Osmanlı Beyliği

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

Osmanlı Beyliği


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  Osmanlı Beyliği

The Roman Empire, c. 1263.


The Roman Empire, 565 AD.

 

  • Osman’ın (?1254/5-1323/4) döneminden kalan yazılı hiçbir belge yoktur.
  • Osman’ın ataları Oğuz Türklerinin Kayı boyundandır.
  • Osman’ın adı Atman ya da Ataman olmuş olabilir (Roma kaynaklarında Ατουμάν (Atouman) ya da Ατμάν (Atman) olarak geçer).
  • Anadolu Beyliklerinden biri olan Osmanlı Beyliği Roma İmparatorluğunun Bithynia bölgesine yerleştiler (Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province).
  • Osman Bey Malhun Hatun (d. 1323) ile evlendi.

 


Bithynia and Pontus as a province of the Roman Empire.


The Diocese of Pontus and its provinces in c. AD 400.


Area of the Ottoman Beylik during the reign of Osman I.


  Bithynia

Bithynia

Bithynia (W)

Asia Minor in 89 BC
🔎

A map of Asia Minor in 89 BC at the start of the First Mithridatic War. Bithynia, light red, is shown as a client kingdom of Rome, dark red. Pontus is shown in dark green.


Bithynia
(Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.

Bithynia was an independent kingdom from the 4th century BC. Its capital Nicomedia was rebuilt on the site of ancient Astacus in 264 BC by Nicomedes I of Bithynia. Bithynia was bequeathed to the Roman Republic in 74 BC, and became united with the Pontus region as the province of Bithynia et Pontus. In the 7th century it was incorporated into the Byzantine Opsikion theme. It became a border region to the Seljuk Empire in the 13th century, and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks between 1325 and 1333. (W)

 
Bithynia and Pontus (W)


The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, at the death of Trajan (117 AD)
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Bithynia and Pontus
(Latin: Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey). It was formed during the late Roman Republic by the amalgamation of the former kingdoms of Bithynia (made a province by Rome 74 BC) and Pontus (annexed to Bithynia 63 BC). The amalgamation was part of a wider conquest of Anatolia and its reduction to Roman provinces.

In 74 BC Bithynia was willed to Rome by Nicomedes IV of Bithynia in the hope that Rome would defend it against its old enemy, Pontus. Due to the influence of a guest-friend of Nicomedes, Julius Caesar, then a young man, and an impassioned speech by the deceased king's sister, Nysa before the Senate, the gift was accepted. Rome was divided into two parties, the populares, party of the "people," and the optimates, party of the "best." The guest-friendship had been offered to Caesar, a popular, to save his life by keeping him from Rome during a proscription (a kind of witch-hunt) by Sulla, an optimate in power. Forever after Caesar had to endure scurrilous optimate slander about his relationship to Nicomedes, but Bithynia became a favored project of the populares. (W)

 




  Osmanlı Beyliğinin Kuruluşu ve Genişlemesi

🛑 Osmanlı Beyliğinin Kuruluşu ve Genişlemesi

Osmanlı Beyliğinin Kuruluşu ve Genişlemesi

 
   
 

Osmanlıların devletinin çekirdeği Sakarya nehri bölgesinde bulunan ileri bir askeri yerleşim (uç) idi. Bölge yüzyıllarca eski Selçuk Roma devleti ve Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu arasında sınır olarak kabul edildi. Selçukluların 1243'te Kösedağ savaşında Moğollar tarafından yenilmelerine ve bir dağılma sürecine girmelerine karşın, Anadolu o sıralarda daha şimdiden büyük ölçüde Türkleşmişti. Türklerin büyük bölümü 5-11.yüzyıllarda ve özellikle 1071 Malazgirt savaşından sonra Anadolu'ya giren Oğuz kabilelerine aitti. Ayrıca 13’üncü yüzyılda Moğol ilerlemesi Türk kabilelerinin ve bir miktar İranlının Anadolu'ya göçüne neden oldu.

Anadolu nüfusunun bir bölümü Hıristiyan kalmayı sürdürdü. Selçuklul yönetimi için Müslümanlar ve Hıristiyanlar arasında keskin toplumsal ayrımlar yoktu. Ayrım daha çok kentliler ve göçebe Türkmenler arasında idi. Türkmenler ön-İslamik dinsel geleneklerinin birçoğunu ait oldukları tikel İslam biçimi içinde de sürdürüyorlardı. Bu İslam biçimi 5-11. yüzyıllar arasında kuzey İran'da ve Maveraünnehir'de mistik vaazlar veren gezgin dervişler (Kalenderiyye ve Hayderiyye) tarafından yaratıldı. Bunların arasında dinsel yetke taşıyanlara "babalar" deniyor ve bunlar ön-İslamik şamanlara büyük benzerlik gösteriyordu. 1239'da bu dinsel önderler altında Babais isyanı patlak verdi. Yönetim isyanı bastırdı ve bu heterodoks militan çoğunluğu sınır bölgesine yerleştirdi.

Selçuk yönetimi ve toplumun üst sınıfları Horasan'da bu yana bağlı oldukları ortodoks Sünni geleneği izlediler. Yüksek kültürün başlıca Pers karakterini taşımasına karşın, aralarında bir bölümü güçlü mistik kültürden etkilendi (örneğin Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi).

Osmanlı Beyliği ya da Emirliği 1299 sıralarında birçok küçük Türk beyliğinden biri olarak Bithynia'da kuruldu. Tüm bu beylikler önceki Selçuklu devleti ve Roma İmparatorluğu arasında ve Anadolu'nun İslamik özeğinden çok uzakta olan topraklarda idiler. Bu "beyler" ya da "uç beyleri" Türkmen soyundan geliyorlardı. Osman'ın babası Ertuğrul da Orta Asya'da Moğol istilasından kaçan küçük kabilesi ile daha önce Selçukluların onayı ile bir sınır bölgesi olan Söğüt çevresine yerleşmişti. (Onun babası Süleyman Şah Oğuz Türklerinin Kayı boyuna aitti).


