Turkic States

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı



Turkic States

  📹 The Khanates of Asia

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The evolution of the states in Northwest Asia during the Khanate era.



  Turkic States

Turkic States

Turkic States

Turkic dynasties and states — 1

Turkic dynasties and states — 1 (W)

Turkic dynasties and states

Name Years Capital map
Gok1.png Turkic Khaganate 552-ca. 580
Ordu Baliq GökturksAD551-572.png
Western Turkic Khaganate 593-659 Suyab Western Gokturk.jpg
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 581-630 Ordu Baliq Eastern Gokturk.png
Xueyantuo 628-646
Kangar union 659-750 located in Ulutau mountains AD 659KangarUnion.png
Turk shahi tamga.png Turk Shahi 665-850 Kabul Turk Shahi 700ad.jpg
Türgesh 699-766 Balasagun Transoxiana 8th century.svg
Kimeks 743-1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia Қимақтар.png
Uyghur Khganate Flag.jpg Uyghur Khaganate 744-848 Ordu Baliq East-Hem 800ad.jpg
Oghuz Yabgu State 750-1055 Yangikent AD 750OguzYabgu.png
Karluk Yabgu State 756-940 Suyab later Balasagun Қарлұқтар.png
Qaraxanlı bayrağı.jpg Kara-Khanid Khanate 840-1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand KaraKhanidAD1000.png
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848-1036 Zhangye East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Kingdom of Qocho 856-1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Pecenek.svg Pechenegs 860-1091 Khazarfall1.png
Coat of arms of Cumania.svg Cumania 900-1220 State of Cuman-Kipchak (13.) en.png
Anatolia composite NASA.png Anatolian Beyliks 11th-16th century Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş. Anadolu Beylikleri.png
Ahmadilis 1122-1209 Maragha East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Eldiguzids ca.1135-1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Salghurids 1148-1282 Fars Province East-Hem 1025ad.jpg
Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire 1299-1923 Söğüt 1299-1335, Bursa 1335-1413, Edirne 1413-1453, Istanbul 1453-1922 OttomanEmpireIn1683.png
Sufids 1361-1379
Emirate of Kasgharia 1865-1877 Kashgar


Name Notes Years Capital Map
Khazar Empire The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Kaganate. 6th-11th century Balanjar 650-720 ca., Samandar (city) 720s-750, Atil 750-ca.965-969 Chasaren.jpg
The Monogram of Kubrat.png Great Bulgaria 632-668 Phanagoria 632-665 Pontic steppe region around 650 AD.png
Khans Dulo of Bulgaria.jpg First Bulgarian Empire Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization; became Slavic post-Christianization 681-1018 Pliska 681-893, Preslav 893-972, Skopje 972-992, Ohrid 992-1018 First Bulgarian Empire Xc.png
Volga Bulgaria 7th century-1240s Bolghar, Bilär VolgaBulgaria.jpg
Terter dynasty 1280-1323 Bulgaria-Theodore Svetoslav.png__________


Turkic dynasties and states — 2

Turkic dynasties and states — 2 (W)

Middle East and North Africa

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Tulunids The Tulunids were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria. 868-905 al-Qatta'i Tulunid Emirate 868 - 905 (AD).PNG
Ikhshidid Dynasty Founded by a Turkic slave soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph. 935-969 Ikhshidid Dynasty 935 - 969 (AD).PNG
Burid Dynasty 1104-1154 Damascus Map Crusader states 1135-en.svg
Zengid Dynasty Dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin. 1127-1250 Aleppo Zengid Dynasty 1127 - 1250 (AD).PNG
Mameluke Flag.svg Bahri dynasty The first half of the Mamluk Sultanate was dominated by the Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty, after the Mongol conquest of the Kipchak steppes. 1250-1389 Cairo Mamluks1279.png__________
Assaf dynasty Controlled region between Beirut and Jbeil 1306-1591 Ghazir

Maghreb region

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Karamanli dynasty The Karamanli dynasty was an independent or quasi-independent, who ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania (Tripoli and its surroundings in present-day Libya). At their peak, the Karamanlis' influence reached Cyrenaica and Fezzan, covering most of Libya. The founder of the dynasty was Pasha Ahmed Karamanli, a descendant of the Karamanids. 1711-1835 Tripoli Map of traditional provinces of Libye-en.svg__________

