Turkic Khaganate

CKM 2019-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

 

 

Turkic Khaganate




  Turkic Khaganate (Göktürk Khaganate)

Turkic Khaganate (Göktürk Khaganate)



Turkic Khaganate (Göktürk Khaganat)

Turkic Khaganate (Göktürk Khaganate) (W)


The Göktürk Khaganate at its greatest extent, in 576
@ It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically
Status Khaganate
Capital Ötüken
Common languages Sogdian(official, Old Turkic
Religion Tengrism, Shamanism, Buddhism

Qaghan
• 551–552 Bumin Khagan
• 553–572 Muqan Qaghan
• 682–691 Ilterish Qaghan
• 742–744 Ozmış Khagan

Legislature Kurultai (Qurultay)
Historical era
• Bumin Qaghan revolts against Rouran Khaganate 542
• Established 552
• Göktürk civil war c. 582
• Defeat of Eastern Turkic Khaganate 630
• Defeat of Western Turkic Khaganate 659
• Ilterish Qaghan establishes Second Turkic Khaganate 682
• Uyghurs defeat Özmiş Khagan 744

Area 557 6,000,000 km2

The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük; Chinese: 突厥汗国; pinyin: Tūjué hánguó) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history.

The origins of the Turkic Khanate trace back to 546, when Bumin Qaghan made a preemptive strike against the Uyghur and Tiele groups planning a revolt against their overlords, the Rouran Khanate. For this service he expected to be rewarded with a Rouran princess, thus marrying into the royal family. However, the Rouran khagan, Yujiulü Anagui, sent an emissary to Bumin to rebuke him, saying, "You are my blacksmith slave. How dare you utter these words?" As Anagui's "blacksmith slave" (Chinese: ; pinyin: duànnú) comment was recorded in Chinese chronicles, some claim that the Göktürks were indeed blacksmith servants for the Rouran elite, and that "blacksmith slavery" may have indicated a form of vassalage within Rouran society. According to Denis Sinor, this reference indicates that the Türks specialized in metallurgy, although it is unclear if they were miners or, indeed, blacksmiths. Whatever the case, that the Turks were "slaves" need not be taken literally, but probably represented a form of vassalage, or even unequal alliance

The first Turkic Khaganate collapsed in 581, after which followed a series of conflicts and civil wars which separated the polity into the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Western Turkic Khaganate. The Eastern Turkic Khaganate was subjugated by the Tang dynasty in 630 and the Western Turkic Khaganate disintegrated around the same time. The Second Turkic Khaganate emerged in 682 and lasted until 744 when it was overthrown by the Uyghurs, a different Turkic group.

 



Ötüken

Ötüken (W)

Ötüken (Old Turkic: 𐰇𐱅𐰚𐰤: 𐰘𐰃𐰽 Ötüken yïš, “Ötüken forest,” 𐰇𐱅𐰚𐰤:𐰘𐰼, Ötüken jer, "Land of Ötüken") is a legendary capital city in Turkic mythology and Tengrism. Otukan (Ötüken) is also one of the names given to Mother Earth.

Otukan and nature

According to this ancient belief, the mood of the Yer-sub and Ötüken could be seen in the trees' condition. If the trees are healthy and strong and are bearing a lot of fruit, it is believed that Ötüken is satisfied with humans. A prayer dedicated to Ötüken was once directed to a grand tree.

Otugan existed in the middle of the Universe and her residence was in Central Asia on Khangan Plateau. This place was called “The Otuken (Ötüken) Homeland.”

Mountain

The word was used to describe the sacred mountain of the ancient Turks. It was mentioned by Bilge Khagan in the Orkhon inscriptions as "the place from where the tribes can be controlled". A force called qut was believed to emanate from this mountain, granting the local potentate the divine right to rule all the Turkic tribes.

Although never identified precisely, Ötüken probably stretched "from the Khangai Range of Central Mongolia to the Sayan Mountains of Tuva, at the centre of which is the Orkhon Valley", which for centuries was regarded as the seat of the imperial power of the steppes.

Old records

Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk
Further information: Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk

Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk, by Mahmud al-Kashgari; "Ötüken (اتوكان) is a name of a place in the deserts of land of Tatars. It's close to land of Uyghurs.”