Osman Beyin yaşamı sırasında üretilmiş hiçbir yazılı kaynak yoktur. Osmanlı tarihçileri ancak ölümü üzerinden yüz yıldan uzun bir süre geçtikten sonra yaşamı hakkında yazmaya başladılar. Osman Beye ilişkin anlatıları efsane olmaktan kurtaran kanıt Osman tarafından bastırılan ve babasının adını taşıyan bir sikkenin bulunmasıdır.

"Osman" adı da kesin değildir Bizanslı tarihçi George Pachymeres adı "Atman/Ατμάν" ya da "Atouman/Ατουμάν" olarak yazar; ve Araplar tarafından "Uthman" olarak bilinir.

Osman topraklarını kimi zaman Bizanslılar ile savaşarak ve kimi zaman onlarla iyi ilişkiler kurarak genişletti ve 1326'da öldüğü zaman Osmanlı Beyliği ve Bizans İmparatorluğu arasındaki sınır Sakarya nehri idi.

 




📹 Early Ottoman Empire, 1299-1451 (VİDEO)

📹 Early Ottoman Empire, 1299-1451 (LINK)

In this video, I trace the development of the Ottoman Empire from its foundation by Osman to its emergence as the foremost power in both the West and the Middle East during the early modern period.

 








SİTE İÇİ ARAMA       

DİZİN





Osmanlı Beyleri


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2) Osmanlı Beyleri
Beyazid I
Mehmed I
Murad I
Murad II
Orhan I
Osman I
Ottoman Interregnum
Sheikh Bedreddin

  Osman I

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY (W)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY


Sulaiman Shah. b. ca. 1178, of the Kayi clan of the Oghuz tribe, by his wife, Haima Ana. He d. 1236, having had issue, three sons:

  • 1) Amir Ertugrul Khan Ghazi, Amir of Sogut — see below.
  • 2) Dundar. b. 1210. He d. 1298, having had issue, a son:
    • a) Dundar.
  • 3) Gundogdu.
  • 4) Sungur Tekin.
1230 - 1281 Amir Ghazi Ertugrul Bey, Amir of Sogut. b. at Ahlat, 1191, son of Sulaiman Shah of the Kayi clan of the Oghuz tribe, by his wife, Haima Ana. Elected as leader of the Kayi clan, 1230. m. several wives, including, Khaima Khanum. He d. at Sogut, 1281, having had issue, several sons, including:

  • 1) Ghazi Gunduz Alp. Governor of Eskishihir 1301-1306. He d. 1306, having had issue:
    • a) Aktimur (Akbash Bey), who d. at Bursa, ca. 1306 (bur. Sogut), having had issue, one son and one daughter:
      • i) Gunduz Alp. b. posthumously, 1306.
      • i) Effendi Khanum.
    • b) Aydogdu Alp. He d. 27th July 1302.
  • 2) Amir Osman Khan Ghazi, 1st Sovereign of the House of Osman - see below.
  • 3) Ghazi Saribati Savji Bey. He d. 1288, having had issue:
    • a) Beykhoja. He d. 1287.
    • b) Sulaiman Bey. He had issue, a daughter:
      • i) Khadija Khanum. m. and had issue, two sons and two daughters.
 
Osman I
   
1281 - 1320 Amir Osman Fakhr ud-din Khan Ghazi, 1st Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans. b. at Sogut, 1258, son of Amir Ertugrul Khan Ghazi, Amir of Sogut, by his wife, Khaima Khanum. Elected by the Beys and Ghazi's of the tribe as chief in succession to his father, and invested as Prince (Amir) by Sultan Ala ud-din, Sultan of Iconium in 1288. Became an independent sovereign on the collapse of the Seljuk Empire, 1299. Greatly extended his territories, conquering most of Asia Minor, to the shores opposite Constantinople. Inheriting a principality of four thousand square kilometres in extent, he ended his days having increased it to sixteen thousand. Established his capital at Bursa. Abdicated in favour of his son, 1320. m. (firstly) 1280, Kamariya Sultana Mal Khanum (d. November 1323), daughter of Omar 'Abdu'l Aziz Bey, Seljuk Vizier of Anatolia. m. (secondly) 1289, Rabia Bala Khanum (d. January 1324), daughter of Shaikh Adabili. He d. from apoplexy at Sogut, February 1324 (bur. Bursa), having had issue, seven sons and an only daughter:

  • 1) Prince Ala ud-din Ali Bey. b. at Sogut, 1290(s/o Rabia Bala). Governor of Bilajik. m. … (d. 1509), daughter of Balad. He d. at Biga, 1333, having had issue:
    • a) Kilich Bey, who had issue:
      • i) Khizir Bey, who had issue:
        • (1) Muhammad Bey. He had issue, one son and one daughter:
          • (a) Ibrahim Bey. He had issue, one son and one daughter:
            • (i) Shahi Shalabi. He had issue, a daughter:
              • 1. Taji Khanum. She d. 1530.
            • (i) Aisha Khanum.
          • (a) Pasha Khanum.
  • 2) Prince Choban Bey.
  • 3) Prince Hamid Bey.
  • 4) Prince Malik Bey. He had issue, one son:
    • a) Malika Khanum.
  • 5) Sultan Orkhan Khan Ghazi, Grand Sultan of Turkey (s/o Mal Khanum) - see below.
  • 6) Prince Pazarli Bey. He had issue, one son and one daughter, including:
    • a) Ilyas Bey. He d. 1519.
  • 7) Prince Savji Bey. He had issue, a son:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Damad Sulaiman Bey. m. his cousin, Princess Khadija Khanum, daughter of Sultan Orkhan Khan Ghazi.
  • 8) Prince ... Bey. He had issue, a son:
    • a) ... Bey. He had issue, a son:
      • i) ... Bey.
  • 9) Another son, who had issue, three sons:
    • a) Ahmad.
    • b) Bayad.
    • c) Halil.
  • 1) Princess Fatima Khanum. m. and had issue, a son.