Indian subcontinent

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) 1206-1290 Delhi Mamluk dynasty 1206 - 1290 ad.GIF
Qarlughid Dynasty 1224-1266 Ghazna, Binban
Khalji Dynasty 1290-1320 Delhi Delhi Sultanate under Khalji dynasty - based on A Historical Atlas of South Asia.svg
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320-1414 Delhi Tughlaq dynasty 1321 - 1398 ad.PNG
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342-1487 Sonargaon Bengal Sultanate.png
Bahmani Sultanate 1347-1527 Gulbarga (1347-1425)
Bidar (1425-1527)
Bengal Sultanate Flag.gif Bengal Sultanate 1342-1538

Sultanate of Bengal.png
Malwa Sultanate 1392-1562 Dhar and Mandu Historical map of India AD 1490.jpg
Bidar Sultanate 1489-1619 Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490-1686 Bijapur Bijapur-sultanate-map.svg
QutbshahiFlag.PNG Qutb Shahi Dynasty 1518-1687 Golconda / Hyderabad Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg Mughal Empire Founded by Turco-Mongol ruler Babur, adopted the Persian language in later periods. 1526-1857 Agra 1526-1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571-1585, Lahore 1585-1598, Agra 1598-1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648-1857 The Mughal Empire.jpg
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554-1591 Sindh
Hyderabad Coat of Arms.jpg Asaf Jahi Dynasty 1724-1948 Hyderabad Hyderabad princely state 1909.svg__________

Sinicized Turkic dynasties

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Great Yan General An Lushan rebelled against Tang Dynasty 756-763 Luoyang 756-757, Yecheng 757-759, Fanyang759, Luoyang 759-762
Later Tang 923-936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923-936 五代后唐(繁).png
Later Jin The Later Jin founder, Shi Jingtang, claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 936-947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937-947 L.LIANG.jpg__________
Later Han Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 947-951 Kaifeng
Northern Han Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. ] 951-979 Taiyuan


Turko-Persian states

Turko-Persian states (W)

Turko-Persian states

Main article: Persianate society

The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of the interpretation of literary forms, practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Many Turko-Persian states were founded in modern-day Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Name Years Capital Map
Ghaznavid Empire Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin 962-1186 Ghazna 977-1163, Lahore 1163-1186 Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
Seljuk Empire Ruled by a clan of originally Oghuz Turkic descent. 1037-1194 Nishapur 1037-1043, Rey, Iran 1043-1051, Isfahan 1051-1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118-1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118-1153) Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
Sultanate of Rûm Persianized Oghuz Turkic dynasty 1077-1307 İznik, Iconium (Konya) Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate.JPG
Khwarazmian dynasty Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin. 1077-1231/1256 Gurganj 1077-1212, Samarkand 1212-1220, Ghazna 1220-1221, Tabriz 1225-1231 Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Kara Koyunlu Kara Koyunlu was an Oghuz Turkic tribal federation. 1375-1468 Tabriz Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468.png
Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu was an tribal federation from Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks 1378-1501 Diyarbakır 1453-1471, Tabriz 1468 - January 6, 1478 Map Aq Qoyunlu 1478-en.png__________


Turco-Mongol states

Turco-Mongol states (W)

Turco-Mongol states

Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions. Two of these states founded by the Timurid dynasty, specifically the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, were influenced by the Persian and Indian cultures.