Orkhon Inscriptions
Further information: Orkhon Inscriptions
Further information: Bain Tsokto inscriptions

The inscriptions clearly show the sacred importance of the region, as evidenced by the statement of Tonyukuk: "If you stay in the land of the Ötüken, and send caravans from there, you will have no trouble. If you stay at the Ötüken Mountains, you will live forever dominating the tribes!"

 

References

  • Franke, Herbert. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-21447-5. Page 347.
  • Jarich G. Oosten, Henri J. M. Claessen. Ideology and the Formation of Early States. Brill Academic Publishers, 1996. ISBN 90-04-10470-4. Pages 124-125.
  1. "Breaking the Orkhon Tradition: Kirghiz Adherence to the Yenisei Region after A. D. 840". American Oriental Society. JSTOR 605932.
The word yïš means green, thus the word 'forest' derives from the word yïš.

 




Turpan (Turfan); Ashina Tribe

Turpan (Turfan) (W); Ashina Tribe (W)

   

 




Situation of Interior Asia in Late 6th Century with Eastern and Western Tujue, both ruled by Ashina clan

Ashina tribe (W)

The Ashina (Chinese: 阿史那; pinyin: Āshǐnà; Wade–Giles: A-shih-na;Middle Chinese: (Guangyun) [ʔɑʃi̯ə˥nɑ˩]), also known as Asen, Asena, or Açina, was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turkic peoples. It rose to prominence in the mid-6th century when the leader, Bumin Qaghan, revolted against the Rouran Khaganate. The two main branches of the family, one descended from Bumin and the other from his brother Istämi, ruled over the eastern and western parts of the Göktürkconfederation, respectively.

Researchers such as H.W. Haussig, S.G. Klyashtorny, A.N. Bernstamm, C. V. Findley, B.A. Muratov, R.R. Suyunov, D.G. Savinov, S.P. Guschin, Rona-Tas and R.N. Frye have pointed out that the origin of the Ashina is from the Iranian Saka-Wusun.

Findley assumes that the name "Ashina" comes from one of the Saka languages of central Asia and means "blue" (gök in Turkic). The color is identified with the east, so that Göktürk, another name for the Turkic empire, meant the "Turks of the East". This idea is seconded by the Hungarian researcher András Róna-Tas, who finds it plausible "that we are dealing with a royal family and clan of Saka origin". "The term bori, used to identify the ruler's retinue as 'wolves', probably also derived from one of the Iranian languages", Carter Vaughin Findley has observed.


Ashina tribe (W)

Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 70,049 square kilometres (27,046 sq mi) and a population of 632,000 (2015).


Göktürk Khaganate or Turkic Khaganate (W)



Map of the Tujue Khanate (Ashina clan of Göktürks) at its greatest extent in 570.



The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük; Chinese: 突厥汗国; pinyin: Tūjué hánguó) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history.

Ashina tribe

Ashina tribe (W)

The Ashina (Chinese: 阿史那; pinyin: Āshǐnà; Wade–Giles: A-shih-na; Middle Chinese: (Guangyun) [ʔɑʃi̯ə˥nɑ˩]), also known as Asen, Asena, or Açina, was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turkic peoples. It rose to prominence in the mid-6th century when the leader, Bumin Qaghan, revolted against the Rouran Khaganate. The two main branches of the family, one descended from Bumin and the other from his brother Istämi, ruled over the eastern and western parts of the Göktürk confederation, respectively.


Origin


Researchers such as H.W. Haussig, S.G. Klyashtorny, A.N. Bernstamm, C. V. Findley, B.A. Muratov, R.R. Suyunov, D.G. Savinov, S.P. Guschin, Rona-Tas and R.N. Frye have pointed out that the origin of the Ashina is from the Iranian Saka-Wusun. They have put forward this version of the following arguments:

 




Migration route of Wusun in Western Han Dynasty

Based on the similarities between the ancestor myth of the Wusun and later Turkic peoples, Denis Sinor has suggested that the Wusun and/or Sogdians could represent an Indo-European Iranian influence, or even origin of the royal Ashina Türks.

