Central Asia — Turkic Languages
CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Central Asia — Turkic Languages


  Map of Turkic Languages
Map of Turkic Languages


  VERY Detailed Map Of Turkic Languages / Mehrdad Izady
VERY Detailed Map Of Turkic Languages / Mehrdad Izady


  🗺️ World Language Families


  🗺️ Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages

obsolete language-family;
since the 1960s, the hypothesis has been widely rejected.

🗺️ Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages

Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages (W)

  • Deutsch: Karte der geographischen Verteilung der Altaischen Sprachen, der Turksprachen und der Uralischen Sprachen
  • English: Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages
  • Türkçe: Altay, Türk ve Ural dilleri haritası

Ural-Altaic languages

Ural-Altaic languages (W)

Ural–Altaic, Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, also known as Turanian, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and the widely discredited Altaic languages.

Originally suggested in the 18th century, the hypothesis remained debated into the mid-20th century, often with disagreements exacerbated by pan-nationalist agendas. It had many proponents in Britain. Since the 1960s, the hypothesis has been widely rejected. From the 1990s, interest in a relationship between the Altaic, Indo-European and Uralic families has been revived in the context of the Eurasiatic linguistic superfamily hypothesis. Bomhard (2008) treats Uralic, Altaic and Indo-European as Eurasiatic daughter groups on equal footing.

Both Ural-Altaic and Altaic remain relevant — and still insufficiently understood — concepts of areal linguistics and typology, even if in a genetic sense these terms might be considered as obsolete.


  Ethnic Groups in Central Asia

🗺️ Major Ethnic Groups in Central Asia

Major Ethnic Groups in Central Asia (W)

Major Ethnic Groups in Central Asia

An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, and in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, and Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may also be included. The Tibetans and Ladakhi are also included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan.

There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, and a village 200 miles (320 km) north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China.


  Turkic Languages

🗺️ Turkic Languages by Sub-Family

Turkic Languages by Sub-Family (W)

Turkic Languages by Sub-Family


Turkic languages

Turkic languages (W)

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia. The Turkic languages originated in a region of East Asia spanning Western China to Mongolia, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken, according to one estimate, around 2,500 years ago, from where they expanded to Central Asia and farther west during the first millennium.

Turkic languages are spoken as a native language by some 170 million people, and the total number of Turkic speakers, including second language speakers, is over 200 million. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish, spoken mainly in Anatolia and the Balkans; its native speakers account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.

Characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family. There is also a high degree of mutual intelligibility among the various Oghuz languages, which include Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and Oghuz-influenced Crimean Tatar. Although methods of classification vary, the Turkic languages are usually considered to be divided equally into two branches: Oghur, the only surviving member of which is Chuvash, and Common Turkic, which includes all other Turkic languages including the Oghuz subbranch.

Turkic languages show some similarities with the Mongolic, Tungusic, Koreanic, and Japonic languages. These similarities led some linguists to propose an Altaic language family, though this proposal is not widely accepted. Apparent similarities with the Uralic languages family even caused these families to be regarded as one for a long time under the hypothesis of Ural-Altaic languages. However, there has not been sufficient evidence to conclude the existence of either of these macrofamilies, the shared characteristics between the languages being attributed presently to extensive prehistoric language contact.



🗺️ Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien / Turkic Languages

Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien / Turkic Languages (TITUS)


🗺️ Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority (W)



Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status.



🗺️ A more accurate representation of Turkic-majority lands

A more accurate representation of Turkic-majority lands (W)

  Southwestern (Oghuz)
  Southeastern (Karluk)
  Northwestern (Kipchak)
  Northeastern (Siberian)


📹 The History of the Turkic Languages (VİDEO)

The History of the Turkic Languages (LINK)



  Proto-Turkic Language

Proto-Turkic language

Proto-Turkic language (W)

Region Possibly the Altai mountains and/or South Siberia between the Ob river and Lake Baikal
Era evolved into other Turkic languages
  • Proto-Turkic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 —

The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Turkic languages that was spoken by the Proto-Turks before their divergence into the various Turkic peoples. Proto-Turkic separated into Oghur (western) and Common Turkic (eastern) branches. One estimate postulates Proto-Turkic to have been spoken 2,500 years ago in East Asia.