Copyright © Christopher Buyers, December 2000 - April 2003 (L)

 





Osman I

Osman I (?1254/5-1323/4) (W)

 

Osman I
Born: Unknown Died: 1323/4
Regnal titles
New title
Ottoman Sultan (Bey)
c. 1299 – 1323/4
Succeeded by
Orhan I

 

Marriages

Sons

Daughter

  • Fatma

 

Osman I or Osman Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان غازى‎, romanized: ʿOsmān Ġāzī; Turkish: Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name later established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate). The state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. It existed until shortly after the end of World War I. Historians commonly mark the end date at the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924.

Due to the scarcity of historical sources dating from his lifetime, very little factual information is known about him. Not a single written source survives from Osman’s reign. The Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. Because of this, it is very challenging for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in the many stories told about him. One historian has even gone so far as to declare it impossible, describing the period of Osman's life as a "black hole."

According to later Ottoman tradition, Osman’s ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman principality was just one of many Anatolian beyliks that emerged in the second half of the thirteenth century. Situated in the region of Bithynia, Osman's principality was particularly well-placed to launch attacks on the vulnerable Byzantine Empire, which his descendants would eventually go on to conquer.

 
Osman’s Name

Some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish, probably Atman or Ataman, and was only later changed to ʿOsmān, of Arabic origin. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν (Atouman) or Ατμάν (Atman), whereas Greek sources regularly render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him also writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name later in his life.


Osman’s Dream

Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. A story emerged among later Ottoman writers to explain the relationship between the two men, in which Osman had a dream while staying in the Sheikh's house. The story appears in the late fifteenth-century chronicle of Aşıkpaşazade as follows:

“He saw that a moon arose from the holy man's breast and came to sink in his own breast. A tree then sprouted from his navel and its shade compassed the world. Beneath this shade there were mountains, and streams flowed forth from the foot of each mountain. Some people drank from these running waters, others watered gardens, while yet others caused fountains to flow. When Osman awoke he told the story to the holy man, who said 'Osman, my son, congratulations, for God has given the imperial office to you and your descendants and my daughter Malhun shall be your wife.”

The dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. The dream story may also have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was also implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity.


The Sword of Osman

The Sword of Osman (Turkish: Taklid-i Seyf) was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the Ottoman Sultans. The practice started when Osman was girt with the sword of Islam by his father-in-law Sheik Edebali. The girding of the sword of Osman was a vital ceremony which took place within two weeks of a sultan's accession to the throne. It was held at the tomb complex at Eyüp, on the Golden Horn waterway in the capital Constantinople. The fact that the emblem by which a sultan was enthroned consisted of a sword was highly symbolic: it showed that the office with which he was invested was first and foremost that of a warrior. The Sword of Osman was girded on to the new sultan by the Sharif of Konya, a Mevlevi dervish, who was summoned to Constantinople for that purpose.

 
Osman’s Life

The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, and very little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in later centuries. He was most likely born around the middle of the thirteenth century, possibly in 1254/5, the date given by the sixteenth-century Ottoman historian Kemalpaşazade. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman’s father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught. He then pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, however, was largely invented by court chroniclers a century later, and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure.

Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire. The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him.

Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors. His first advances were through the passes which lead from the barren areas of northern Phrygia near modern Eskişehir into the more fertile plains of Bithynia; according to Stanford Shaw, these conquests were achieved against the local Byzantine nobles, "some of whom were defeated in battle, others being absorbed peacefully by purchase contracts, marriage contracts, and the like."

These early victories and exploits are favorite subjects of Ottoman writers, especially in love stories of his wooing and winning the fair Mal Hatun. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in later years. The Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire.


Military victories


Illustration of Osman rallying Gazi warriors into battle (Source: Culver Pictures)
 
   

According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of Eskişehir and Karacahisar. Then he captured the first significant city in his territories, Yenişehir, which became the Ottoman capital.

In 1302, after soundly defeating a Byzantine force near Nicaea, Osman began settling his forces closer to Byzantine controlled areas.

Alarmed by Osman’s growing influence, the Byzantines gradually fled the Anatolian countryside. Byzantine leadership attempted to contain Ottoman expansion, but their efforts were poorly organized and ineffectual. Meanwhile, Osman spent the remainder of his reign expanding his control in two directions, north along the course of the Sakarya River and southwest towards the Sea of Marmora, achieving his objectives by 1308. That same year his followers participated in conquest of the Byzantine city of Ephesus near the Aegean Sea, thus capturing the last Byzantine city on the coast, although the city became part of the domain of the Emir of Aydin.

Osman's last campaign was against the city of Bursa. Although Osman did not physically participate in the battle, the victory at Bursa proved to be extremely vital for the Ottomans as the city served as a staging ground against the Byzantines in Constantinople, and as a newly adorned capital for Osman's son, Orhan.