Some scholars historically suggested that the Wusun spoke a Proto-Turkic language. Chinese scholar Han Rulin, as well as G. Vambery, A. Scherbak, P. Budberg, L. Bazin and V.P. Yudin, noted that the Wusun king's name Fu-li, as reported in Chinese sources and translated as 'wolf', resembles Proto-Turkic *börü 'wolf' (cf. Uyghur böri). This suggestion however is rejected by Classical Chinese Literature expert Francis K. H. So, Professor at National Sun Yat-sen University. Other words listed by these scholars include the title bag, beg ‘lord.’ The above-mentioned theories have been criticized by modern Turkologists, including Peter B. Golden and Carter V. Findley, who explain that none of the mentioned words are actually Turkic in origin. Carter V. Findley notes that the term böri is probably derived from one of the Indo-European Iranian languages of Central Asia (cf. Khotanesebirgga-), while the title beg is certainly derived from the Sogdian baga ‘lord,’ a cognate of Middle Persian baγ (as used by the rulers of the Sassanid Empire), as well as Sanskrit bhaga and Russian bog.

 



Old Turkic language

Old Turkic language (W)

Old Turkic is attested in a number of scripts, including the Orkhon-Yenisei runiform script, the Old Uyghur alphabet (a form of the Sogdian alphabet),

 



   

Bilge Khagan

Bilge Khagan

Bilge Khagan (Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Bilge qaγan) (683 – 25 November 734) was the khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate. His accomplishments were described in the Orkhon inscriptions.

Early years

He was born in 683, just in early years of Second Khaganate. He campaigned alongside his father from early years as a child. He was created as Tardush shad and given command over western wing of empire in 697 by Qapaghan. He managed to annihalate Wei Yuanzhong's army in 701 with his brother. He also reconquered Basmyl tribes in 703. He also subdued Yenisei Kyrgyz forces in 709, after their disobedience had to reconquer and kill their khagan in 710. He killed Sakal in his invasion of Turgesh in 711 and had submission from Beshbaliq in 713.

In later years of Qapaghan, he had to fight 4 battles in a year starting from 714, resubduing tribes and nearly was killed in an ambush from Huige forces in 715.

Reign

In 716, Qapaghan Qaghan, the second khagan, was killed in his campaign against the Toquz Oghuz alliance and his severed head was sent to Chang'an. Although his son Inel Khagan succeeded him, Bilge's brother Kul Tigin and Tonyukuk carried out a coup d'étatagainst Inel Khaghan. They killed him and made him Bilge khagan. His name literally means "wise king".

He appointed his brother Kul Tigin to be Left Wise Prince, which made second most powerful person in realm. He resubdued Huige in 716. Also appointed his father-in-law Tonyukuk to be Master Strategist.

New reforms and stabilization of regime caused tribes that fled Tujue to come back. Tang chancellor Wang Jun, believing that the Göktürks who surrendered would try to flee back to the Göktürk state, suggested that they be forcibly moved into the heart of the empire to prevent them from doing so. Before Wang's suggestion could be acted upon, however, there was an uprising by the Göktürks who surrendered, under the leadership of Xiedie Sitai (𨁂跌思泰) and Axilan (阿悉爛). Xue and Wang tried to intercept them and dealt them defeats, but they were able to flee back to the Göktürk state anyway. This defeat led to Xue Ne's retirement.

Religious policy

At some point in his life, he wanted to convert to Buddhism, settle in cities. However, Tonyukuk discouraged him from this, citing Tujue's small numbers and vulnerability to Chinese attack. While Turks' power rested on their mobility, conversion to Buddhism would bring pacifism among population. Therefore sticking to Tengriism was necessary to survive.

Later reign

In 720, Wang believed that the Pugu (僕固) and Xiedie tribes of the region were planning to defect to Eastern Tujue and attack with Eastern Tujue troops. He thus held a feast and invited the chieftains, and, at the feast, massacred them. He then attacked the Pugu and Xiedie tribes in the area, nearly wiping them out. He then proposed a plan to attack khagan along with the Baximi, Xi, and Khitan. Emperor Xuanzong also recruited Qapaghan Khagan's sons Bilge Tigin and Mo Tigin, Yenisei Kyrgyz khagan Kutluk Bilge Khagan and Huoba Guiren to fight against Tujue. Tonyukuk cunningly launched first attack on Baximi in 721 autumn, completely crushing them. Meanwhile Bilge raided Gansu, taking much of the livestock. Later that year Khitans, next year Xi were also crushed.