The oldest records of a Turkic language, the Old Turkic Orkhon inscriptions of the 7th century Göktürk khaganate, already shows characteristics of eastern Common Turkic, and reconstruction of Proto-Turkic must rely on comparisons of Old Turkic with early sources of the western Common Turkic branches, such as Oghuz and Kypchak, as well as the western Oghur proper (Bulgar, Chuvash, Khazar). Because early attestation of these non-easternmost languages is much more sparse, reconstruction of Proto-Turkic still rests fundamentally on the easternmost Old Turkic of the Göktürks.


Altaic languages (largely discredited)

Altaic languages (largely discredited) (W)

(largely discredited)
NorthCentral, and West Asia, and Eastern Europe
Linguistic classification Formerly proposed as a major language family; now usually considered as a Sprachbund
ISO 639-2 / 5 tut
Glottolog None

  Turkic languages
  Mongolic languages
  Tungusic languages
  Koreanic languages (sometimes included)
  Japonic languages (sometimes included)
  Ainu language (rarely included)




Sumer language is the most ancient cultured language of the world. Its literature in cuneiform writing dates back to over 4,500 BC. It was used for 4500 years. Phonetic centerpiece of Sumerian is vocal harmony, a word is composed of only velars and velar vowels, or only of labials and labial vowels. Intermediates can fit either side. The forked phonetics eases articulation, avoiding a need to jump back in forth with each syllable in the word. It readily doubles the semantic content. Phonetic distinction is mighty diagnostic. Sumer language does not have grammatical gender. Genderless grammar is mighty diagnostic. Etymologically, Hungarian and Turkish (not Türkic!) share about 55% of the 557-word list of the Sumerian lexus. Sumer is an Eurasian language, languages from the other parts of the Earth must be excluded. Lexical affiliation is mighty diagnostic. For a language proclaimed to be a language isolate by the European linguistic gurus, these are impenetrable facts. The situation is not unlike that within the Germanic group, with its opposing typologies, incompatible phonetics and gender, and the cases of shared basic vocabulary in the range of the same 50%.


Translator's Notes

Phonetic conventions:

y - after consonant in the middle and in the end of the word, like 'i' in 'sit', with a longer sound, corresponds to Russian ы: 'Bulymer ' for 'Boo-liih-mer', 'Ryshtauly' for 'Riish-tah-oo-liih'.

y - substitutes for 'i' in diphthongs, to indicate sound like Y in New York: 'biysu' for 'Bee-y-soo', instead of 'biisu', yorty for 'Yor-tii'.

j - like 'z' in 'azure'


In last third of the 3rd millennium BC, kurgans started penetrating from the Northern to the Southern Caucasus, through the Derbent pass (Dagestan) and the west of the Black Sea routes. This paths of expansion can be visibly traced by the kurgans near Novotitarevka stan and aul (village - Translator's Note) Utamysh in Dagestan. S. Caucasian archeologists are unanimous that the Kurgan culture appears suddenly there, as a completely alien phenomenon for the local tribes. These monuments are known in many areas of the S. Caucasia, but the earliest are kurgans located near the village Bedeni in Georgia, and the Uch-tepe the kurgans in the Azerbaijan, etc.

From here, further to the south, the Kurgan culture reaches the banks of the lake Urmia in the Middle East.

The ancient Kurgan culture of the horse, cattle and sheep breeders meet the settled agricultural tribes, for the first time, in the territory of the S. Caucasia, Near East and Asia Minor. A natural symbiosis of two cultures has developed, and occur a mixing of different ethno-cultural communities. As a result of this symbiosis, evolved a new settled agricultural and cattle breeding ethnic community, which combined both types of the economic production.

This symbiosis in the territory of the ancient Mesopotamia, (modern Iraq) gives a huge push to the establishment of the world-renowned civilization of Sumer (Somar, Suvar). Between the carriers of the Maykop cultures of the Northern Caucasus and the ancient Sumers (Suvars, Somars) develop closest cultural and economic relations, displayed by repeated finds, in the Sumerian cities and Maykop kurgans, of the similar unparalleled objects of arms, ornaments, etc. It is important to note that these objects are found in the Sumerian cities and in the North Caucasian Maykop kurgans, but in the monuments in the territory between them are almost never found, neither in the S. Caucasia, nor in the other areas of the Northern Caucasus. The mutual contacts between the Maykopians and Sumerians are like the relations between long separated parts of the ancient pra-Türkic tribes with their ancestral home in the Northern Caucasus and adjoining  Eurasian steppes. The impression is that these connections had transitive character, probably, explained by the closeness of their traditions and cultures.

