Osmanlı İmparatorluğu

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Osmanlı İmparatorluğu

Second State of Braun & Hogenberg’s View of Istanbul (LINK)


Description (LINK)

Second State of Braun & Hogenberg's View of Istanbul

Important early map / birdseye view of Istanbul, from Braun & Hogenberg's monumental town book.

The Braun & Hogenberg view is one of the finest and most sought-after views of Istanbul. Viewed from the village of Scutari, the City is shown with all its fortifications, the original Genouse district of Galata on the opposite bank of the Golden Horn to the right. European galleons and Turkish galleys fill the seas of the Bosporus and Golden Horn. The great buildings of 16th century Istanbul during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent can be clearly seen, including the "Suleymaniye Mosque" and the "Topkapi" palace. The lower center is filled with a parading Turkish horseman and troop of Janissaries.

This is the second state of the view, with the roundel at the right including the portrait of Sultan Murad III, which is blank in state 1.

The following is excerpted from the work of Julian M. Stargardt and his essay on the view:

The original of this map is often incorrectly attributed to Giovanni Andrea Vavassore, called Vadagnino, who created a fine view of Constantinople published in Venice in 1520. Vavassore's view is also said to have influenced the view published in the 1550 and subsequent editions of Sebastian Munster's Cosmographia. Vavassore's view is in turn said to have been based on a 1480 view, now apparently lost, by Venetian artist Giovianni Bellini, who was invited by Mehmet II Fatih, i.e. 'the Conqueror' to Constantinople.

But a closer comparison of the Vavassore, Munster, and Braun & Hogenberg maps or views of Constantinople reveals significant differences. Most notably in the topographic details of the city-scape, especially the Roman remains such as the Hippodrome, today's 'At Meydan', which while not absent in the Vavassore map, is not clearly depicted, whereas it is very clear, detailed and accurate in both the Munster and Braun & Hogenberg maps, as are the locations of churches, palaces and other monuments which are more accurately depicted in the Munster and Braun & Hogenberg maps.

Compared with the Munster map, the Braun and Hogenberg map or view of Constantinople is in particular distinguished and made unique by the portrait of the mounted horseman identified as the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent (6 November 1494 - 7 September 1566) who claimed among other titles to be Roman Emperor, a title which even the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was forced to recognize in 1547.

In his essay Stargardt puts forth evidence that “the title of the map ‘Byzantium Nunc Constantinopolis’ may be a part of Habsuburg anti-Ottoman propaganda. He notes that the origins of the name Byzantium can be found in mythology.

Byzas decided to set sail with his companions to found a colony but before departing he consulted the Oracle at Delphi who gave him the enigmatic advice “Found your colony opposite the land of the blind.” He set sail for the Black Sea intending to join the burgeoning Greek colonies there. But, as he came to the Sea of Marmara entrance to the Bosphorus, he glanced at the flourishing settlement of Chalcedon, today's Kadikoy, on the Asian shore and then across to the European shore where he was struck by the magnificent but uninhabited (by humans at any rate) triangular peninsular pointing at Asia with its family links to his mother and grandmother. To Byzas it seemed clear the settlers of Chalcedon were blind for ignoring the magnificent European location and Byzas decided to found his colony on that spot.

Whatever the truth of these charming legends, the city and state of Byzantium grew from its mythical 6th century BC roots into a rich and flourishing trading state that by at least the 1st century BC had taken the star and crescent moon as its emblem. It remained independent until 196 AD, when it was conquered by Roman forces loyal to Septimus Severus, after having allied itself with the losing side in one of Rome's frequent civil wars. The city suffered in the siege that led to its capture but Severus caused it to be re-built and it continued as an important Roman city. Its highly defensible and strategic location astride maritime and land trade routes from East to West and North to South attracted Constantine the Great and he chose it to replace Rome as the Imperial capital.

Re-dedicated as Constantinople on 11 May 330 AD, a name it was to keep for the next 1,600 years, the new capital of the Roman Empire was self-consciously a Christian city, as opposed to pagan Rome which continued to host pagan traditions in its city government until the late 4th century AD. Constantinople's two principal churches, Hagia Irene and Hagia Sophia, both illustrated on this map and both still standing today, are dedicated to ‘Sacred Peace’ and ‘Sacred Wisdom,’ reflecting the aspirations of the new imperial capital and the new official Christian religion of the Roman Empire.

Constantine the Great encouraged leading Roman families to resettle in Constantinople, and the transfer of wealth and power to Constantinople was reflected in the ascendancy of the city as the new imperial capital over Rome. An ascendancy reinforced when Rome was sacked by invading "barbarians" while Constantinople was not. Though Constantinople was firmly located within the Greek speaking sphere of the Roman Empire, the Court and administrative language continued to be Latin until in or about 620 AD when, according to the later Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, the Emperor Heraclius decreed that Greek would replace Latin as the official language for military and administrative purposes. To suggest to a Latin speaking Roman Emperor like Justinian that either the city he ruled from or his empire was "Byzantine" would, one imagines, not have been greeted favorably. The city of Rome was a hollow shadow of its former glory and glad to accept protection from Justinian and his successors. For the Romans who ruled from Constantinople until Tuesday 29 May 1453, the city was Constantinople and their realm was Roman and that is how their contemporaries, friends or foes, around the world referred to them.

Until the late 16th century the names “Rome,” “Roman” and “Roman Empire” were the accepted names for the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire and what today is generally called the ‘Byzantine Empire.’ The division of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire is an anachronism with its roots in 16th Century Habsburg anti-Ottoman propaganda. Prior to 1557, "Rome", "Roman Republic" and "Roman Empire" were the accepted names for the geo-political entity that had its mythical origins with Romulus and Remus on or about 21 April 735 BC, with the founding of the city of Rome in Latium, today's Lazio in Italy. Such was the majesty and longevity of the Roman Empire that its name continued to be used to invoke legitimacy long after the Roman Empire's effective demise as a geo-political entity. In the 15th and 16th Century, and to a lesser extent later, the name of Rome was a political hot potato and potent propaganda symbol, particularly in the long running wars between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans. Both sides claimed to be the true heirs of Rome as they struggled for military and political dominance in Europe. To many people today it is strange to reflect that Ottoman Turkey's European borders extended almost to Venice as recently as the late 19th century while its Asian borders extended almost to the Indian Ocean. Braun and Hogenberg’s map “Byzantium Nunc Constantinopolis” may be part of the Habsburg’s propaganda campaign to detach the name “Rome” from the Ottomans. To contemporaries, the name of the city was “Constantinople” as it had been for the previous 1,242 years and was to remain for the next 358 years, until the Turkish Postal Law of 28 March 1930 officially changed the name to Istanbul, itself a vernacular contraction derived from the Greek “eis tin polis” (‘in’ or ‘going to the city,’ i.e. “The City”). In 1572 only a few scholars would have recalled that the city had once been called Byzantium.

* * *

The term “Byzantine” for the Roman empire was first used in 1557 by the Habsburg scholar-librarian Hieronymus Wolf based in Augsburg, the imperial capital of the Holy Roman Empire. Wolf was sponsored by the powerful Fugger banking family whose close ties to the Habsburg dynasty were legendary and whose library was said to be the best in Europe. Wolf uses the name "Byzantine" to identify the latter Roman Empire in his 1557 Corpus Historiae Byzantinae. It seems likely that Wolf consciously used the term Byzantine as a piece of Habsburg anti-Ottoman propaganda at the height of Habsburg-Ottoman rivalry and at a time when the Ottomans were claiming to be the true heirs of Rome, perhaps as a way of legitimizing and making more attractive their rule over a large and, at the time, increasing part of Central, Southern and Eastern Europe. A scant 10 years earlier the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's ambassadors on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire had been obliged to sign a truce with the Ottomans, the 1547 Truce of Adrianople, in which the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V is identified not as “Holy Roman Emperor” but as “King of Spain,” while the Ottoman Emperor, Suleiman the Magnificent, is identified as ‘Roman Emperor.’ Under the terms of the truce, the Habsburgs recognized Ottoman control of Hungary, did homage to the Ottomans as the Habsburg's overlords in Hungary and paid the Ottomans an annual feudal homage of 30,000 gold ducats for their lands in Hungary. One can almost hear Charles V's teeth gnashing and grinding at the humiliation. These terms were again formalized in the 1568 Treaty of Adrianople. In some senses, though it may seem surprising today, the Ottomans had as good or better claim to call themselves "Roman" as the Habsburgs. The Ottomans were by inter-marriage descended from Roman imperial dynasties, they had conquered much of the former Roman empire, including in 1453 its capital Constantinople, and had absorbed imperial Roman noble families into their society, they believed themselves, or at least held themselves out, to be Rome's heirs as they vied with the Habsburgs for control of the Mediterranean basin.

With the coming of the Reformation the contest became more complex as the Ottomans, in sharp contrast to some so-called Christian nations of the time, practiced religious tolerance and gave safe haven to refugees from political and religious persecution, like the Jews from Spain, or Protestants and Orthodox from Bohemia and Hungary, or Catholics from newly Protestant realms. To the Habsburgs, it must have looked like a life-and-death challenge with the Ottoman super-power whose borders stretched from Venice to Persia, threatening to cut Austria off from the sea, and who besieged Vienna itself in 1521. Little wonder then that Habsburg propagandists seized on whatever material they could to undermine Ottoman legitimacy and strived to undermine Ottoman claims to be heirs to Rome and the Roman Empire.

* * *

It took until the latter 19th century before acceptance was achieved of the names "Byzantine" and "Byzantium" for the Roman Empire. Gibbon in his seminal “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” continued to use “Rome” and “Roman,” not “Byzantine” or “Byzantium.” Though in the latter 19th century the terms Byzantine / Byzantium came to replace Rome and Roman for the latter Roman Empire, to this day debate continues among scholars of the subject as to when to date the “founding” of the Byzantine Empire. The truth is there never was an empire by that name and its leaders and citizens would be enraged or perhaps laugh if they heard their home referred to that way.

The rise in popularity of the terms Byzantine / Byzantium for the latter or Eastern Roman Empire can be traced through the use of the terms by authors such as French author Charles du Fresne Sieur du Cagne (1610-1688) wrote "Historia Byzantina" published in 1680 in Paris by Louis Billaine, which affected the likes of influential French philosopher Montesquieu. In English it was not until George Finlay's (1799-1875) "History of the Byzantine Empire from 716 to 1057" (1857) that the term and concept of a Byzantine Empire came into English use. Subsequent scholars have adopted the use of the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantium" to identify and distinguish the latter Eastern Roman Empire from the earlier empire.