In 726, his father-in-law and chancellor Tonyukuk died.

In 727, he sent Buyruk Chor (Chinese: 梅錄啜/梅录啜; pinyin: Méilù Chuò) as en emissary to Xuanzong to send 30 horses as gift. He also alarmed him of Me Agtsom's proposal of anti-Tang alliance. This alarm proved to be true when Tibetan general We Tadra Khonglo invaded Tang China in 727, sank Guazhou (瓜州, in mordern Gansu), Changle (常樂, in south of mordern Guazhou County), Changmenjun (長門軍, in north of mordern Yumen) and Anxi (安西, mordern Lintan).

On 27 February 731, Kul Tigin died, for which khagan mourned and ordered a great funeral ceremony.

In 733, he defeated rebellious Khitan tribes.

Death

Just after sending an emissary to Xuanzong to gain heqin alliance, he was poisoned by Buyruk Chor. He didn't die immediately and he had time to punish the family of Buyruk Chor with death. He died on 25 November734, his burial ceremony took place on 22 June 735.

Family

He was married to El Etmish Bilge Khatun, Tonyukuk's daughter. He had several issues:

  • Ashina Yiran (阿史那伊然)
  • Ashina Kutluk (阿史那骨咄)
  • 2 unnamed sons who both became puppet khagans under Kutluk Yabgu Khagan
  • A daughter who was married to Suluk
  • Princess Daluo (大洛公主) - submitted to Tang after 744.

 



 

GÖKTÜRK MAP 1

GÖKTÜRK MAP 1 (W)

This map shows the kingdom of Kökturks after the division of the kingdom in 552. The grey area shows the area of On-Ok or the western Kökturks. The white area shows the area of the eastern Kökturk. This area was still in the sixth Century a Chinese protectorate. 745 the Kökturks were part of the Uyghur empire. After 840 Kökturks and the Uyghurs were conquered by the Kyrgyz. The source of this map: "Der große Atlas Weltgeschichte", Orbis Verlag 1990, ISBN 3-572-04755-2, P. 47 & 51

 



GÖKTÜRK MAP 2

GÖKTÜRK MAP 2 (W)



his image is a zoomed-in version of Eastern Hemisphere in 600 AD. thumb|300px|left|Eastern Hemisphere in 600 AD. Author: Thomas A. Lessman. Source URL: http://www.ThomasLessman.com/History /images/East-Hem_600ad.jpg. Image was created by me (Thomas Lessman) based on map of Eastern Hemisphere in 600 AD. Image is free for public and/or educational use.

 




 








  Göktürk Family Tree

Göktürk Family Tree

Göktürk Family Tree (W)

The Göktürk family tree refers to the ruling Ashina clan of the Turkic Khaganate, a vast medieval empire which stretched from northeast China to the Black Sea.[1] The following family tree is given in five sections:[2]

  1. The united empire up to 603 (death of Tardu Khagan)
  2. The west half of the empire which was ruled by yabgus in behalf of the central khagans up to 599 and the same half ruled independently after the empire was partitioned.
  3. East half of the empire after 603
  4. The reestablishment of the empire after 681 ( so called the second empire)
  5. West and east parts of the first empire

The color legend is as follows.


 
Khagan
(Emperor)
 
Ruler of 
the east side
 
Ruler of 
the west side

It can be seen that both the central empire and (later) the east wing were ruled by the descendants of Bumin and the west part was ruled by the descendants of İstemi with two exceptions;

  • Tardu, a yabgu of the west became the central khagan between 599-603 .
  • Yukuk, a shad (a prince) in the east wing became the ruler of the west wing.

In the following trees only those with reigning dates became khagan or yabgu.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Only as a yabgu.
  2. ^ 576-599 as the yabgu of the West and 599-603 as the khagan.
  3. ^ According to Taşağıl he was Özmiş Khagan's son.

