryat Mongol shaman (W)

 








  📹 VİDEO

📹 The Sound of the Mongolian Language (VİDEO)

The Sound of the Mongolian Language (LINK)

Mongolian (монгол хэл) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. The number of speakers across all its dialects may be 5.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents of Mongolia and many of the Mongolian residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In Mongolia, the Khalkha dialect, written in Cyrillic (and at times in Latin for social networking), is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional Mongolian script. In the each other discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha Mongolian (i.e., the standard written language as formalized in the writing conventions and in the school grammar), but much of what is to be said is also valid for vernacular (spoken) Khalkha and for other Mongolian dialects, especially Chakhar. Some classify several other Mongolic languages like Buryat and Oirat as dialects of Mongolian, but this classification is not in line with the current international standard. Music: "Mongolian Steppe Melody"

 



 

📹 Conquests Genghis Khan (VİDEO)

Conquests Genghis Khan (LINK)

 



📹 Growth of the Mongol Empire, 1206-1294 (VİDEO)

Growth of the Mongol Empire, 1206-1294 (LINK)

 



📹 The Mongol Conquests / Every Year (VİDEO)

The Mongol Conquests / Every Year (LINK)

 



📹 Genghis Khan Explained In 8 Minutes (VİDEO)

Genghis Khan Explained In 8 Minutes (LINK)

 



📹 Expedition of Subutai and Jebe — Battle of Kalka 1223 (VİDEO)

Expedition of Subutai and Jebe — Battle of Kalka 1223 (LINK)

While the invasion of the Khwarezmian Empire was going on, Genghis Khan sent his best generals Subutai and Jebe to chase down the Shah of Khwarezm Muhammad II. Their raid into modern-day Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia was lucrative, as they razed and plundered many cities, but they didn't stop there and moved into the modern Russia and Ukraine, where they fought a loose alliance of the Rus princedoms and the Kipchaks (Cuman/Pecheneg/Polovtsi) in the famous battle of Kalka in 1233. This episode also describes the dynastic situation in the Mongol empire after the death of Genghis Khan.

 



📹 Fall of Khwarezm — Battles of Parwan and Indus (VİDEO)

Fall of Khwarezm — Battles of Parwan and Indus (LINK)

After creating their empire, and subjugating Western Xia (Xi Xia) and the northern part of the Jin domain, the Mongols of Genghis Khan started looking towards the west. The actions of the ruler of the Western Liao (Qara Khitai) Kuchlug and the shah of the Khwarezmian empire Ala ad-Din Muhammad II gave the great khan a reason to attack Central Asia and Eastern Iran. Prosperous cities were turned to rubble and the population was massacred during a three-year campaign led by Genghis, Ogedei, Jochi, Chagatai, Tolui, Jebe, and Subutai. The son of Muhammad II - Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was able to resist the invaders in the battles of Parwan and Indus river... The Mongol invasions were just starting...

 








  Notlar

Notlar

Notlar

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire / by Don Nardo. © 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning

  • The Secret History of the Mongols. It is called “secret” because it was extremely difficult to decipher and for a long time remained mysterious. When the work was finally decoded and translated in the 1980s, it was clear that it had been composed by an anonymous Mongol author in the years immediately following Genghis Khan’s death in the early thirteenth century.
  • In 1990 the Soviet Union, ruled by a repressive Communist regime, collapsed. And Mongolia, which had long been under Soviet rule and cut off from the outside world, was suddenly free. Scholars from the United States and other Western nations hurried into that country and for the first time in the modern era began studying the Mongolians, their culture, and their historical sites and heritage up close.
  • As Weatherford points out, "Although he arose out of the ancient tribal past, Genghis Khan shaped the modern world of commerce, communication, and large secular
    [nonreligious] states more than any other individual. He was the thoroughly modern man in his mobilized and professional warfare and his commitment to global commerce and the rule of international secular law. … Like the tingling vibrations of a bell that we can still sense well after it has stopped ringing, Genghis Khan has long passed from the scene, but his influence continues to reverberate through our time.5


 














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