Tying this historical overview back to the view, Stargardt notes:

  And thus back to Braun and Hogenberg's beautiful map of Constantinople. Georg Braun was the principal editor of Civitates Orbis Terrarium published between 1572 and 1617, from which the current map comes. . . Braun was a Catholic priest, and Frans Hogenberg was also a Catholic, who to avoid persecution fled his native Mechelen (in today's Belgium) and settled in 1564 in Cologne. Thus both would most likely have been partisans of the Habsburg cause against the Ottomans and taken the opportunity to promote the use of the term “Byzantium” in place of Constantinople, though at least so far as the name of the city is concerned there is some historical validity to the name, it was known as Byzantium before it was rebuilt, expanded and renamed between 324 and 330 AD.

Condition Description
Old color. Minor toning and soiling in the margins.

Julian M. Stargardt, LL.B., F.R.G.S.; 1572 Byzantium Nunc Constantinopolis – Georg Braun (1541-1622) and Frans Hogenberg (1535-90) (Shared with us in November 2014).

Georg Braun Biography
Georg Braun (1541-1622) was born and died in Cologne. His primary vocation was as Catholic cleric; he spent thirty-seven years as canon and dean at the church St. Maria ad Gradus, in Cologne. Braun was the chief editor of the Civitates orbisterrarum, the greatest book of town views ever published. His job entailed hiring artists, acquiring source material for the maps and views, and writing the text. In this role, he was assisted by Abraham Ortelius. Braun lived into his 80s, and he was the only member of the original team to witness the publication of the sixth volume in 1617.

Frans Hogenberg Biography

Frans Hogenberg (ca. 1540-ca. 1590) was a Flemish and German engraver and mapmaker who also painted. He was born in Mechelen, south of Antwerp, the son of wood engraver and etcher Nicolas Hogenberg. Together with his father, brother (Remigius), uncle, and cousins, Frans was one member of a prominent artistic family in the Netherlands.

During the 1550s, Frans worked in Antwerp with the famous mapmaker Abraham Ortelius. There, he engraved the maps for Ortelius’ groundbreaking first atlas, published in Antwerp in 1570, along with Johannes van Deotecum and Ambrosius and Ferdinand Arsenius. It is suspected he engraved the title page as well. Later, Ortelius supported Hogenberg with information for a different project, the Civitates orbis terrarium (edited by Georg Braun, engraved by Hogenberg, published in six volumes, Cologne, 1572-1617). Hogenberg engraved the majority of the work’s 546 prospects and views.

It is possible that Frans spent some time in England while fleeing from religious persecution, but he was living and working in Cologne by 1580. That is the city where he died around 1590. In addition to his maps, he is known for his historical allegories and portraits. His brother, Remigius, also went on to some fame as an engraver, and he died around the same time as his brother.


Antique Maps Inc.
7463 Girard Ave.
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🗺️ 1570 Duchetti — Costantinopoli

1570 Duchetti — Costantinopoli (LINK)


Incredible c. 1570 Duchetti Lafreri-school view of Constantinople



Map maker:

Claudio Duchetti

Place and Year:

Rome, c. 1570


44 x 30 cm (17 x 12 in)


Copperplate engraving



Condition Rating:



Bird’s-eye-view of Constantinople/Istanbul, as seen from Üsküdar (Scutari), on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus. The view follows the cartographic model of the important woodcut of Andrea Vavassore, from Venice. Duchetti likely drew inspiration as well from small views found in the various works of Forlani, Bertelli, and Zenoi. These cartographers produced a significant number of city plans and views, especially in the years 1567-9.

Engraved signature and date by the editor. First state (of two). Shield and star watermark in the paper.

Claude Duchet (Duchetti) was a print dealer and publisher born in France and active in Venice circa 1565-72 and subsequently in Rome. He was the brother of Francesco Duchetti and a nephew of Antonio Lafreri, inheriting half his plates in 1577.


Excellent impression on thick paper. Small restoration on right side, expertly done; for the rest, excellent conservation.




Tooley, Maps in Italian Atlases of the Sixteenth Century, 156 I/II; Meurer, The Strabo Atlas, 166; Franco, Novacco Map Collection, 114.



📹 Old color Braun & Hogenbergs birds-eye-view of Istanbul (VİDEO)

Old color Braun & Hogenbergs birds-eye-view of Istanbul (LINK)

Transformations of Istanbul: from Byzantium to Constantinople, to the city we know today.


Unusual map of the Turkish Empire, extending from Corsica and Sardinia to Asia Minor, Cyprus and the Black Sea (LINK)


Description (LINK)

Unusual map of the Turkish Empire

Unusual map of the Turkish Empire, extending from Corsica and Sardinia to Asia Minor, Cyprus and the Black Sea.

Includes approximately 25 medallions showing icons of Greek History.

Condition Description
Cancelled Library stamp at bottom left.

Homann Heirs Biography
Homann Heirs was a German publishing firm that enjoyed a major place in the European map market throughout the eighteenth century. Founded in 1702 by Johann Baptist Homann, the business passed to his son, Christoph, upon Johann’s death in 1724. Christoph died in 1730, aged only 27, and the firm was inherited by subsequent Homann heirs. This altered the name of the company, which was known as Homann Erben, or Homann heirs. The firm continued in business until 1848.

Antique Maps Inc.
7463 Girard Ave.
La Jolla, CA 92037
United States


  Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Roma İmparatorluğu

  • Osmanlılar hiçbir zaman ‘Müslüman’ bir devlet ya da imparatorluk değildiler.
  Böyle bir dinsel san devlet kavramına aykırıdır. Devlet uyrukları açısından inanç ayrımı yapmaz. Devlet, tam tersine, kavramı gereği duyunç özgürlüğünü tanır ve uyruklarının duygularına karışma gibi bir sorunu yoktur.


  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğu hiçbir zaman bir ‘Türk’ devleti değildi.
  Böyle bir etnik san devlet kavramına aykırıdır ve ulus-devletinin uyrukları özgür “yurttaşlar” iken, bir imparatorluğun uyrukları ise istençsiz kullardır ve dinsel inançları ve etnik karakterleri politik belirlenimler değildir.
  Etnik grup dine ilgisizdir, çünkü din evrenseldir.


  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğu kendini Roma İmparatorluğunun ardılı olarak gördü.
  • Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu devlet dili olarak Pers dilini kullandı.
  • Anadolu Selçukluları kendilerini Roma Sultanlığı olarak gördüler.



Tarihi istenç yapar ve istenç imparatora aittir. Tarihi imparatorlar belirler çünkü yalnızca imparator özgürdür. Halklara tarihte yalnızca istençsiz uyruklar rolünü oynamak düşer. Egemen ulus-devletler ortaya çıktığı zaman imparatorluk gereksizdir ve tarihin işi tamamlanmıştır.


Etnik grup politik bir kavram değildir, çünkü özgür değildir ya da istençsizdir.

İmparatorlukta yalnızca tekerk özgürdür ve politika yalnızca onun istencidir.

Ulus egemendir, çünkü özgürdür ve tüm politika onun istencidir.

  • Yasa etnik ayrım yapmaz, çünkü evrenseldir.
  • Evrensel moral doğrular bir etnik gruptan bir başkasına değişmez.
  • Etik evrenseldir ve özü olan özgür, evrensel bireysellik karakteri yoluyla tikel etnik karekterleri ortadan kaldırır.


  • Etnik karakter ne hak, ne ahlak, ne de etik kavramlarını tanır, ve bir devletin kuruluşu ve varoluşu için gerekli olanlar yalnızca bu kavramlardır.
  • Etnisite politik ve dolayısıyla tarihsel bir kavram değildir.
  • Etnisitenin politik ilgisi politikayı olumsuzlamaktır.
  • Etnik karakterde hak kavramının yeri güç ile doldurulur.
  • Etnik karakter moral nitelikten yoksundur, çünkü özgür değildir.
  • Etnik karakter yasayı anlamaz, tanımaz, ve çiğner.
  • Etnik gruplar hiçbir zaman devlet kurmaz ve hiçbir zaman devlet olmazlar.
  • Modern devletler özgür ulus bilinci tarafından kurulur.
  Persler Medlere karşı üstünlüğü ele geçirdikleri zaman, ‘Pers İmparatorluğu’ Kyrus’un İmparatorluğu idi. Selçukluları Tuğrul Bey kurdu, ve Horasan’daki etnik Oğuzlar yalnızca onun istencini kabul ettiler. “Yahudi devleti” anlatımı da bir oxymorondur ve böyle etnik ‘devletler’ ulus istenci üzerine dayanmazlar.




    Osmanlı İmparatorluğu dünya tarihinde en uzun süreli ve en güçlü imparatorluklardan biri idi.
  • 299’da Osmanlı Beyliği olarak başladı ve bir imparatorluğa gelişti.
  • 1453’te Roma İmparatorluğunu sonlandırdı ve Konstantinopolis’i başkenti yaptı.
  • Osmanlı tini yalnızca Selçuklular ile değil, ama Roma İmparatorluğu ile de ilişki içinde biçimlendi.
  • 600 yıl boyunca 36 sultan Orta Doğu, Doğu Avrupa ve Kuzey Afrika’da egemen oldu.
  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğu bir tekerklik olduğu için, Sultan biricik egemen idi ve egemenliğini dinsel ya da dünyasal başka hiçbir istenç ile paylaşmadı.
  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğu dinsel bir devlet değil, dünyasal bir güç idi ve bir imparatorluk olduğu için etnik ve dinsel ayrım gütmedi.
  • Halifelik kurumu yalnızca dinsel bir topluluk olarak “Ummah” için önderliği temsil ediyordu, toplumsal ya da politik bir gücü değil. Modern kültürde bir yeri olmadığı için silindi.
  • Osmanlı hanedanlığı tekerkliğin sürekliliğinin güvencesi oldu.

    15’inci yüzyılda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu gelişimini sürdürürken, Avrupa’da karanlık Orta Çağlar henüz sona ermeye başlamıştı.
  • Roma İmparatorluğunun kendisi varlığını sürdürürken varolan ‘Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu’ Avrupa’da devletlerin oluşumunu önceleyen özel bir Gotik ‘devlet’ türü olarak ortaya çıktı.
  • Feodalizm erksiz bir tek-erklik koşulunda ortaya çıkan bir haksızlık ve ahlaksızlık durumudur.
  • Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğunun varlığı feodal bir derebeyleri hordasının izni ve onayı üzerine bağımlı idi.

The New Cambridge History of Islam — II, s. 340.

The New Cambridge History of Islam — II, s. 340.