 








  Timeline of the Göktürks

🛑 Timeline of the Göktürks

Timeline of the Göktürks (W)

This is a timeline of the Göktürks from the origins of the Turkic Khaganate to the end of the Second Turkic Khaganate.

 

5th century

Year Event
460 A group of Xiongnu tribes known as the Ashina residing around modern Turpan are subjugated by the Rouran Khaganate, who resettle them in the Altai Mountains A group of Xiongnu tribes known as the Ashina residing around modern Turpan are subjugated by the Rouran Khaganate, who resettle them in the Altai Mountains
   

 

6th century

Year Event
534 Bumin of the Ashina becomes chieftain of the Turks, who migrate further east to the Yellow River
545 The Turks establish an alliance with the Western Wei[1]
546 Bumin of the Turks quells a Tiele revolt for the Rouran Khaganate and asks for a Rouran princess for his service but is denied, after which he declares independence[2]
551 Bumin declares himself Khagan and supreme ruler of the Turks[1]
Bumin Qaghan marries Princess Changle of the Western Wei[2]
552 Bumin Qaghan defeats Anagui of the Rouran Khaganate and Anagui commits suicide; Bumin declares himself Illig Khagan of the Turkic Khaganate after conquering Otuken; Bumin dies soon after and his son Issik Qaghan succeeds him[2][3]
553 Issik Qaghan continues attacking the Rouran Khaganate and dies; his brother Muqan Qaghan succeeds him[2]
554 Muqan Qaghan defeats the Rouran Khaganate[2]
557 Battle of Bukhara: Istämi (brother of Bumin) of the western Turkic Khaganate makes an alliance with the Sasanian Empire[4]
563 Istämi of the Turkic Khaganate defeats the Hephthalite Empire in battle[1]
568 Envoys reach the Byzantine Empire asking for them to hand over the Avars, slaves of the Turkic Khaganate [5]
572 Muqan Qaghan dies and is succeeded by his brother Taspar Qaghan[6]
580 Taspar Qaghan marries Princess Qianjin of Northern Zhou[6]
581 Göktürk civil war: Taspar Qaghan dies and his designated heir Apa Qaghan, son of Muqan Qaghan, goes to war with Ishbara Qaghan, son of Issik Qaghan; Amrak, son of Taspar Qaghan, renounces his claim to the throne[7]
582 Ishbara Qaghan conducts raids on China[8]
583 Göktürk civil war: Apa Qaghan is defeated by Ishbara Qaghan and flees to Tardu, son of Istämi, of the Western Turkic Khaganate[7]
584 Göktürk civil war: Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate defeats Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate[9]
585 Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is defeated by the Sui dynasty[10]
587 Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate dies and is succeeded by his brother Bagha Qaghan, who captures Apa Qaghan[7][11]
588 First Perso-Turkic War: Bagha Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate invades Herat but is defeated and dies from a stray arrow; he is succeeded by Tulan Qaghan, son of Ishbara Qaghan[12][1]
597 Tulan Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks Yami Qaghan, son of Bagha Qaghan, and forces him to flee to the Sui dynasty[13]
599 Tulan Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is killed by his subordinates and is succeeded by Yami Qaghan, son of Bagha Qaghan, while Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate declares himself ruler of all Turks[14]
Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty[15]

 