 



Malhun Hatun

Malhun Hatun (d. 1323) (W)


Kameriye Sultana Malhun Hatun (LINK)

Death: November 1323, Söğüt, Bilecik

Immediate Family: Daughter of Ömer Abdulaziz Bey, Wife of Osman I, 1st, Ottoman Sultan, Mother of Orhan Gazi, 2nd Ottoman Sultan

 
 

Malhun Hatun (died November 1323, other names Mal Hatun, Mala Hatun, Kameriye Sultana) was the first wife of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. She was the mother of the next and second ruler of the Ottoman State, Orhan.


Biography of Malhun Hatun

.

 



Ertuğrul (d. c. 1280)

Ertuğrul (d. c. 1280) (W)

 
   

Ertugrul (Ottoman Turkish: ارطغرل‎, Turkish: Ertuğrul Gazi, Erṭoġrıl; often with the title Gazi) (died c. 1280) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. While his historicity is proven by coins minted by Osman I which identify Ertuğrul as the name of his father, nothing else is known for certain about his life or activities. According to Ottoman tradition, he was the son of Suleyman Shah, leader of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks, who fled from eastern Iran to Anatolia to escape the Mongol conquests. According to this legend, after the death of his father, Ertuğrul and his followers entered the service of the Seljuks of Rum, for which he was rewarded with dominion over the town of Söğüt on the frontier with the Byzantine Empire. This set off the chain of events that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Ottoman Empire. Like his son, Osman, and their descendants, Ertuğrul is often referred to as a Ghazi, a heroic champion fighter for the cause of Islam.

Biography (W)

Nothing is known with certainty about Ertuğrul’s life, other than that he was the father of Osman; historians are thus forced to rely upon stories written about him by the Ottomans, which are claimed to be of questionable accuracy by modern Western scholars. ccording to these later traditions, Ertuğrul was chief of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. As a result of his assistance to the Seljuks against the Byzantines, Ertuğrul was granted lands in Karaca Dağ, a mountainous area near Angora (now Ankara), by Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm. One account indicates that the Seljuk leader's rationale for granting Ertuğrul land was for Ertuğrul to repel any hostile incursion from the Byzantines or other adversary. Later, he received the village of Söğüt which he conquered together with the surrounding lands. That village, where he later died, became the Ottoman capital under his son Osman I. Ottoman historians have differing opinions on whether Ertuğrul had two or possibly three other sons in addition to Osman: Gündüz Bey, and Saru Batu Savcı Bey or Saru Batu and Savcı Bey.

 



Sheikh Edebali (1246-1326)

Sheikh Edebali (1246-1326) (W)

 
   

Sheikh Edebali (1246—1326), also referred as Balışeyh, was a highly influential Turkish Sufi Sheikh, who helped shape and develop the policies of the growing Ottoman State. A descendant of Balkh-ar family he commanded great respect in the religious circles.

 

Interaction with Ottoman leaders

Edebali often conversed with his close friend Ertugrul Ghazi, the father of Osman Ghazi, about Islam and the state of affairs of Muslims in Anatolia. Osman had been Edebali's guest several times. Edebali became Osman’s mentor and eventually girt him with a ghazi sword. In an often mentioned account, Osman, while at Edebali's dergah, dreamed of the crescent moon coming out of Edebali’s chest and entering his own. This dream was to lead to the establishment of the Ottoman State. Edebali's daughter Rabia Bala was married to Osman I in 1289. Sheikh Edebali died in his 80 year.

Edebali's advice to his son in law, Osman Ghazi, shaped and developed Ottoman administration and rule for six centuries.

In one famous declaration, Edebali told Osman:

O my son! Now you are king!

From now on, wrath is for us; for you, calmness!

For us to be offended; for you to please!

For us to accuse; for you to endure!

For us, helplessness and error; for you, tolerance!

For us, quarrel; for you, justice!

For us, envy, rumor, slander; for you, forgiveness!

O my son!

From now on, it is for us to divide; for you to unite!

For us, sloth; for you, warning and encouragement!

O my son!

Be patient, a flower does not bloom before its time. Never forget: Let man flourish, and the state will also flourish!

O my son!

Your burden is heavy, your task hard, your power hangs on a hair! May God be your helper!

 



Battle of Bapheus

Battle of Bapheus (1302) (W)

The Battle of Bapheus occurred on 27 July 1302, between an Ottoman army under Osman I and a Byzantine army under George Mouzalon. The battle ended in a crucial Ottoman victory, cementing the Ottoman state and heralding the final capture of Byzantine Bithynia by the Turks.

Battle of Bapheus
Part of the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars
Date 27 July 1302
Location
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents
Byzantine Empire
Fictitious Ottoman flag 1.svg Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
George Mouzalon Osman I
Strength
~2,000 ~5,000

Strategic context

Osman I had succeeded in the leadership of his clan in c. 1282, and over the next two decades launched a series of ever-deeper raids into the Byzantine borderlands of Bithynia. By 1301, the Ottomans were besieging Nicaea, the former imperial capital, and harassing Prussa. The Turkish raids also threatened the port city of Nicomedia with famine, as they roamed the countryside and prohibited the collection of the harvest.

In the spring of 1302, Emperor Michael IX (r. 1294-1320) launched a campaign which reached south to Magnesia. The Turks, awed by his large army, avoided battle. Michael sought to confront them, but was dissuaded by his generals. The Turks, encouraged, resumed their raids, virtually isolating him at Magnesia. His army dissolved without battle, as the local troops left to defend their homes, and the Alans, too, left to rejoin their families in Thrace. Michael was forced to withdraw by the sea, followed by another wave of refugees.

Battle

To counter the threat to Nicomedia, Michael's father, Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282-1328), sent a Byzantine force of some 2,000 men (half of whom were recently hired Alan mercenaries), under the megas hetaireiarches, George Mouzalon, to cross over the Bosporus and relieve the city.