Europe on the Eve of the Ottoman Invasion (1350)

🕑 The Ottoman Empire 1350-1918

The Ottoman Empire 1350-1918 (L)

  • ca. 1243: Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor
  • 1299-1326: Osman I
    • 1301: Osman declares himself sultan and establishes the Ottoman Empire
  • 1345: Seljuk Turks first cross the Bosporus
  • 1389: Ottomans defeat Serbs at Kosovo
  • 1402: Tamerlane defeats Ottomans at Ankara
  • 1451-1481: Mohammed the Conqueror
  • 1520-1566: Sulayman II the Magnificent
    • 1526: Battle of Mohacs
    • 1529: First Siege of Vienna
  • 1571: The Battle of Lepanto
  • 1641-1687: Reign of Mohammad IV
  • 1703-1730: Cultural revival under Ahmed III
  • 1774: Trety of Kucuk Kaynarca
  • 1792: Treaty of Jassy
  • 1793: Selim III proclaims the "New Order"
  • 1798-1799: Napoleon attempts to conquer Egypt.
  • 1804: First Serbian Uprising.
  • 1815: Second Serbian Uprising.
  • 1822-1830: Greek War of Independence
  • 1826: Massacre of Janissaries; Ottoman fleet is sunk at Navarino
  • 1829: Treaty of Adrinople
  • 1839: Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane; the Tanzimat Period begins.
  • 1841: The Straits Convention
  • 1853-1856: The Crimean War
  • 1876: The Ottoman Constitution is proclaimed.
  • 1878: Congress of Berlin: Serbia and Montenegro are granted independence. Bulgaria is granted broad autonomy.
  • 1908: The Comittee of Union and Progress (The Young Turks) is formed.
    • The Ottoman Constitution is restored.
    • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 1912-1913: The First Balkan War
  • 1913: The Second Balkan War
  • 1914: The Ottoman Empire enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.
  • 1915: The Armenian Massacre
  • 1919-1924: End of the Ottoman Empire
    • 1919: Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) lands at Samsun
    • 1923: The sultanate is abolished and Turkey is declared a republic
    • 1924: The office of caliph is abolished


🗺️ Ottoman Empire (Animated Map)

Ottoman Empire (Animated Map)


🗺️ İslamic States in AD 1450 (Animated Map)

İslamic States in AD 1450 (Animated Map)


📹 What if the Ottoman Empire Reunited Today? (VİDEO)

What if the Ottoman Empire Reunited Today? (LINK)



📹 Ottoman Sultans Family Tree (1299-1922) (VİDEO)

Ottoman Sultans Family Tree (1299-1922) (LINK)

Correction: Harun Osmanoglu is the brother of Dundar Ali Osman, not his son (as was said in the video).

My apologies for leaving out Kosem Sultan. I've since added her to the chart. Also, a correction: Harun Osmanoglu is the brother of Dundar Ali Osman, not his son (as was said in the video).


  Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire (W)

Ottoman Empire (W)

The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally “The Exalted Ottoman State”; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.

While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.


The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān (عثمان‎). In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye (دولت عليه عثمانیه‎), (literally “The Supreme Ottoman State”) or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti (عثمانلى دولتى‎). In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ("The Ottoman Empire") or Osmanlı Devleti ("The Ottoman State").

The Turkish word for "Ottoman" (Osmanlı) originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term “Turk” (Türk) was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, and was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker who was not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī (رومى‎), or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia. The term Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.

In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920-23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character.



Ottoman Empire (B)

Ottoman Empire (B)

Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Ottoman period spanned more than 600 years and came to an end only in 1922, when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East. At its height the empire encompassed most of southeastern Europe to the gates of Vienna, including present-day Hungary, the Balkan region, Greece, and parts of Ukraine; portions of the Middle East now occupied by Iraq, Syria, Israel, and Egypt; North Africa as far west as Algeria; and large parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The term Ottoman is a dynastic appellation derived from Osman I, the nomadic Turkmen chief who founded both the dynasty and the empire about 1300.
The Ottoman State To 1481: The Age Of Expansion

The first period of Ottoman history was characterized by almost continuous territorial expansion, during which Ottoman dominion spread out from a small northwestern Anatolian principality to cover most of southeastern Europe and Anatolia. The political, economic, and social institutions of the classical Islamic empires were amalgamated with those inherited from Byzantium and the great Turkish empires of Central Asia and were reestablished in new forms that were to characterize the area into modern times.

Origins and expansion of the Ottoman state, c. 1300-1402

In their initial stages of expansion, the Ottomans were leaders of the Turkish warriors for the faith of Islam, known by the honorific title ghāzī (Arabic: “raider”), who fought against the shrinking Christian Byzantine state. The ancestors of Osman I, the founder of the dynasty, were members of the Kayı tribe who had entered Anatolia along with a mass of Turkmen Oğuz nomads. Those nomads, migrating from Central Asia, established themselves as the Seljuq dynasty in Iran and Mesopotamia in the mid-11th century, overwhelmed Byzantium after the Battle of Manzikert (1071), and occupied eastern and central Anatolia during the 12th century. The ghazis fought against the Byzantines and then the Mongols, who invaded Anatolia following the establishment of the Il-Khanid (Ilhanid) empire in Iran and Mesopotamia in the last half of the 13th century. With the disintegration of Seljuq power and its replacement by Mongol suzerainty, enforced by direct military occupation of much of eastern Anatolia, independent Turkmen principalities — one of which was led by Osman — emerged in the remainder of Anatolia.

Classical Ottoman society and administration (B)

During the 16th century the institutions of society and government that had been evolving in the Ottoman dominions for two centuries reached the classical forms and patterns that were to persist into modern times. The basic division in Ottoman society was the traditional Middle Eastern distinction between a small ruling class of Ottomans ( Osmanlı) and a large mass of subjects called rayas ( reʿâyâ). Three attributes were essential for membership in the Ottoman ruling class: profession of loyalty to the sultan and his state; acceptance and practice of Islam and its underlying system of thought and action; and knowledge and practice of the complicated system of customs, behaviour, and language known as the Ottoman Way. Those who lacked any of those attributes were considered to be members of the subject class, the “protected flock” of the sultan.


  Historical debate on the origins and nature of the Ottoman state
  • İmparatorluklar ön-modern despotik döneme aittir ve onlar durumunda özgür modern dönemin kategorileri geçerli değildir.


  • İmparatorluk ne etniktir ne de dinsel.
  • İmparatorluk etnik ayrımlara ilgisizdir, çünkü etnik karakter politik bir belirlenim değildir.
  • İmparatorluk dinsel inanç türlülüğünün üzerinde durur ve dinsel hoşgörü uygular.


  • İmparatorluk politik istencin tek bir bireyde yoğunlaşmasıdır. İmparatorluk tek-erkliktir.
  • İmparatorluk istençsiz halkların istencidir ve istençsiz insan ancak boyun eğmeyi bilir.


  • Etnik kabile karakteri dil birliği ve ortak davranış alışkanlıkları ile belirlenir.
  • Etnik karakterde ne bir ulusu belirleyen özgür istenç vardır, ne de din kavramına yaklaşacak bir inanç biçimi.
  • Etnik karakterin doğal kan bağı ile de bir ilgisi yoktur.
  • Etnik kültür genetik bir bağlam kapsamaz.
  • Salt etnik karakter ile belirlenen istençsiz insan etik nitelikten bütünüyle yoksundur.
  • Etnik kabilenin yerleşik kent kültürleri ile ilişkisi gereksinimlerini talan ya da tecim yoluyla karşılamaya sınırlıdır.
  • Etnik karakter duyunç gelişiminden yoksun olduğu için dinsel duyguya kapalıdır.
  • Savaş despotik imparatorluk istencinin ve duyunçsuz ve istençsiz etnik kitlelerin kollektif eylemidir.


  • Kavram kullanamayan yazarlar nesnelerini belirlemede ve tanımlamada nesnelerine onlara uymayan kültürel tasarımları, duygu ve düşünceleri yüklerler.
  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğun gaziler tarafından kurulduğunu ileri süren “Gaza tezi” kabile üyelerine yetenekli olmadıkları ve anlamayacakları idealleri yükler.
  • Osmanlı Beyliği hiçbir ayrım yapmaksızın ordusuna Romalıları aldı ve başka beyliklere karşı savaştı.
  • Politik olarak bir tabula rasa olan kabile kültürü yüksek kentli kültürün politik birikimini özümsemek ve onunla kaynaşmak zorundadır.

Historical debate on the origins and nature of the Ottoman state

Historical debate on the origins and nature of the Ottoman state (W)

Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitzikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Roman state, and that in essence the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a thin Turkish Islamic guise. Kitzikis called the Ottoman state “a Greek-Turkish condominium.” The American historian Speros Vryonis wrote that the Ottoman state was centered on "a Byzantine-Balkan base with a veneer of the Turkish language and the Islamic religion". Other historians have followed the lead of the Austrian historian Paul Wittek who emphasized the Islamic character of the Ottoman state, seeing the Ottoman state as a "Jihad state" dedicated to expanding the world of Islam. Another group of historians led by the Turkish historian M. Fuat Koprulu championed the “gazi thesis” that saw the Ottoman state as a continuation of the way of life of the nomadic Turkic tribes who had come from East Asia to Anatolia via Central Asia and the Middle East on a much larger scale, and argued that the most important cultural influences on the Ottoman state came from Persia. More recently, the American historian Heath Lowry called the Ottoman state a "predatory confederacy" led in equal parts by Turks and Greeks converted to Islam.

The British historian Norman Stone suggested many continuities between the Eastern Roman and Ottoman empires such as the zeugarion tax of Byzantium becoming the Ottoman Resm-i çift tax, the pronoia land-holding system that linked the amount of land one owned with one's ability to raise cavalry becoming the Ottoman timar system, and the Ottoman measurement for land the donum was the same as the Byzantine stremma. Stone also pointed out that despite the fact that Sunni Islam was the state religion, the Eastern Orthodox Church was supported and controlled by the Ottoman state, and in return to accepting that control became the largest land-holder in the Ottoman Empire. Despite the similarities, Stone argued that a crucial difference was that the land grants under the timar system were not hereditary at first. Even after land grants under the timar system became inheritable, land ownings in the Ottoman Empire remained highly insecure, and the sultan could and did revoke land grants whenever he wished. Stone argued this insecurity in land tenure strongly discouraged Timariots from seeking long-term development of their land, and instead led the timariots to adopt a strategy of short term exploitation, which ultimately had deleterious effects on the Ottoman economy.

Ghaza thesis (W)

The Ghaza or Ghazi thesis (from Ottoman Turkish: غزا‎, ġazā, “holy war,” or simply "raid") is a historical paradigm first formulated by Paul Wittek which has been used to interpret the nature of the Ottoman Empire during the earliest period of its history, the fourteenth century, and its subsequent history. The thesis addresses the question of how the Ottomans were able to expand from a small principality on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire into a centralized, intercontinental empire. According to the Ghaza thesis, the Ottomans accomplished this by attracting recruits to fight for them in the name of Islamic holy war against the non-believers. Such a warrior was known in Turkish as a ghazi, and thus this thesis sees the early Ottoman state as a “Ghazi State,” defined by an ideology of holy war. The Ghaza Thesis dominated early Ottoman historiography throughout much of the twentieth century before coming under increasing criticism beginning in the 1980s. Historians now generally reject the Ghaza Thesis, and consequently the idea that Ottoman expansion was primarily fueled by holy war, but are conflicted with regard to what to replace it with.