7th century

Year Event
600 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty[15]
602 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in Ordos [13]
603 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted and flees to the Tuyuhun;[16] he is succeeded by Heshana Khagan, great-grandson of Tardu[17]
605 Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Khitans on behalf of the Sui dynasty[18]
610 Heshana Khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Sheguy, grandson of Tardu, who succeeds him[17]
611 Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his son Shibi Khan[19]
Heshana Khagan flees to the Sui dynasty[17]
615 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty.[19]
617 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate aids Emperor Gaozu of Tang in his rebellion against the Sui dynasty[20]
Sheguy of the Western Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Tong Yabghu Qaghan[21]
618 Heshana Khagan is killed by envoys from the Eastern Turkic Khaganate[17]
619 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Chuluo[17]
620 Chuluo of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Illig Qaghan[17]
622 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[22]
624 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and his nephew Tölis Qaghan invade the Tang dynasty but Li Shimin contacts Tölis and persuades him not to attack, forcing the invasion to a halt[23]
625 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate conducts raids on the Tang dynasty but is repulsed[24]
626 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate invades the Tang dynasty and the newly crowned Emperor Taizong of Tang agrees to payments of tribute[24]
627 Third Perso-Turkic War: Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sasanian Empire and captures Derbent and Tbilisi[1]
The Karluks revolt against the Western Turkic Khaganate[25]
Tang and Uyghur forces engage in battle with the Turks and Tibetans.[26][27]
630 Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks: Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Li Jing of the Tang dynasty and captured by Li Shiji but released; the Eastern Turkic Khaganate becomes a vassal of Tang[28]
Xuanzang visits the court of Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate[29]
Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is murdered by his uncle Külüg Sibir[21]
Külüg Sibir of the Western Turkic Khaganate is killed by Irbis Bolun Cabgu, son of Tong Yabghu Qaghan[30]
The Western Turkic Khaganate disintegrates into two loose tribal confederations, the western Nushibi and eastern Dulu Turks, collectively known as the On Oq (Ten Arrows)[25]
632 Irbis Bolun Cabgu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted; he is succeeded by Dulu Khan, son of Bagha Shad, a close kinsman of Tong Yabghu Qaghan[31]
634 Dulu Khan of the Western Turkic Khaganate abdicates and is succeeded by his brother Ishbara Tolis[32]
638 Ishbara Tolis of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted in favor of Yukuk Shad, son of Illig Qaghan[33]
642 Yukuk Shad of the Western Turkic Khaganate flees west and is replaced by Irbis Seguy, grandson of Ishbara Tolis[33]
649 Irbis Seguy of the Western Turkic Khaganate flees west and is replaced by Ashina Helu, a descendant of Istämi[10]
656 Karluk and Turgesh forces of the Western Turkic Khaganate are defeated by Cheng Yaojin[34]
657 Battle of Irtysh River: Ashina Helu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Su Dingfang of the Tang dynasty[35]
658 Conquest of the Western Turks: Ashina Helu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Su Dingfang of the Tang dynasty and lives out the rest of his days in Chang'an; the Western Turkic Khaganate is annexed by Tang[36]
660 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in attacking Shule (Kashgar)[37]
665 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in attacking Yutian (Hotan)[38]
677 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in capturing Qiuci (Kucha)[37]
679 Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi of the Chanyu Protectorate make Ashina Nishufu a Khagan and revolt against Tang dynasty.[39]
680 Pei Xingjian defeats Ashina Nishufu and Ashina Nishufu is killed by his men.[39]
Ashide Wenfu makes Ashina Funian a Khagan and revolts against Tang dynasty.[39]
681 Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrender to Pei Xingjian.[39]
Ilterish Qaghan revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.[40]
682 Ilterish Qaghan declares the Second Turkic Khaganate[40]
Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
683 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
684 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
685 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
687 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
692 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate dies and is succeeded by his brother Qapaghan Qaghan[40]
693 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
694 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[43]
696 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Khitans to the east and raids the Tang dynasty[42]
697 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[43]
698 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]

 

8th century

Year Event
702 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
706 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
707 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[44]
711 Battle of Bolchu: Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Turgesh[45]
713 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate sends an army to aid Soghd against the Umayyad Caliphate but is defeated and retreats the following year[46]
716 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is killed in an ambush and Bilge Khagan, son of Ilterish Qaghan, succeeds him[40]
720 Bilge Khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate invades the Tang dynasty and extracts tribute[40]
734 Bilge Khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is assassinated and his son Yollıg Khagan succeeds him only to die in the same year; he is replaced by his brother Tengri Qaghan under the care of his mother Po Beg[40]
741 Tengri Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is murdered by Pan Kültiğin, one of his shads (governor), who is then defeated by the Basmyl, and Kutluk Yabgu Khagan, son of Ilterish Qaghan succeeds him[47]
742 The Basmyl, Uyghurs, and Karluks revolt against the Second Turkic Khaganate and Kutluk Yabgu Khagan is killed; Özmiş Khagan, son of Pan Kültiğin, succeeds him[48]
744 The Uyghurs dismantle the Second Turkic Khaganate, establishing the Uyghur Khaganate; Özmiş Khagan is killed[47]

 










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