At the plain of Bapheus (Greek: Βαφεύς; an unidentified site, perhaps to the east of Nicomedia but within sight of the city) on 27 July 1302, the Byzantines met a Turkish army of some 5,000 light cavalry under Osman himself, composed of his own troops as well as allies from the Turkish tribes of Paphlagonia and the Maeander River area. The Turkish cavalry charged the Byzantines, whose Alan contingent did not participate in the battle. The Turks broke the Byzantine line, forcing Mouzalon to withdraw into Nicomedia under the cover of the Alan force.

Aftermath

Bapheus was the first major victory for the nascent Ottoman Beylik, and of major significance for its future expansion: the Byzantines effectively lost control of the countryside of Bithynia, withdrawing to their forts, which, isolated, fell one by one. The Byzantine defeat also sparked a mass exodus of the Christian population from the area into the European parts of the empire, further altering the region's demographic balance.

Coupled with the defeat at Magnesia, which allowed the Turks to reach and establish themselves on the coasts of the Aegean Sea, Bapheus thus heralded the final loss of Asia Minor for Byzantium. According to Halil İnalcık, the battle allowed the Ottomans to achieve the characteristics and qualities of a state. The Ottoman conquest of Bithynia was nonetheless gradual, and the last Byzantine outpost there, Nicomedia, fell only in 1337.

 

 








  Orhan I

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY (W)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY


 
Orkhan I.
   
1320 - 1362 Sultan Orkhan Ihtiyar ud-din Saif ud-din Shuja ud-din Khan Ghazi, 2nd Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan, son of Sultan Ghazis, Ghazi, son of Ghazis, Shuja ud-Daula wad-din, Khan of Khans, Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia. b. at Sogut, 1281, educ. privately. Became Vali Ahad 1281. Succeeded on the abdication of his father, 1320. Governor of Sultanonu before his accession. Conquered Anatolia, Thrace and Macedonia (Rumelia). The first of his line to assume the title of Sultan. m. (firstly) 1299, Hulufira Nilufer Khanum (b. 1283),Valide Sultana, daughter of the Bey of Yarhisar. m. (secondly) 1316, Princess Asporsha Khanum (b. 1300; d. 1362), daughter of Emperor Andronicus, by his wife, Empress Anna. m. (thirdly) 1345, Princess Theodora Khanum, daughter of Stephen Urosh IV (Dushan), King of Serbia, by his wife, Helena Shishman. m. (fourthly) Bayalun Khanum [Suylun]. m. (fifthly) May 1346, Princess Theodora Maria (b. 1332), daughter of Emperor John VI Cantacuzene, Emperor of Byzantium, by his wife, Princess Irene of Bulgaria. m. (sixthly) Aftandisa Khanum, daughter of Muhammad Alp. He d. at Bursa, March 1362 (bur. there), having had issue, five sons and one daughter:

  • 1) Prince (Shahzada) Ibrahim. b. 1316 (s/o Asporsha). Governor of Askishihir. He was k. 1362.
  • 2) Prince (Vali Ahad-Shahzada) Ghazi Sulaiman Pasha. b. at Karajahisar, 1316. Became Vali Ahad (Crown Prince) February 1324. Governor of Bolu, Izmir 1330, Balikizir 1336, Bursa and of Gallipoli 1356-1357. m. ... Khanum, a daughter of John Vatatzes. He d.v.p. at Bolayur, September 1357, having had issue:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Malik-i-Nasir Bey. Governor of Ankara 1365. He was k. 1365.
    • b) Prince (Shahzada) Ismail Bey. He d. 1360.
    • c) Prince (Shahzada) Ishaq Bey. He d. 1360.
    • a) Princess Effendizadi Khanum. m. 1372, Damad Koturum Amir Jalal ud-din Bayezid Vali Bey, Amir of Candar (d. 1385), son of Adil Bey, Amir of Candar. She d. at Akshahir, July 1397.
    • b) Princess Sultana Khanum. m. 1385, Amir Damad Sulaiman Shah Pasha II, Amir of Candar (d. 1392), son of Damad Koturum Amir Jalal ud-din Bayezid Vali Bey, Amir of Candar. She d. at Sinop, June 1395, having had issue, one son.
  • 3) Prince (Shahzada) Sultan Bey. b. 1324. He d. 1362.
  • 4) Sultan Murad Khan I, Grand Sultan of Turkey (s/o Nilufer) - see below.
  • 5) Prince (Shahzada) Khalil Bey. b. 1347 (s/o Theodora). m. at Iznik, 1359, Princess Irene (b. 1348), daughter of Emperor John V Paleologus, Emperor of Byzantium, by his wife, Empress Helena, née Cantacuzenu. He d. 1362, having had issue:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Gunduz Bey. b. 1361.
    • b) Prince (Shahzada) Omar Bey. b. 1362.
  • 6) Prince (Shahzada) Kasim Shalabi (s/o Nilufer). He d. 1346.
  • 7) Prince (Shahzada) ... Bey.
  • 1) Princess Khadija Khanum. m. her first cousin, Prince (Shahzada) Damad Sulaiman Bey, son of Prince Savji Bey - see above.
  • 2) Princess Fatima Khanum (d/o Asporsha). m. and had issue, one son.




Copyright © Christopher Buyers, December 2000 - April 2003 (L)

 




🛑 Orhan Bey

Orhan Bey

 
   

Osman'ın oğlu Orhan'ın yönetimi sırasında 1326'da Bursa alındı ve başkent yapıldı. 1331'de İznik (Nikaea) ve 1337'de İzmit (Nicomedaeia) ele geçirildi. İzmit'in alındığı yıl Orhan Trakya üzerine ilk saldırısını yaptı ve 1346'da bitişik Karasu emirliğini topraklarına kattı.