Formation of the Ghaza thesis (W)

The Ghaza thesis was first formulated in the 1930s by Turkish historian Fuat Köprülü and Austrian historian Paul Wittek. Partly in response to contemporary Orientalist historians, who tried to marginalize the role of the Turks in Ottoman state formation, Köprülü formulated what was to become the Turkish nationalist view of early Ottoman history. According to Köprülü, the Ottoman polity was formed by Turkish tribes fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire, built upon Turkish tribal manpower, and administered by men from the Anatolian hinterland experienced in the Turco-Muslim political tradition of the Seljuks. Paul Wittek, responding to Köprülü's claims, accepted the Turco-Muslim basis of the early Ottoman state, agreeing that it grew out of the already highly developed civilization of Seljuk Anatolia and was fundamentally shaped by the unique conditions of the Byzantine frontier. Yet rather than Turkish ethnicity and tribal connections, he placed his primary emphasis upon the role of Islam. For Wittek, the Ottomans were first and foremost Islamic holy warriors. His primary evidence for this included the titles adopted by early Ottoman rulers, including an inscription erected in Bursa in 1337 describing Orhan, the second Ottoman ruler, as “ghazi, son of ghazi.” Wittek also relied upon the work of the early fifteenth-century Ottoman poet Ahmedi, who likewise described the early Ottoman rulers as ghazis. Thus in this formulation, the early Ottoman polity was built upon an "ideology of Holy War," and was able to grow powerful by attracting warriors to join in conquering the Christians of Anatolia and the Balkans. The early Ottomans harnessed the religious and martial energies of the frontier (uc) between the crumbling Byzantine and Seljuk states in order to conquer an empire. It was Wittek’s formulation which became generally (though not unanimously) accepted among Western historians of the Ottoman Empire for much of the twentieth century.

Revisionism (W)

The fundamental problem with the study of the fourteenth-century Ottomans is the lack of surviving documentation from that time period. Not a single Ottoman authentic written document has been found from the time of Osman I, the first Ottoman ruler. Historians are thus forced to rely upon sources produced long after the events they purport to describe. Ottoman studies have thus benefited from the techniques of literary criticism, allowing historians to properly analyze Ottoman literary works from later periods.

The Ghaza thesis came under attack from numerous scholars beginning in the 1980s. Critics drew attention to the fact that the early Ottomans acted in ways contrary to what one would expect from zealous religious warriors. They were not strictly orthodox Muslims, but rather tolerated many heterodox and syncretic beliefs and practices. They also willingly recruited Byzantines into their ranks and fought wars against other Muslims. Thus rather than describing reality, later Ottoman writers who characterized their ancestors as ghazis were “adorning [them] with higher ideals,” when in fact their original motivations had been much more mundane. For Ottomans writing in the fifteenth century, presenting the earlier Ottoman rulers as ghazis served their political objectives. In emphasizing the mythical and legendary quality of the stories presented by Ottoman writers, the historian Colin Imber has even gone so far as to declare the entire period a "black hole," the truth about which can never truly be known.

The Ottomans as a tribal group

While many scholars criticized the Ghaza thesis, few sought an alternative to replace it. Rudi Paul Lindner was the first to try in his 1983 publication Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia, in which he argued that the peculiarities of early Ottoman activity could best be explained through tribalism. Lindner saw tribalism through the lens of anthropology, which views tribes as organizations based not on shared bloodlines, but on shared political interests. Early Ottoman raids against the Byzantines were motivated not by religious zeal, but by the nomadic tribe’s need to engage in predation against settled society.

The Ottomans were able to incorporate Byzantines and fight against Muslims because their organization was fundamentally tribal, which allowed them to assimilate individuals and groups of diverse backgrounds. Citing various instances of their heterodoxy, Lindner even suggested that the early Ottomans may have been more Pagan than Muslim. In Lindner's view, this tribal inclusiveness began to break down during the reign of Osman's son Orhan (r. 1323/4-1362), as the Ottomans began to shift from being nomadic pastoralists into settled agricultural society. Orhan subsequently attracted Islamic scholars to his realm, who brought with them ideas about ghaza, and it was from them that he adopted the ghaza ideology in time for it to appear in his 1337 inscription in Bursa.

Ghaza as one of many factors

In his 1995 book Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State, Turkish scholar Cemal Kafadar addressed criticism of the Ghaza thesis by arguing that previous scholars had drawn too great a distinction between "orthodox" and "heterodox" Islam – one could consider oneself a legitimate Muslim without conforming exactly to a scholarly orthodoxy. Furthermore, Kafadar argued that the early Ottomans' very idea of ghaza may have differed from that of "orthodox" Islam. Citing contemporary Anatolian legends, he noted that the same figure could be portrayed as a ghazi while still cooperating with Christians. In Kafadar's view, ghaza was a real ideology which gave shape to frontier warriors as a social class, not simply an import from Muslim scholars. However, the terms ghaza and ghazi had a range of different meanings which shifted over time, sometimes referring to religiously motivated warriors and sometimes not. It was nevertheless ever present, and served as simply one out of many motivating forces behind Ottoman expansion.

Ghaza as a non-religious term

Following Kafadar, the next major reformulation of the theory of Ottoman origins was carried out by Heath Lowry in 2003. Lowry attacked Wittek's sources, arguing that Ahmedi's literary work cannot be interpreted as factual history, but rather was a fictionalized idealization of the past. According to Lowry, the terms ghaza and ghazi when used in the fourteenth and fifteenth-century Ottoman context had entirely non-religious meanings, as ghaza was interchangeable with the term akın, simply referring to a military raid. Many akıncıs (raiders) were also Christians, and would thus be very out of place in an army devoted to Islamic holy war. Ottoman warriors were thus motivated by the desire to win plunder and slaves, not to fight in the name of Islam. It was only certain writers, educated in the Islamic tradition, who tried to draw a connection between the secular ghaza of the frontier warriors and the religious ghaza as understood by Muslim intellectuals.


  Rise of the Ottoman Empire
  • Göçmen Oğuz Türkleri Sümerlerden bu yana 4.000 yıldır gelişmekte olan ve Roma İmparatorluğunda toparlanan bir uygarlık süreklisine katıldılar.
  • Moğolların, Timur’un ve Germanik Haçlı Seferlerinin fırtınalarına yenik düşmediler.
  • Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Mezopotamya uygarlığının özeti olan Pers İmparatorluğunun topraklarına egemen oldu.
  • Osmanlılar Roma İmparatorluğunun topraklarına egemen oldular.
  • Yeni Ortodoks Hıristiyan karakteri ile çözülmekte ve dağılmakta İmparatorluğa yeni bir kimlik altında bir kez daha dirilik ve dinçlik kazandırdılar.
  • Yunan-Roma kültürü yerine Pers-Arap kültürünü benimsediler.
  • Avrupa Reformasyon ile özgürleşme ve dolayısıyla gelişme ve güçlenme sürecine girdi.

Rise of the Ottoman Empire

Rise of the Ottoman Empire (W)

The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era. Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm.

By the middle of the fifteenth century the Ottoman sultans were able to accumulate enough personal power and authority to establish a centralized imperial state, a process which was brought to fruition by Sultan Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481). The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 is seen as the symbolic moment when the emerging Ottoman state shifted from a mere principality into an empire, marking a major turning point in its history.

The cause of Ottoman success cannot be attributed to any single factor, and they varied throughout the period as the Ottomans continually adapted to changing circumstances.

The earlier part of this period, the fourteenth century, is particularly difficult for historians to study due to the scarcity of sources. Not a single written document survives from the reign of Osman I, and very little survives from the rest of the century. The Ottomans, furthermore, did not begin to record their own history until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after many of the events they describe. It is thus a great challenge for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in analyzing the stories contained in these later chronicles, so much so that one historian has even declared it impossible, describing the earliest period of Ottoman history as a “black hole.”

Anatolia before the Ottomans

At the beginning of the thirteenth century Anatolia was divided between two relatively powerful states: the Byzantine Empire in the west and the Anatolian Seljuks in the central plateau. Equilibrium between them was disrupted by the Mongol invasion and conquest of the Seljuks following the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, and the reconquest of Constantinople by the Byzantine Palaeologos dynasty in 1261, which shifted Byzantine attention away from the Anatolian frontier. Mongol pressure pushed nomadic Turkish tribes to migrate westward, into the now poorly-defended Byzantine territory. From the 1260s onward Anatolia increasingly began to slip from Byzantine control, as Turkish Anatolian beyliks were established both in formerly Byzantine lands and in the territory of the fragmenting Seljuk Sultanate.

Political authority in western Anatolia was thus extremely fragmented by the end of the thirteenth century, split between locally established rulers, tribal groups, holy figures, and warlords, with Byzantine and Seljuk authority ever present but rapidly weakening.  The fragmentation of authority has led several historians to describe the political entities of thirteenth and fourteenth-century Anatolia as Taifas, or "petty kings", a comparison with the history of late-medieval Muslim Spain. The power of these groups was largely dependent upon their ability to attract military manpower. Western Anatolia was then a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them with opportunities for plunder and glory.

John William Godward

“Playtime", 1891 Painting by John William Godward, British, 1861-1922.

Origin of the Ottoman state

The Ottoman dynasty is named after the first ruler of the Ottoman polity, Osman I. According to later Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests. As evidenced by coins minted during his reign, Osman’s father was named Ertuğrul, but beyond this the details "are too mythological to be taken for granted." The origins of the Ottoman dynasty thus remain obscure, shrouded in myth and legend, and the identity of Osman's tribe and ancestors is not known for certain.

Likewise, nothing is known about how Osman first established his principality (beylik) as the sources, none of them contemporary, provide many different and conflicting origin stories. What is certain is that at some point in the late thirteenth century Osman emerged as the leader of a small principality centered on the town of Söğüt in the north-western Anatolian region of Bithynia.

Osman's principality was initially supported by the tribal manpower of nomadic Turkish groups, whom he led in raids against the Byzantine territories of the region. This Ottoman tribe was based not on blood-ties, but on political expedience. Thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin. The Ottoman enterprise came to be led by several great warrior families, at least one of which was of Greek Christian origin, that of Köse Mihal.  Nevertheless, Islam played a role in Ottoman self-identity from the very start, as evidenced by a land grant issued by Osman's son Orhan in 1324, describing him as "Champion of the Faith".

Gaza and gazis in early Ottoman history

In 1938 the Austrian historian Paul Wittek published an influential work entitled The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, in which he put forth the argument that the early Ottoman state was constructed upon an ideology of Islamic holy war against non-Muslims. Such a war was known as gaza, and a warrior fighting in it was called a gazi. Wittek's formulation, subsequently known as the "Gaza Thesis," was influential for much of the twentieth century, and led historians to portray the early Ottomans as zealous religious warriors dedicated to the spread of Islam.