Name Years Capital Notes Map
Chagatai Khanate 1225-1340s Almaliq, Qarshi ChagataiKhanate1300.png
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde 1240s-1502 Sarai Batu Founded as an appanage of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde gradually became Turkicized after the Empire's fragmentation GoldenHorde1300.png
Timurid.svgTimurid Empire 1370-1506 Samarkand 1370-1505, Herat 1505-1507 Belonging to Barlas were a Mongol and later Turkicized nomadic confederation in Central Asia. Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Shaybanid Khanate 1428-1599  
Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg Kazan Khanate 1438-1552 Kazan KazanKhanate1500.png
Flag of the Crimean Khanate.svg Crimean Khanate 1441-1783 Bakhchisaray Crimean Khanate 1600.gif
Nogai flag.svg Nogai Khanate 1440s-1634 Saray-Jük Nogay Horde.svg
Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakh Khanate 1456-1847 Turkistan Казахское ханство1520.png
Great Horde 1466-1502 Sarai Wielka Orda.svg
Coat of Arms of Astrakhan.png Astrakhan Khanate 1466-1556 Xacitarxan Astrakhan Khanate map.svg
Siberia Khanate 1490-1598 Tyumen until 1493, Qashliq from 1493 Siberian Khanate map English revised.svg
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Khanate of Bukhara 1500-1785 Bukhara Bukhara1600.png
Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg Khanate of Khiva Yadigarids: 1511-1804 Qungrats 1804-1920 Khiva Хивинское ханство.png
Yarkent Khanate 1514-1705 Yarkent Могулия.png
Arghun dynasty 1520-1554 Bukkur
Lesser Nogai Horde 1449 or 1557-1783 Voli Sarai
Budzhak Horde 17th century-18th century Ukraine-Budzhak.png
Bandera de Kokand.svg Khanate of Kokand 1709-1876 Kokand Kokand1850.png
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Emirate of Bukhara 1785-1920 Bukhara Bukhara1850.png__________


Former Provisional Governments and Republics

Former Provisional Governments and Republics (W)

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Provisional Government of Western Thrace later Independent Government of Western Thrace
Republic of Western Thrace was a small, short-lived partially recognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km². 1913 Komotini
Crimean People's Republic
1917-1918 Bakhchysarai
Idel-Ural State
Alash Autonomy
A provisional autonomous Kazakh-Kyrgyz administration. Later integrated into Soviet Union under Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic umbrella. 1917-1920 Semey
Republic of Aras
1918-1919 Nakhchivan (city)
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus
1918-1919 Kars
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1918-1920 1ST AZ REP.GIF Ganja, Azerbaijanuntil Sep 1918, Baku
Government of the Grand National Assembly
A provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence. 1920-1923 Treaty of Sèvres map partitioning Anatolia.png Ankara
People's Republic of Tannu Tuva
1921-1944 Tuwakarte2.png Kyzyl
First East Turkestan Republic
First East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People's Republic of China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 1933-1934 First ETR in China.svg Kashgar
Republic of Hatay
Also known informally as the Republic of Hatay as Hatay State. 1938-1939 French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon map en.svg Antakya
East Turkistan Republic
1944-1949 Second ETR in China.svg Ghulja
Azerbaijan People's Government
Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APG's capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War. 1945-1946 Republic of mahabad and iranian azerbaijan 1945 1946.png Tabriz
Turkish Cypriot General Committee
1963-1967 NCyprus location.svg Nicosia
Provisional Cypriot Turkish Administration
1967-1974 NCyprus location.svg Nicosia
Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration
1974-1975 NCyprus location.svg Nicosia
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus
1975-1983 NCyprus location.svg__________ Nicosia


Soviet Republics

Soviet Republics (W)

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
1920-1924 SovietCentralAsia1922.svg Khiva
Bukhara People's Soviet Republic
1920-1924 SovietCentralAsia1922.svg Bukhara
Azerbaijan SSR
1920-1991 Soviet Union - Azerbaijan SSR.svg Baku
Uzbek SSR
1924-1991 Soviet Union - Uzbek SSR.svg Samarkand 1924-1930, Tashkent 1930-1991
Turkmen SSR
1924-1991 Soviet Union - Turkmen SSR.svg Ashgabat
Kazakh SSR
1936-1991 Soviet Union - Kazakh SSR.svg Almaty
Kyrgyz SSR
1936-1991 Soviet Union - Kirghiz SSR.svg__________ Bishkek


Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union


Territorial and regional data

Territorial and regional data

Country Area
Nominal GDP (2017)
GDP per capita
HDI (2017) Capital Official languages
2,724,900 17,987,736 $225.619 billion $12,950 0.788 Astana Kazakh, Russian
199,950 5,955,734 $6.854 billion $1,106 0.655 Bishkek Kyrgyz, Russian
142,550 8,734,951 $7.242 billion $819 0.624 Dushanbe Tajik, Russian
488,100 5,662,544 $42.355 billion $7,645 0.688 Ashgabat Turkmen
447,400 31,446,795 $68.324 billion $2,154 0.701 Tashkent Uzbek




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