Osman'ın ve Orhan'ın yönetimleri sırasında yerel Hıristiyan şefler ve komutanlar ile yakın ilişkiler kuruldu ve Köse Mikhal İslama dönerek Osman ile işbirliği yaptı. Bu bağlantılar erkenden Bizans gelenek ve törelerinin Osmanlı devletine girmesini sağladı.

Devlet aileye aitti ve en büyük yetke olarak görülen baba tarafından (ulu bey) yönetiliyordu. Anlaşmaları yapan, para bastıran ve Cuma namazlarında kutlanan yetke baba idi.

Orhan'ın yönetimi altında bundan böyle yeterli olmayan Türkmen akıncılara ek olarak bir süvari birliği (müsellemler) ve bir de piyade birliği (yayalar) kuruldu ve komutanlara paşa sanı verilmeye başladı.

Genç devlet doğal olarak Batıya doğru genişlerken, Orhan'ın gücü 1341'de patlak veren Bizans iç savaşı sırasında John VI Kantakouzenos (1341-1354 yıllarında imparator oldu) ile bağlaşmasından ötürü önemli ölçüde arttı.

 



Orhan

Orhan (1281-1362) (1323/4-1362) (W)


Orhan Gazi.
 
   

Orhan Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل‎; Turkish: Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born in Söğüt, as the son of Osman Gazi and Malhun Hatun. His grandfather was Ertuğrul.

In the early stages of his reign, Orhan focused his energies on conquering most of northwestern Anatolia. The majority of these areas were under Byzantine rule and he won his first battle at Pelekanon against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Orhan also occupied the lands of the Karasids of Balıkesir and the Ahis of Ankara.

A series of civil wars surrounding the ascension of the nine-year-old Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos greatly benefited Orhan. In the Byzantine civil war of 1341-1347, the regent John VI Kantakouzenos married his daughter Theodora to Orhan and employed Ottoman warriors against the rival forces of the empress dowager, allowing them to loot Thrace. In the Byzantine civil war of 1352-1357, Kantakouzenos used Ottoman forces against John V, granting them the use of a European fortress at Çimpe around 1352. A major earthquake devastated Gallipoli (modern Gelibolu) two years later, after which Orhan's son, Süleyman Pasha, occupied the town, giving the Ottomans a strong bridgehead into mainland Europe.


Early life

 
   

Born in Söğüt around 1281, Orhan was the first son of Osman I. Orhan's grandfather, Ertuğrul Gazi, named his grandson after Orhan Alp. The early childhood and adulthood of Orhan are unknown, but he grew very close to his father. Some historical articles claim that when Orhan was 20 years old, his father sent him to the small Ottoman province of Nakihir, but Orhan returned to the Ottoman capital, Sogut, in 1309.

 

 

Passage of power

Sultan Osman Gazi died in either 1323 or 1324, and Orhan succeeded him. According to Ottoman tradition, when Orhan succeeded his father, he proposed to his brother, Alaeddin, that they should share the emerging empire. The latter refused on the grounds that their father had designated Orhan as sole successor, and that the empire should not be divided. He only accepted as his share the revenues of a single village near Bursa.

Orhan then told him, "Since, my brother, thou will not take the flocks and the herds that I offer thee, be thou the shepherd of my people; be my Vizier.” The word vizier, vezir in the Ottoman language, from Arabic wazīr, meant the bearer of a burden. Alaeddin, in accepting the office, accepted his brother's burden of power, according to oriental historians. Alaeddin, like many of his successors in that office, did not often command the armies in person, but he occupied himself with the foundation and management of the civil and military institutions of the state.


Government

According to some authorities, it was in Alaeddin's time, and by his advice, that the Ottomans ceased acting like vassals to the Seljuk ruler: they no longer stamped money with his image or used his name in public prayers. These changes are attributed by others to Osman himself, but the vast majority of the oriental writers concur in attributing to Alaeddin the introduction of laws respecting the costume of the various subjects of the empire, and the creation and funding of a standing army of regular troops. It was by his advice and that of a contemporary Turkish statesman that the celebrated corps of Janissaries was formed, an institution which European writers erroneously fix at a later date, and ascribe to Murad I.

 
Janissaries

Alaeddin, by his military legislation, may be truly said to have organized victory for the Ottoman dynasty. He organised for the Ottoman Beylik a standing army of regularly paid and disciplined infantry and horses, a full century before Charles VII of France established his fifteen permanent companies of men-at-arms, which are generally regarded as the first modern standing army.

Orhan's predecessors, Ertuğrul and Osman I, had made war at the head of the armed vassals and volunteers. This army rode on horseback to their prince's banner when summoned for each expedition, and were disbanded as soon as the campaign was over. Alaeddin determined to ensure any future success by forming a corps of paid infantry, which was to be kept in constant readiness for service. These troops were called Yaya, or piyade. They were divided into tens, hundreds, and thousands with their commanders. Their pay was high, and their pride soon caused their sovereign some anxiety. Orhan wished to provide a check to them, and he took counsel for this purpose with his brother Alaeddin and Kara Khalil Çandarlı (of House of Candar), who was connected with the royal house by marriage. Çandarlı laid before his master and the vizier a project. Out of this arose the renowned corps of Janissaries, which was considered the scourge of the Balkans and Central Europe for a long time, until it was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826.

Çandarlı proposed to Orhan to create an army entirely composed of the children of conquered places. Çandarlı argued that:

“The conquered are the responsibility of the conqueror, who is the lawful ruler of them, of their lands, of their goods, of their wives, and of their children. We have a right to do, same as what we do with our own; and the treatment which I propose is not only lawful, but benevolent. By enforcing the enrolling them in the ranks of the army, we consult both their temporal and eternal interests, as they will be educated and given better life conditions.”