Beginning in the 1980s, historians increasingly began to criticize Wittek's thesis. Scholars now recognize that the terms gaza and gazi did not have strictly religious connotations for the early Ottomans, and were often used in a secular sense to simply refer to raids. Additionally, the early Ottomans were neither strict orthodox Muslims nor were they unwilling to cooperate with non-Muslims, and several of the companions of the first Ottoman rulers were either non-Muslims or recent converts. The idea of holy war existed during the fourteenth century, but it was only one out of many factors influencing Ottoman behavior. It was only later, in the fifteenth century, that Ottoman writers retroactively began to portray the early Ottomans as zealous Islamic warriors, in order to provide a noble origin for their dynasty which had by then constructed an intercontinental Islamic empire.


Anatolia and the Balkans were greatly impacted by the arrival of the Black Death after 1347. Urban centers and settled regions were devastated, while nomadic groups suffered less of an impact. The first Ottoman incursions into the Balkans began shortly thereafter. Depopulation resulting from the plague was thus almost certainly a major factor in the success of early Ottoman expansion into the Balkans, and contributed to the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the depopulation of Constantinople.


Forum Romanum

During this early period, before the Ottomans were able to establish a centralized system of government in the middle of the fifteenth century, the rulers' powers were "far more circumscribed, and depended heavily upon coalitions of support and alliances reached" among various power-holders within the empire, including Turkic tribal leaders and Balkan allies and vassals.

When the Ottoman polity first emerged at the end of the thirteenth century under the leadership of Osman I, it had a tribal organization without a complex administrative apparatus. As Ottoman territory expanded its rulers were faced with the challenge of administering an ever-larger population. Early on the Ottomans adopted the Seljuks of Rum as models, and by 1324 were able to produce Persian-language bureaucratic documents in the Seljuk style.

The early Ottoman state's expansion was fueled by the military activity of frontier warriors (Turkishgazi), of whom the Ottoman ruler was initially merely primus inter pares. Much of the state's centralization was carried out in opposition to these frontier warriors, who resented Ottoman efforts to control them. Ultimately, the Ottomans were successfully able to harness the military power of the gazis in order to conquer an empire, while increasingly subordinating those warriors to their will.

The early Ottomans were noteworthy for the low tax rates which their subjects were burdened with. This reflected both an ideological concern for the well-being of their subjects, and also a pragmatic need to earn the loyalty of newly conquered populations. As the Ottoman state centralized during the fifteenth century this relatively light tax burden was increased, prompting criticism from writers who saw such centralization in a negative light.

Of particular importance for Ottoman success was their ability to keep the empire intact from generation to generation. While other Turkic groups frequently divided their realms between the sons of a deceased ruler, the Ottomans consistently kept the empire united under a single heir.

State centralization

The process of centralization is closely connected with an influx of Muslim scholars from Central Anatolia, where a more urban and bureaucratic Turkish civilization had developed under the Seljuks of Rum.

Particularly influential was the Çandarlı family, which supplied several Grand Viziers to the early Ottomans and influenced their institutional development. Some time after 1376, Kara Halil, the head of the Çandarlı family, encouraged Murad I to institute a tax of one-fifth on slaves taken in war, known as the pençik. This gave the Ottoman rulers a source of manpower from which they could construct a new personal army, known as the Janissaries (yeniçeri). Such measures frustrated the gazis which the Ottomans relied upon to sustain their military conquests, and created lasting tensions within the state.

It was also during the reign of Murad I that the office of military judge (Kazasker) was created, indicating an increasing level of social stratification between the emerging military-administrative class (askeri) and the rest of society. Murad I also instituted the practice of appointing particular frontier warriors as "Lords of the Frontier" (uc begleri). Such power of appointment indicated that the Ottoman rulers were no longer merely primus inter pares but sat at the top of a hierarchy of leadership. As a way of openly declaring this new status, Murad became the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the title of sultan.

Beginning at the latest by the 1430s, but most likely earlier, the Ottomans conducted regular cadastral surveys of the territory under their rule, producing record-books known as tahrir defters. These surveys enabled the Ottoman state to organize the distribution of agricultural taxation rights to the military class of timariots, cavalrymen who collected revenue from the land in exchange for serving in the Ottoman army. Timariots came from diverse backgrounds. Some achieved their position as a reward for military service, while others were descended from the pre-Ottoman aristocracy and simply continued to collect revenue from their old lands, now serving in the Ottoman army as well. Of the latter, many were converts to Islam, while others remained Christian.

Of great symbolic importance for Ottoman centralization was the practice whereby Ottoman rulers would customarily stand upon hearing the sound of martial music, indicating their willingness to participate in gaza. Shortly after the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II discontinued this practice, indicating that the Ottoman ruler was no longer a simple frontier warrior, but the sovereign of an empire. The empire's capital was shifted from Edirne, the city symbolically connected with the frontier warrior ethos of gaza, to Constantinople, a city with deeply imperial connotations due to its long history as the capital of the Byzantine Empire. This was seen, both symbolically and practically, as the moment of the empire's definitive shift from a frontier principality into an empire.



Osman's army at the beginning of the fourteenth century consisted largely of mounted warriors. These he used in raids, ambushes, and hit-and-run attacks, allowing him to control the countryside of Bithynia. However, he initially lacked the means to conduct sieges. Bursa, the first major town conquered by the Ottomans, surrendered under threat of starvation following a long blockade rather than from an assault. It was under Orhan (r. 1323/4-1362) and Murad I (r. 1362-1389) that the Ottomans mastered the techniques of siege warfare.

The warriors in Osman's service came from diverse backgrounds. Known variously as gazis and akıncıs (raiders), they were attracted to his success and joined out of a desire to win plunder and glory. Most of Osman’s early followers were Muslim Turks of tribal origin, while others were of Byzantine origin, either Christians or recent converts to Islam.

The Ottomans began employing gunpowder weapons from the 1380s at the latest. By the 1420s they were regularly using cannons in siege warfare. Cannons were also used for fortress defense, and shore batteries allowed the Ottomans to bypass a Crusader blockade of the Dardanelles in 1444. By that time handheld firearms had also come into use, and were adopted by some of the janissaries.


  Osmanlı Beyliği

Osmanlı Beyliğinin Kuruluşu ve Genişlemesi

Osmanlı Beyliğinin Kuruluşu ve Genişlemesi


Osmanlıların devletinin çekirdeği Sakarya nehri bölgesinde bulunan ileri bir askeri yerleşim (uç) idi. Burası yüzyıllar boyunca eski Selçuk Roma devleti ve Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu arasındaki sınır idi. Selçuklular 1243'te Kösedağ savaşında Moğollar tarafından yenilince aşamalı olarak anarşi içine düştüler. Anadolu o sırada daha şimdiden büyük ölçüde Türkleşmişti. Türklerin büyük bölümü 5-11.yüzyıllarda ve özellikle 1071 Malazgirt savaşından sonra Anadolu'yu istila eden Oğuz kabilelerine aitti. Ayrıca 13. yüzyılda Moğol ilerlemesi Türk kabilelerinin ve bir miktar İranlının Anadolu'ya göçüne neden oldu.

Anadolu nüfusunun bir bölümü Hıristiyan olarak kalmayı sürdürdü. Selçuklu devletinde Müslümanlar ve Hıristiyanlar arasında keskin toplumsal ayrımlar yoktu. Ayrım daha çok kentliler ve göçebe Türkmenler arasında idi. Türkmenler ön-İslamik dinsel geleneklerinin birçoğunu ait oldukları tikel İslam biçimi içinde de sürdürüyorlardı. Bu İslam biçimi 5-11. yüzyıllar arasında kuzey İran'da ve Maveraünnehir'de mistik vaazlar veren gezgin dervişler (Kalenderiyye and Hayderiyye) tarafından yaratıldı. Bunların arasında dinsel yetke taşıyanlara "babalar" deniyordu ve bunlar ön-İslamik şamanlara büyük benzerlik gösteriyordu. 1239'da bu dinsel önderler altında Babais isyanı patlar verdi. Yönetim isyanı bastırdı ve bu heterodoks militan çoğunluğu sınır bölgesine yerleştirdi.

Selçuk yönetimi ve toplumun üst sınıfları Horasan'da bu yana bağlı oldukları ortodoks Sünni geleneği izlediler. Yüksek kültür başlıca Pers karakterini taşıyordu ve bunlar da güçlü mistik kültürden etkilendiler (Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi).

Osmanlı Beyliği ya da Emirliği 1299 sıralarında birçok küçük Türk beyliklerinden biri olarak Bithynia'da kuruldu. Tüm bu beylikler önceki Selçuklu devleti ve Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu arasında ve Anadolu'nun İslamik özeğinden çok uzakta olan topraklarda idiler. Bu "beyler" ya da "uç beyleri" Türkmen soyundan geliyorlardı. Osman'ın babası Ertuğrul da Orta Asya'da Moğol istilasından kaçan küçük kabilesi ile daha önce Selçukluların onayı ile bir sınır bölgesi olan Söğüt çevresine yerleşmişti. (Onun babası Süleyman Şah Oğuz Türklerinin Kayı boyuna aitti).

Osman Beyin yaşamı sırasında üretilmiş hiçbir yazılı kaynak yoktur. Osmanlı tarihçileri ancak ölümü üzerinden yüz yıldan uzun bir süre geçtikten sonra yaşamı hakkında yazmaya başlamışlardır. Osman Beye ilişkin anlatıları efsane olmaktan kurtaran kanıt Osman tarafından bastırılan ve babasının adını taşıyan bir sikkenin bulunmasıdır.

"Osman" adı da kesin değildir Bizanslı tarihçi George Pachymeres adı "Atman/Ατμάν" ya da "Atouman/Ατουμάν" olarak yazar; ve Araplar tarafından "Uthman" olarak bilinir.

Osman topraklarını kimi zaman Bizanslılar ile savaşarak ve kimi zaman onlarla iyi ilişkiler kurarak genişletti ve 1326'da öldüğü zaman Osmanlı Beyliği ve Bizans İmparatorluğu arasındaki sınır Sakarya nehri idi.


Orhan Bey

Orhan Bey


Osman'ın oğlu Orhan'ın yönetimi sırasında 1326'da Bursa alındı ve başkent yapıldı. 1331'de İznik (Nikaea) ve 1337'de İzmit (Nicomedaeia) ele geçirildi. İzmit'in alındığı yıl Orhan Trakya üzerine ilk saldırısını yaptı ve 1346'da bitişik Karasu emirliğini topraklarına kattı.

Osman'ın ve Orhan'ın yönetimleri sırasında yerel Hıristiyan şefler ve komutanlar ile yakın ilişkiler kuruldu ve Köse Mikhal İslama dönerek Osman ile işbirliği yaptı. Bu bağlantılar erkenden Bizans gelenek ve törelerinin Osmanlı devletine girmesini sağladı.