There is plenty of evidence that the ancient Sumerians were a long separated part from the main pra-Türkic tribes. Therefore, in their language are this many Türkic words, of which wrote many scientists of the last century and of today.


The analysis of the ancient Sumerian cuneiform texts performed by many scientists testifies that the majority of the Sumerian words are literally duplicates of the common  Türkic words, including the Karachaevo-Balkarian words, and sometimes of the whole phrases. For example, in a song about Gilgamesh (Bilgamesh) is a Balkarian phrase "Soüm eteyik", i.e. "We will make a sacrifice, we shall sacrifice". Or in the monument of the 24 c. BC, the inscription devoted to the God Gudey, contains a Karachaevo-Balkarian expression "zanymdagynnan", i.e. "From a close one". There are many of such distinctive coincidences.

Such conjunctions are multiple, there are more than 4 hundred of them. But the shown conjunctions are enough to affirm the kihship of the Sumerian and Karachaevo-Balkarian languages.

The scientific data tells that the spread of the ancient pra-Türkic of the Kurgan culture was a result of a split of the ancient Turkic community, originally represented by the Kurgan-Afanasian ethno-cultural community. This dissolution chronologically coincided with the disintegration of the ancient Indo-European community. The mutual impingements resulting of these processes are reflected in the observed mass of the mutually penetrating linguistic convergences between the Türkic and Indo-European languages.

The name of the God Gudey is amazingly close to the word Kuday, "God" in the Kazakh and Kirgiz languages. The word Khuday, also spelled Khudai, is a prominent Türkic theonym, meaning "God", "Almighty", "Supreme" etc. In the Bashkort, Khuday means "spirit", in the Tatar it means  "God", the White Hun's history as early as 2 c. AD notes a royal name Haphtar Hudai, it is a popular name with the meaning of "God" in Pakhtu. The Internet search for "Khudai" returned me 6,000 entries. Looks like 4,000 years ago Sumerians were experts in propagating their religious concepts.

Let's review several Sumerian-Karachaevo-Balkarian lexical convergencies:


Sumerian words

Karachaevo - Balkarian words

Abame elder Appa grandfather, grandmother
Alty six Alty six
Az little, few Az little, few
Aur weight Auur weight
Baba ancestor Baba ancestor
Buz to break Buz to break
Char circle Charkh wheel
Chibin fly (n) Chibin fly (n)
Cholpan star Cholpan star (Venus)
Daim continously Dayim continously
Ed come out pass (v)
Egech sister Egech sister
El death El to die
Er warrior Er man
Eshik door Eshik door
Ez self Ez self
Gaba breast Gabara breastwarmer, bra
Gag to thrust K'ak to thrust
Guruvash servant Karauash servant, slave girl
Jau enemy Jau enemy
Jer place, ground Jer place, ground
Ikki two Eki two
Irik valuh (?) Irik valuh (?)
Kadau lock (n) K'adau lock (n)
Kal to remain K'al to remain
Kan blood Kan blood
Koru to guard K'oruu to guard
Kush bird K'ush bird
Kur to create Kur to build
Küre to row Küre to row
Kyz girl K'yz girl
Me I, me Men I, me
Mu he Bu he
Ne what Ne what
Or to press Or harvest (v.and n.)
Ru to hammer Ur to hammer
San number San number
    Sana to count
Sen you Sen you
Sig kick Sok to beat
Süz to filter Süz to filter
Ush three Uch three
Ud fire Ot fire
Uzuk long Uzun long
Tu to give birth Tuu to give birth
Tud to be born Tuudu to be born
Tush to sit down, to go down Tüsh to descend
Uat to break Uat to break
Üz to tear Üz to tear
Ul clan Ul son, descendant
Yaryk light (adj) Yaryk light (adj)
Yarym half Yarym half
Yaz to write Yaz to write
Yol road Yol road
Yün wool Yün wool
Yyr song Yyr song




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