He also claimed that the formation of Janissary out of conquered children would induce other people to adopt, not only out of the children of the conquered nations, but out of a crowd of their friends and relations, who would come as volunteers to join the Ottoman ranks. Acting on this advice, Orhan selected a thousand of the finest boys from conquered Christian families. The recruits were trained according to their individual abilities, and employed in posts ranging from professional soldier to Grand Vizier. This practice continued for centuries, until the reign of Sultan Mehmet IV.

 








  Murat I (1326-1389) (1362-1389)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY (W)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY


 
Murad I.
   
1360 - 1389 Birinci Sultan Murad Khan I Khudavandigar Ghazi, Hunkar, Shahid, Shihab ud-din, Ghiyas ud Dunya va ud-din, 'Abu'l Fath, Malik ul-Adil, Sultan ul-Adil, Ghiyas ul-Musulman, Lays ul-Islam, Sultan ul-Guzat wal Mujad ud-din, 3rd Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philippolis. b. at Sogut, March 1326, educ. Islamic Sch. of Theology, Bursa. Governor of Izmir 1329-1330, Sultanonu 1330, Bursa and of Gallipoli 1359-1360. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1360. Conquered Adrianople and Philippolis, forcing Emperor John V Palaeologus to become his tributary. Transferred his capital to Adrianople, renaming it Adrianople, 1365. Defeated the Bulgars and the Serbs under Lazar at the decisive battle of Kossovo, 28th August 1389. m. (firstly) 1359, Gulshuchak Khanum. m. (secondly) Pasha Malika Khanum, daughter of Murad Bey. m. (thirdly) March 1366, a daughter of Sayyid Sultan Ahi. m. (fourthly) 1370, Princess Marya Tamara Khanum, daughter of Ivan Alezander II Shishman, King of Bulgaria, by his wife, Braide, daughter of Ivanko, King of Bassarabia. m. (fifthly) 1372, a daughter of Constantine, Lord of Kostendil in Bulgaria. m. (sixthly) 1383, a daughter of Amir Damad Sulaiman Shah Pasha II, Amir of Candar. m. (seventhly) at Yenishahir, 1386, a daughter of Emperor Manuel Paleologus. He d. at Kosovo, 20th June 1389 (bur. Bursa), having had issue, five sons and three daughters:

  • 1) Prince (Shahzada) Yakub Shalabi. b. 1362. Governor of Balikizir. m. (firstly) 1372, a daughter of Constantine, Lord of Kostendil in Bulgaria. m. (secondly) Yenishahir, 1386, a daughter of Emperor Manuel Paleologus. He d. at Kosovo, 20th June 1389.
  • 2) Sultan Bayezid Khan Yilderim (s/o Gulshuchek) - see below.
  • 3) Prince (Shahzada) Savji Bey. b. 1364. Governor of Bursa 1382-1385. He was k. November 1385, having had issue:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Murad Bey. He d. 1386.
    • b) Prince (Shahzada) Orkhan Bey.
    • c) Prince (Shahzada) Davud Bey.
  • 4) Prince (Shahzada) Ibrahim Bey. b. 1385. He d. 1385.
  • 5) Prince (Shahzada) Yahshi Bey (s/o Gulshuchak). He d. 1389.

  • 1) Princess Nafisa Malika Sultana Khanum. b. 1363. m. 31st December 1378, Amir Damad Ala ud-din Ali Bey, Amir of Karaman (k. October 1397), son of Amir Ala ud-din Shuja ud-din Halil Mirza Bey, Amir of Karaman. She d. 1400, having had issue, three sons.
  • 2) A daughter. m. 1389, Damad Hizir Shah Bey, Amir of Sarihan, son of Amir Muzaffar ud-din Ishaq Shalabi, Amir of Sarihan.
  • 3) Princess Ozar Khanum. m. after 1385, ...
  • 4) Princess Sultana Khanum. m. after 1385, Damad Turgut Bey Karamanoglu, by whom she had issue, a son.




Copyright © Christopher Buyers, December 2000 - April 2003 (L)

 



  • Adrianapolis’i fethetti ve adını Edirne’ye çevirerek başkent yaptı (1363).
  • Balkanların çoğunu Osmanlı egemenliği altına aldı.
  • 1383’te “Sultanlık” sanını kurdu.
  • Divan hükümetini kurdu.
  • Tımar dizgesini kurdu.
  • Yeniçeri dizgesini kurdu.
  • Devşirme dizgesini kurdu.
  • Kazaskerliği (askeri yargıçlık) kurdu.

Murat I

Murat I (1326-1389) (1362-1389) (W)


Murat I.
 
   

Murad I (Ottoman Turkish: مراد اول‎; Turkish: I. Murad, Murad-ı Hüdavendigâr (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of Orhan and the Valide Nilüfer Hatun {Holofira, the daughter of a Christian Byzantine Prince}.

Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, and in 1363 made it the new capital of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Then he further expanded the Ottoman realm in Southeast Europe by bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule, and forced the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria as well as the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos to pay him tribute.

Murad I administratively divided his sultanate into the two provinces of Anatolia Asia Minor) and Rumelia (the Balkans). Murad's death against the Serbs would cause the Ottomans to halt their expansion into the territory temporarily and focus their attention once more on the ailing Byzantine Empire.

 
Family

He was the son of Orhan and the Valide Hatun Nilüfer Hatun, daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar, who was of ethnic Greek descent.