Devlet aileye aitti ve en büyük yetke olarak görülen baba tarafından (ulu bey) yönetiliyordu. Anlaşmaları yapan, para bastıran ve Cuma namazlarında kutlanan yetke baba idi.

Orhan'ın yönetimi altında bundan böyle yeterli olmayan Türkmen akıncılara ek olarak bir süvari birliği (müsellemler) ve bir de piyade birliği (yayalar) kuruldu ve komutanlara paşa sanı verilmeye başladı.

Genç devlet doğal olarak Batıya doğru genişlerken, Orhan'ın gücü 1341'de patlak veren Bizans iç savaşı sırasında John VI Kantakouzenos (1341-1354 yıllarında imparator oldu) ile bağlaşmasından ötürü önemli ölçüde arttı.



📹 The Rise Of The Ottoman Empire (VİDEO)

The Rise Of The Ottoman Empire (LINK)

While the Ottoman Empire is now long gone, its rule once spanned across three continents. So how did the ancient empire rise to power?


📹 The Fall Of The Ottoman Empire (VİDEO)

The Fall Of The Ottoman Empire (LINK)

The Ottoman Empire used to be one of the world's largest empires. So how did this mighty empire meet its demise?


📹 The Rise of Ottoman Turks (Kenneth W. Harl) (VİDEO)

The Rise of Ottoman Turks / K. W. Harl (LINK)

he Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire , was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.


📹 Ottoman Expansion To Europe and The Battle of Vienna / Eamonn Gearon (VİDEO)

Ottoman Expansion To Europe and The Battle of Vienna / Eamonn Gearon (LINK)

The Battle of Vienna took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle was fought by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states. The battle marked the first time the Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world".In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost almost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.


📹 Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires — Khan Academy (LINK)

Video transcript

Video transcript (LINK)

- [Sal] We are now going to go further in our study of the evolution of the empires in Asia. And in this video, we're going to focus on what happens in North India, Persia, the Middle East, and the Anatolian peninsula, what we would consider modern-day Turkey. So right here is roughly what Asia looked like around the year 1300. As you might remember from previous videos, as we entered into the 13th century, you have Genghis Khan or Genghis Khan take over much of Asia from Mongolia. But by the time you get to 1300, the empire has fragmented into these various khanates. The Yuan Dynasty in China, Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Golden Horde in Northwest Asia, and the Ilkhanate in Persia and the Middle East.

Now, two things to keep note of as we look at this map that are relevant to this video is notice this tiny little kingdom right over here. This is one of the many fragmented kingdoms that result after the Sultanate of Rum collapses in the middle of the 13th century. This kingdom in particular is founded by someone by the name of Osman, or the Arabic version of the name would be Uthman or Othman. And so this is the nascent Ottoman empire forming right over here. And over here you have the Delhi Sultanate, which was the first significant Muslim empire over in North India. And notably, they were one of the few empires that were able to fend off the Mongols. But now let's fast forward roughly 100 years. Now a few things have changed. The Ming Dynasty has taken over the Yuan Dynasty in the middle of the 14th century. The Mongols in the east are now relegated to the Northern Yuan Dynasty, but there still is the Chagatai Khanate and the Golden Horde. But much of their territory, including the Ilkhanate, has now been taken over by Timur, who we talk about in previous videos. And Timur famously sacked Delhi and really brought the Delhi Sultanate to its knees and as we will see, it will only last for roughly another 100 years.

Now, you might also notice that the Ottoman empire, founded by Osman or Othman is continuing to grow and continuing to conquer. Now one thing to keep in mind. In previous videos, we talk about the invention of gunpowder in Tang China and the early Song dynasty, which was about four to five hundred years before the period that we're talking about right now. But as we get into this period, we are now starting to see the use of gunpowder for guns and in particular artillery. And when I say artillery, think cannons. So let's fast forward another 200 years to see how the empires of Asia have evolved. So now we see several things. The Ming Dynasty is still in control of much of China. The Northern Yuan are still in Mongolia. You have a Kazakh Khanate, descendant from the Mongols.

By the late 16th and early 17th century the Ottoman Empire has now expanded significantly, encompassing much of the Middle East. In Persia, you see that the Timurid Empire fell within a few decades after the death of Timur. And as we enter into the 16th century, you have the Safavid Dynasty take over. And then also in the 16th century, almost coincident with the founding of the Safavid Dynasty in Persia, you have Timur's grandson's great-grandson, Babur, who's born in current-day Uzbekistan, is able to defeat the Delhi Sultanate and establish the Mughal Empire. And Mughal is just the Persian word for Mongol and Babur is a direct descendant of Timur on his father's side and of Genghis Khan on his mother's side.

Now, many historians often group these three empires or dynasties together because they do share some commonalities. And so let's think about each of them individually and think about where they are similar and where they are different. Not a lot is known about Osman who founds that first kingdom in the Anatolian peninsula. It's a Sunni Islamic empire. In fact, the leader is eventually named a caliph. The ruling class of this empire is Turkish. Now, one of their distinguishing characteristics is what's known as the Devshirme system in which the Sultan, the Emperor, would have a personal army of what could be called slaves, these Janissaries. These Janissaries were actually Christian boys taken at a young age and then indoctrinated into the Janissary system. The reason why I said you can kind of call them slaves is that although they were forced to become Janissaries and taken from their families, they were given many privileges and over time, many of these Janissaries became some of the most notable figures in the Ottoman Empire, some of them even becoming the Grand Vizier, effectively ruling over the empire. Now, the Ottomans are also known for one of the earliest empires to very successfully to use gunpowder in battle.

The Safavids, as you can see here, were really founded in the very early 16th century, officially 1501, by their founder Shah Ismail, sometimes known as Ismail I. And he is the heir to a religious dynasty, the Safavias. It is a Muslim dynasty, like the Ottoman Empire, but unlike the Ottoman Empire, it is based on Twelver Shia Islam. Twelver Shia is the major group of Shias today and it is based on the belief of 12 imams following Mohammed starting with Ali and we have videos on the Sunni-Shia split. Now, even though Ismail spoke Turkish and was raised in a Turkic society, this dynasty brought back much of the culture of Ancient Persia. In fact, it's viewed as the first dynasty since the Sassanids that actually had native Persian rule and brought back that Persian culture, part of which is using the word Shah. You remember Cyrus the Great, the Shahanshah, the King of Kings. Now they had what is known as Ghulams, which is very similar to the idea of a Janissary. These are slave soldiers which are taken as captives but then are raised to be an elite military unit and eventually often have significant wealth and significant power. Now you might be wondering, why did any of these empires and these aren't the only ones, you have the Mamluks and other Muslim empires. Why would people create these elite soldiers out of slaves and give them that much power? Well, the answer is, they were the safest people to give power to. Remember, these empires are ruling over many tribes and many groups and many kingdoms that are constantly vying for power, trying to establish their own dynasties. And if you allowed people from those various tribes to protect you as Emperor, well, there might be a good shot that one of them might want to kill you and establish their own dynasty. But from a young age, if you could indoctrinate these young boys as Ghulams, or as Janissaries, well, they might be more loyal to you. And indeed, it did provide an unusual amount of stability.

As I mentioned, the Mughal Empire was able to be founded by Babur, who was Timur's great-grandson's grandson and he, too, was born in a Turco-Mongolian tradition. As he's able to famously defeat the Delhi Sultanate which had already been significantly weakened, one, on its own, but then by Timur over 100 years before, he famously comes to power with the aid of gunpowder, being able to defeat a significantly larger Delhi Sultanate army. The Mughals practiced Sunni Islam but they ruled over a large Hindu majority, and so the first several Mughal rulers were actually quite tolerant. Perhaps the most tolerant was Akbar, often known as Akbar the Great, who we'll do other videos on, who actually tried to create a religion which was a merger between Islam and Hinduism and Jainism and Christianity. But then they become less tolerant under Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan famous for building the Taj Mahal for his wife, but what's often not noted is he was building this fairly grand mausoleum at a time when there was a famine in India and he was also known as being fairly intolerant and persecuted many Hindus and Sikhs and his son, Aurangzeb, continued to do so.

Now, some historians will refer to these three empires as the Gunpowder Empires. If someone says Gunpowder Empires, they're referring to these three. The reason why they're called that is this view that these major centralized empires were able to form only with the power of gunpowder. The Ottomans, famous for early use of artillery. The Mughals, Babur in particular, came to power with gunpowder. But today, historians are somewhat skeptical of grouping just these three empires as Gunpowder Empires. You had many other large centralized empires form before the use of gunpowder. So that whole thesis is not as popular today.



  Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Roma İmparatorluğu



Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Roma İmparatorluğu

Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Roma İmparatorluğu

  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun toprak alanı doruk zamanında yaklaşık 5,2 milyon km2 idi.


  • Trajan zamanında Roma İmparatorluğunun toprak alanı yaklaşık 5 milyon km2 idi.

En geniş durumunda Osmanlı İmparatorluğu.

Başkaları arasında, Osmanlılar da İmparatorluklarını Roma İmparatorluğunun sürdürülmesi olarak gördüler. Konstantinopolis'in düşüşünden sonra II. Mehmet Kayser-i Rum (Roma'nın Sezarı) ya da Roma İmparatoru sanını üstlendi ve Ortodoks Konstantinopolis Patriği tarafından bu san ile tanındı. Mehmet'ın Bizans İmparatorluk ailesi ile kan bağı vardı, çünkü önceli olan Sultan I. Orhan bir Bizans prensesi ile evlenmişti.

Din ayrımı nedeniyle Türkler Bizans ve Roma etkisi altında olmaktan çok Pers ve Arap etkisi altında kaldılar. Roma'yı sürdürmek anlamsızdır, çünkü Cumhuriyet Roması politeistik iken, İmparatorluk Roması bir süre sonra bundan vaz geçti ve Hıristiyanlığı devlet dini olarak kabul etti. Osmanlılar Müslüman idiler. Kendi dillerini, yasalarını, sanatlarını geliştiriyorlardı ve bu konularda Roma tini ile mimari dışında bir süreklilik yoktu.



  Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu

Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu (Britannica)

Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu (LINK)

The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a land of many polities. In the empire there were some 1,000 separate, semi-autonomous political units, many of them very small — such as the Imperial Knights, direct vassals of the emperor and particularly numerous in the southwest, who might each own only part of one village — and others comparable in size with smaller independent states elsewhere, such as Scotland or the Dutch Republic. At the top came the lands of the Austrian Habsburgs, covering the elective kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, as well as Austria, the Tyrol, and Alsace, with about 8,000,000 inhabitants; next came electoral Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria, with more than 1,000,000 subjects each; and then the Palatinate, Hesse, Trier, and Württemberg, with about 500,000 each.


Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu, 1630 (modern sınırlar üzerine yerleştirilmiş olarak). — Yaklaşık 8 milyonluk bir nüfusa egemen olan İmparatorluk Habsburg Hanedanının elinde bulunuyordu. İmparatorun kendi aralarında imparatora karşı bağlaşmalar kuran prensler üzerinde hiçbir gücü yoktu. Kendine ait bir adı bile olmayan Germanik seçim İmparatorluğunun ‘Roma’ İmparatorluğu ile de ne olursa olsun hiçbir ilgisi yoktu.



📹 Battle of Vienna 1529 and 1683 (VİDEO)

Battle of Vienna 1529 and 1683 (LINK)



İki "Roma"

İki “Roma

Tarihin güçlü imparatorlukları ve köklü uygarlıkları varlıklarını sürdürürken ne güçlü ne de uygar olan göçebe barbarların varolan devletleri ortadan kaldırıp tarih sahnesinde baş rolü üstlenmeleri yalnızca dikkate çeken bir olay olmanın ötesindedir. Anlaşılması gerekir. Altaylı göçmenler durumunda olan şey az çok benzer olarak Germanik barbarlar durumunda da olmaya başladı ve bu ilkel kabileler de kuzeyden Roma İmparotorluğunun uygar topraklarına inerken İmparatorluk az çok varlığını sürdürüyordu. Hiç kimse bu görkemli ama tükenmiş gücün kültürsüz, uygarlıksız ama tinsel olarak aç barbarlara yenik düşmesinin ve onlara boyun eğmesinin zorunluğunu düşünmüş görünmez. Önce Germenler ve sonra Türkler aynı güçlü imparatorluğun Hıristiyanlaşmış iki parçasını, sırasıyla Batı Roma İmparatorluğunu ve Doğu Roma İmparatorluğunu ortadan kaldırdılar. Bizans Osmanlı İmparatorluğuna dönüştürüldü. Batı Roma Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğuna dönüştürüldü. Birincisi — Osmanlı İmparatorluğu — tarihsel olarak güçlü idi. İkincisi — Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu — yalnızca kağıt üzerinde bir 'devlet' adını taşıyordu. Birincisi büyüklüğünü dünya tarihinde hiçbir zaman baş role yükselmeden sürdürdü, her zaman ön-modern kaldı, ve bir Cumhuriyet olduğu zaman bile despotik karakterini bütünüyle bırakmadı. İkincisi tarihsel olarak güçsüz, anlamsız ve önemsiz görünmesine karşın dünya tarihini yeniden açtı ve modern tinin doğum yeri oldu. Kurnaz Arapların değil, güçlü Osmanlıların değil, ince İtalyanların değil, gösteriş ve görkem düşkünü Fransızların da değil, ama Germanik köylülerin dünya tarihsel olmaları ve modern tinin yapısını belirlemeleri açıklama gerektirir.

Açıklama tarihin istencin işi olmasına bağlıdır. Reformasyonun tüm aptallıklarına, ilkelliklerine ve kabalıklarına karşın, yeni tin evrensel insanlık kavramını tanıdı ve evrenselin üzerindeki tüm dışsal dinsel yetkeyi kaldırdı, duyuncu saltık olarak özgürleştirdi. İslam birincide, evrensel eşitlik kavramında Hıristiyanlık ile ortaktır, ama ikincide değil, ve insanı özgür olarak değil, kul olarak tanır — başkasının kulu olarak değil, Tanrının kulu olarak, ve Tanrının eşit kulları olarak. Kul tarih yapmaz. Ve İslamik tin en sonunda kul olduğunu anlayıncaya dek tarih yapmayı sürdürdü. Sonra tarihten çekildi.

Sola scriptura hiç kuşkusuz arada bir usun pırıltısını yansıtan ama çoğunlukla saçmalıklardan oluşan insan yazılarının, düşüncesiz, dikkatsiz, giderek ahlaksız yazarların yazılarının danışılacak, başvurulacak ve güvenilecek biricik yetke olduğunu anlatıyordu. Ama bu yetkenin yetkesi insan duyuncu idi. Sola scripturanın yetkesi onu özgürce yargılayacak olan bireyden başka, onun özgür duyuncundan başka birşey değildi. Bu duyunç özgürlüğünün doğuşu ile papalık ve rahiplik silindi, tüm dinsel kurumsal yetke buharlaştı.

Luther ya da Calvin ya da başka önderler "beni" dinleyin ve izleyin dediklerinde onlar da bir süre sonra arkalarında hiç kimsenin olmadığını gördüler. Kuzeyin ve Güneyin Protestanlığı kabul eden ülkelerinde bireysellik tüm dizginlerinden boşandı. Ve — bir serfler nüfusu durumunda beklenmesi gerektiği gibi — eski kölenin yeni özgürlüğü şiddet, zorbalık ve zulüm eylemlerinde sonuçlandı. Duyunç özgürlüğü aşğı yurakı hiç gelişmemiş duyuncun kendisini geliştirmek için kazanılmıştı. Eski köleler ilkin kaçınılmaz olarak özgürlüğü dilediğini yapma özgürlüğü olarak, dilediğini seçme özgürlüğü olarak, haksızlık ve ahlaksızlık ve yasasızlık olarak anladılar.

Bu dizginsizlik içinde, Reformasyon savaşları Avrupa nüfusunun üçte birinin kırılmasında sonuçlandı. Özgür duyunç pekala kendini de yargılayabilir ve yaptığını anlayabilirdi. Ama Avrupa'da, özellikle Kuzey Avrupa'da binlerce yıl boyunca uygarlık ile tanışmamış hordalar ilk kez düşünmeye başlıyordu.

Özgürlük korkutucudur çünkü eylem, değişim, yenilik getirir. Ve sorumluluk gerektirir. İnsana kişilik kazandırır, onu büyütür, yetkeyi dinlemekten kurtarır, düşünmeyi öğrenmeyi, özgür yargıda bulunmayı gerektirir. Tüm bunlar kul için dayanılmazdır. Kul hiçlik olmayı ve öyle kalmayı yeğler.




  Osmanlı Tüzesi

Osmanlı Tüzesi

Osmanlı Tüzesi

  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Sultanın yasası geçerli idi ve ulema genellikle Sultan ile çelişmiyordu.
  • İmparatorlukta evrensel olarak uygulanan bir tüze dizgesi yoktu. Müslümanlar için ve Müslüman-olmayanlar için ayrı yasa dizgeleri işliyordu ve ek olarak bir de tecim yasaları vardı. Bu üç dizge gerekli olduğuna birlikte çalışıyor ve örneğin azınlık sorunları İslamik mahkemelerde ele alınabiliyordu.
  • Tüze okulları İstanbul ve Bursa'da bulunuyordu.
  • Bir İmparatorluğu yönetmek için Kuran'daki ayetlerden ve ayrıca hadislerden türetilen dinsel yasalar yeterli olmadığı için ek yasalar getirildi (Osmanlı Kanunları; kanon ya da κανών). Fıkıh yasaların yorumlanmasını ve tikel koşullara uyarlanmasını sağladı.
  • Osmanlı yasaları 1453'te İstanbul'un fethinden sonra kodlanmaya başladı ve Bizans yasalarından Napoleonik yasalara dek kaynaklar kullanıldı.
  • Tanzimat Fermanı ile bilikte yasa dizgesindeki din ayrımları ortadan kaldırıldı.


Kanuni Sultan Süleyman önceki bölük pörçük Osmanlı yasa dizgesini baştan sona düzenledi. Vergi dizgesini reformdan geçirdi ve vergileri insanların gelirlerine göre dereceli bir oranda belirleyen yeni bir düzenlemesi getirdi. Bürokraside görevlilerin işe alınmaı ve işten çıkarılmasının yetenek ve değere göre belirlenmesini sağladı ve süreci yüksek memurların kaprisinden ve aile kayırmacılığından kurtardı. Tüm Osmanlı uyrukları, giderek en yüksek olanlar bile yasaya boyun eğeceklerdi. Ve en yüksek konumlar en aşağıda olanlara bile açıktı.

Süleyman egemenliği sırasında Safevi İmparatorluğu ile tecim ilişkileri üzerine getirilen ambargoyu da kaldırdı. Tüm Osmanlı askerlerinin seferde iken ve giderek düşman topraklarda iken bile gereksindikleri yiyecekleri ve daha başka mülkiyeti alırken karşılığını ödeyeceklerdi. Süleyman İmparatorluğun Hıristiyan ve Yahudi uyrukları için koruyucu önlemler getirdi ve Hıristiyan çiflik emekçilerini serflikten kurtardı.







Ömer Hayyam (1048-1131)

Ömer Hayyam (1048-1131)

Ömer Hayyam 1076'da Nizam-ül Mülk tarafından İsfahan'a davet edildi. Kentin kütüphanelerinde Euklides ve Apollonius gibi matematikçileri çok daha yakından inceledi ve Euklides'in beşinci konutlamasını tanıtlamaya çalıştı. Onun dik açıların eşitliğini bildiren dördüncü konutlamadan çıkarsanabileceğini ileri sürdü ve dar ve geniş açılar durumunda sonucun çelişkili olduğunu gösterdi.

Euklides, Ögeler, Konutlama 4 ve 5

4. Tüm dik açılar birbirine eşittir.

5. Eğer iki doğru çizgi üzerine düşen bir doğru çizgi aynı yanda oluşan iç açıları iki dik açıdan daha küçük yapıyorsa, iki doğru çizgi, eğer sonsuza dek uzatılırlarsa, açıların iki dik açıdan daha küçük olduğu yanda kesişir (Öğeler, LINK).


Hayyam'ın rasyonalizmi ve determinizmi verildiğinde, Euklides'i çürüttüğü ileri sürülen non-Euklidean geometrilerin başlangıcını en sonunda ona dayandırmak geçersizdir. Hayyam'ın ussal bakış açısından, aslında genel olarak ussal bakış açısından, bir küre yüzeyi üzerindeki "dik açı" bir düzlem yüzey üzerindeki dik açı ile aynı şey değildir. Konkav ve konveks yüzeyler üzerindeki "non-Euklidean geometriler" hiç kuşkusuz özel eğri yüzey belitleri ile eğri yüzey geometrileridir.

Hayyam cebirsel denklemlere geometrik olarak yaklaşımı nedeniyle Descartes'ın analitik geometrisinin ön habercisi olarak görülür.

Khayyam'ın altı felsefi incelemesi

1. Varlık ve Zorunluk Üzerine
2. Dünyada Çelişkinin Zorunluğu, Determinizm ve Kalıcılık
3. Usun Evrensel Bilgi Konusu Üzerindeki Işığı
4. Varoluşun Evrensel İlkelerinin Bilgisi Üzerine
5. Varoluş Üzerine
6. Üç Felsefi Probleme Yanıt

1. On Being and Necessity
2. The Necessity of Contradiction in the World, Determinism and Subsistence
3. The Light of the Intellect on the Subject of Universal Knowledge
4. On the Knowledge of the Universal Principles of Existence
5. On Existence
6. Response to Three Philosophical Problems


Hayyam felsefede kendini İbni Sina'nın bir öğrencisi olarak gördü. Çalışmalarında

  • varoluş ve evrenseller arasındaki ilişki;
  • dünyada çelişkinin zorunluğu;
  • determinizm ve özgür istenç;
  • evrensel varoluş ilkelerinin bilgisi

gibi konuları ele aldı.


Hayyam sufilerin sevgisini ve dostluğunu kazanmadı. Tersine, onlar için bir nefret ve korku nesnesi idi.


Dinsel Bilincin Düzeltilmesi: Gazali (1058-1111)

Dinsel Bilincin Düzeltilmesi: Gazali (1058-1111)

Kültürel dizgede din de başkaları gibi yalnızca bir bileşendir, herşeyi belirleyen ilke değil. Bu nedenle Max Weber yaptığı gibi yeni ekonomik biçimi Protestan etiğin doğasından türetmek yerine, hem etik hem de ekonomik bileşenlerin Reformasyon sonrasında yeniden biçimlenen dinsel bileşen ile uyum içinde yeniden belirlendiklerini söylemek daha doğru görünür. Dinsel bileşenin yanısıra bilimsel, teknolojik ve politik değişimler ve gelişimler de olmaksızın yeni ekonomik düzenin ortaya çıkması olanaksızdı. 16'ncı yüzyıl Avrupasında Olgunun ortaya çıkması için gerekli tüm Koşullar biraraya gelmişti. (Yine, Max Weber'in Protestan etiğin püritan karakterini bir hırs anlatımı olan "kapitalizmin" kaynağı olarak görmesi gözden kaçırılmayı hak etmeyen devasa saçmalıklardan biridir.)

Hıristiyanlığın Üçlülük kavramına göre homo sapiens Tanrı ile bir ve dolayısıyla özgürdür. Müslümanlığın monistik Bir kavramına göre homo sapiens Tanrı karşısında teslim olan kuldur. Bu iki belirlenim bu iki din doğar doğmaz ona inanmaya başlayan kültürlerin etik karakterlerini belirleyemezdi. Bilinç değişimi bir zaman sorunudur. Kavramların tam olarak özümsenmesi, tüm vargılarının çıkarsanması ve insanların bilinçlerinin bu dinsel ilkelere göre yeniden biçimlenmesi yüzyılları gerektirdi. Ve bu "oluş" yüzyılları açıktır ki henüz ereğine erişmiş değildir.

Hıristiyan üçlülük kavramının sonuçları Reformasyona dek insan bilincine ulaşamadı (15 yüzyıllık bir gecikme ile). Müslüman monizm kavramının sonuçları Gazali aracılığıyla daha kısa bir zaman içinde anlaşılmaya başladı (4 yüzyıllık bir gecikme ile).

Öte yandan, İslamik monizm Müslümanlığın ilk yüzyıllarında sanat alanındaki kısıtlamalar dışında Müslümanların felsefe, bilim ve iyi politika yapmalarını engellemedi. Klasik felsefenin hazineleri ile beslenen İslamik felsefeciler ve bilimciler Romalıların ve Bizanslıların tersine ellerindeki kaynakların değerlerini anladılar ve yalnızca onları çevirmekten çok daha ötesini yaptılar. (Hıristiyan Bizans 529'da Atina'daki tüm felsefe okulları ile birlikte Platonik Akademiyi ve Aristotelesci Liseyi de kapattı.)

Oluş sürecindeki İslamik tin Roma İmparatorluğunun egemenliği sırasında kesintiye uğrayan bilimsel ve felsefi etkinliğin yeniden dirilmesine götürdü. Farabi, İbni Sina, İbni Rüşt gibi felsefeciler ve bilimciler bütünüyle özgürce Klasik Felsefi tinin yarım bıraktığı işi üstlendiler ve sürdürdüler. Ama kurgul çalışmaları İslamik düşüncenin monistik-analitik tini ile bütünüyle tutarsızdı.

Gazali "Felsefecilerin Tutarsızlığı" (Tahâfut al-falâsifa) başlıklı bir kitap yazarak bu yanılgıyı, daha doğrusu bu "tutarsızlığı" düzeltti ve bu rasyonalist felsefecilerin ateist olmasalar da İslamik tine ait olamayacaklarını gösterdi. İbni Rüşt bu duygu felsefeciliğini ve mistik tepkiyi beğenmedi ve "Tutarsızlığın Tutarsızlığı" başlıklı bir kitap ile Gazali'yi yanıtladı. Ama bunun bir yararı olmadı. İslamik epistemoloji görgücülüğe döndü ve ortaya bir tür "tanrıbilimsel vesilecilik" çıktı. Gazali'nin açıklama yoluna göre, örneğin pamuğun ateş ile tutuşturulduğu her seferinde yanması bir neden-sonuç ilişkisini ya da nedensel determinizmi göstermiyordu; olay Tanrının istencine bağlı ve "Tanrının karışmasının bir ürünü idi — tıpkı daha şaşırtıcı tansıklar durumunda olduğu gibi."

Gazali kitabında Platon, Aristoteles, Farabi ve İbni Sina gibi felsefecilerin düşüncelerini de reddetti. Öte yandan, Gazali'nin en önemli öğrencilerinden biri olan Thomas Aquinas Gazali'nin skolastizmini Hıristiyanlığa uyguladı. İngiliz görgücüsü David Hume daha ileri bir dönemde Gazali'nin kuşkuculuğuna yeni bir biçim verdi.

  • "Hüccetü’l Islam” ("İslamın Tanıtı") olarak görülen Gazali (1058-1111) İslamik kültürü boyun eğici karakterine doğru döndürmede önemli rol oynadı. Özgür ussal düşünceyi yadsıdığı için, dine ve felsefeye yaklaşımında "yüreğine" başvurdu. Tanrıyı evreni yaratma konusundaki tüm mantıksal zorunluktan bağışık tutarak ve doğadaki nedenselliği yadsıyarak, olayların tanrısal istencin keyfi kararları nedeniyle birbirine bağlandığını ileri sürdü ve tansıkları Tanrının keyfi istencinin sonuçları olarak doğruladı (vesilecilik).
  • Bilgiyi "Tanrı yüreğime düşürdü" diyerek ve bilgiyi onun çoğuna anahtar olan ışıktan" türeterek. rasyonalist felsefecilere karşı çıktı ve insanın ussal bilgiye yetenekli olmadığını ileri sürdü.
  • Gazali gizemci idi ve gizemsel deneyimin amacı tanrısal yüklemlere yaklaşmaktan oluşuyordu. Tanrısal öz bu dünyada insan deneyiminin ve bilgisinin ötesinde kalır ve insan bilmediği bir Tanrıya inanmayı kabul etmelidir. Ama öte dünyada onu duyusal olarak "görebilir." Tanrısal özde "yitiş" ya da "ortadan kalkış" olarak gördüğü gizem deneyiminin tüm şeylerin birliğini ve dolayısıyla kendini deneyimlemenin de yitişini görmekten başka birşeyden oluşmadığını düşünüyordu. (Bu deneyim tüm ayrımı dışlayan bir tür analitik özdeşlik ilkesinin deneyimlenmesi gibidir.)


Gazali gizemciliği ile insanı yükselttiğini ve onu gerçekliğe ulaştırdığını düşünüyordu. Gerçekte tam tersini yaptı ve insanı değersizleştirme ve küçük düşürme eğilimlerini güçlendirdi. Gizemcilik bilgiyi reddeder ve insanı nereden geldiğini bilmeyen, ne olduğunu anlamayan önemsiz bir varlığa indirger ve yüzyıllar sonra nihilizmin yeni türlerinin bir kez daha yapacak olduğu gibi insanı değersizleştirir.

Kararlı ve tutarlı bir monist olarak, Gazali Tanrının birliği gibi din kavramına uygun olmayan analitik-monistik bir tasarımda insanı ve insanlığı sildi ve bu soyutlamayı gerçeklik olarak ileri sürdü. Kul Tanrıyı içselleştiremez, çünkü bu onu kulluktan çıkaracaktır. Kul kendini Tanrıda yalnızca yok eder çünkü kendinde daha şimdiden bir hiçliktir. Kulun Tanrı ile "birleşmesi" kendini bire gömmekten, kendini birde silmekten başka birşey olamaz. Kul özgürlük bilincinden, bir istençten yoksun olduğu için, bir efendiye gereksindiği için kuldur. Kul için Tanrı yalnızca kendisine boyun eğmesi gereken dışsal bir güçtür.









📹 The History of Ottoman Empire / Every Year

The History of Ottoman Empire / Every Year (LINK)



📹 Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (LINK)




📹 History of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th & 16th Century / Kenneth W. Harl

History of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th & 16th Century / Kenneth W. Harl (LINK)

The vast, dramatic story of the Ottoman Empire helps Westerners better grasp the current complexities of the Middle East. This course covers the history of the Ottoman Empire, from its early years as a collection of raiders and conquerors to its undeniable power in the 15th and 16th centuries to its catastrophic collapse in the wreckage of the First World War. The peoples of the Middle East today examine the history of the Ottoman Empire for identity, culture, and governance. The West often overlooks the fact that the achievements of the Ottoman Empire at the zenith of its power matched those of contemporary Western Europe – as well as the other great Islamic states of Safavid Iran and Mughal India. According to Kenneth W. Harl, award-winning professor of Classical and Byzantine history at Tulane University, “the cultural achievements of Ottoman civilization still endure, and they speak of a wealthy and sophisticated Islamic civilization.” Some of the complexities covered by this historical overview of the Ottoman Empire include geopolitical tensions between Turkey and its Balkan and Middle Eastern neighbors, the sustained political and cultural power of Islam, and the balancing act between religious tradition and cultural modernity. What made the Ottoman Empire such a match with the empires of the early modern world? What made this empire unlike any other in human history? What forces shaped this brilliant civilization—and what forces destroyed the Ottoman Empire? These are just some of the questions that Professor Harl explores. Over the course of 36 historically rich and enlightening lectures, you’ll investigate over 600 years of history that cover the nature of Ottoman identity, the achievements and oddities of the Sultan’s court, and stories of confrontation and cooperation between the East and West. The result: a better appreciation for the ways in which the Ottomans created a unique way of life – and how that way of life echoes throughout Europe and across the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire history course covers the fascinating story of triumph and tragedy, war and peace, intellectual progress and civil insurrection. This course will give viewers an overview of a great empire that left an important legacy that will shape the future of the Balkan nation-states, the Turkish Republic, and the Arab world – and those of us in the West as well. Learn more about.






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