Consorts
Sons
  • Yahşi Bey;
  • Şehzade Savcı Bey – son. He and his ally, Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus' son Andronicus, rebelled against their fathers. Murad had Savcı killed. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was imprisoned and blinded at Murad's insistence.
  • Sultan Bayezid I (1354–1402) – son of Gülçiçek Hatun;
  • Şehzade Yakub Çelebi (? – d. 1389) – son. Bayezid I had Yakub killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed.
  • Şehzade Ibrahim;

Daughter
 

The conquests of Murad I.
 
 
Establishment of sultanate

He established the sultanate by building up a society and government in the newly conquered city of Adrianople (Edirne in Turkish) and by expanding the realm in Europe, bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and forcing the Byzantine emperor to pay him tribute. It was Murad who established the former Osmanli tribe into an sultanate. He established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system. He also organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders (timariots) and the military judge, the kazasker. He also established the two provinces of Anadolu (Anatolia) and Rumeli (Europe).
Wars

Murad fought against the powerful beylik of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, Albanians, Bulgarians and Hungarians in Europe. In particular, a Serb expedition to expel the Turks from Adrianople led by the Serbian brothers King Vukašin and Despot Uglješa, was defeated on September 26, 1371, by Murad's capable second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa, the first governor (beylerbey) of Rumeli. In 1385, Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated an Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik. The Ottoman army suffered heavy casualties, and was unable to capture Niš on the way back.

 

Battle of Kosovo

Battle of Kosovo, 1389 (W)

In 1389, Murad's army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo.

There are different accounts from different sources about when and how Murad I was assassinated. The contemporary sources mainly noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle. The existing evidence of the additional stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and later, decades after the actual event. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman and knight Miloš Obilić by knife. Most Ottoman chroniclers (including Dimitrie Cantemir) state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin who was admitted to ask a special favour. His older son Bayezid, who was in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. His other son, Yakub Bey, who was in charge of the other wing, was called to the Sultan's command center tent by Bayezid, but when Yakub Bey arrived he was strangled, leaving Bayezid as the sole claimant to the throne.

In a letter from the Florentine senate (written by Coluccio Salutati) to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad I's (and Jakub Bey's) killing was described. A party of twelve Serbian lords slashed their way through the Ottoman lines defending Murad I. One of them, allegedly Miloš Obilić, had managed to get through to the Sultan's tent and kill him with sword stabs to the throat and belly.[7][page needed]

Sultan Murad's internal organs were buried in Kosovo field and remains to this day on a corner of the battlefield in a location called Meshed-i Hudavendigar which has gained a religious significance by the local Muslims. It has been vandalized between 1999-2006 and renovated recently. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city, and were buried in a tomb at the complex built in his name.

 




📹 Battle of Kosovo 1389 /Serbian-Ottoman Wars (VİDEO)

Battle of Kosovo 1389 / Serbian-Ottoman Wars (LINK)

The Ottoman invasion of Europe was truly challenged for the first time during the Battle of Kosovo of 1389.

The Serbs and other Balkan peoples alongside their allies from Western and Eastern Europe fought valiantly against overwhelming odds and although they lost, the foundation of the future resistance, that continued until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, was set.

This battle was also remarkable due to the fact that leaders of both armies were killed during it. Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović died in the battle and Sultan Murad I was assassinated by the Serbian knight Miloš Obilić, who was killed shortly after. All three are considered martyrs by their people and the spirit of this battle is still part of the bitter animosity…

 




Murat I (L)

Murat I (L)

Murat I

 
   

Murad I was born in Bursa, in 1326. His father was Orhan Gazi and his mother was Nilufer Hatun (Holofira) the daughter of a Christian Byzantine Prince. Murad I was a tall man with a round face and a big nose, he had a muscular body. He wore a cap with Mevlevi coins and a testar wrapped on it. He dressed up simple and he liked red and white cloths. He had his first education from his mother. Afterwards, he attended to Bursa Medrese (University) to complete his education and he lived with scientists, theologians and artists.

Murad I was a kind and a calm man. He admired the scientists and the artists. He was gracious to the poor and to the homeless. He was a genius soldier and a statesman. He acted very strictly planned and programmed all his life.

Although he was considered as an infidel and an enemy of Christ by the Byzantine Church, he won love and respect of the people who lived in the lands he conquered as he never tyrannised them.

Murad I began to be called as “Murad Hudavendigar” in 1382 (Hudavendigar means master in the Ottoman Turkish). Unfortunately, he was stabbed by the son-in-law of the Serbian King Lazar when he was walking through the battle fields after the first Kossovo Battle and he died (1389). Murad widened the Ottoman hold on European territory, conquering Macedonia and making Adrianople his residence. In 1373 he forced Byzantine Emperor to pay tribute. Murad began the policy of compelling Christian youths to join the army corps known as the Janissaries. As a result of his victory at Kosovo Field , Serbia came under Ottoman rule. However, Murad was assassinated in his tent by a Serbian warrior.

His Wifes : Gulcicek Hatun , Marya Thamara Hatun , Pasha Melek Hatun , Fulane Hatun
His Sons : Yakub Celebi, Bayezid, Savci Bey, Ibrahim
His Daughters : Nefise and Sultan Hatun

 



MURAD I (L)

MURAD I (L)

 
   
Murad I (reigned circa 1360-1389), became Ottoman Sultan upon the death of his father Sultan Orhan I. Regarded as the first great Ottoman conqueror on European soil, during his reign the Ottomans gained territory and influence in the Balkans. He successfully took Adrianople (modern-day Edirne) in 1366, establishing it as the Ottoman capital in Rumeli, thence pushing into Eastern Bulgaria and fighting the Serbs and Hungarians in Europe and Karaman-Oghlu 'Ala' al-Din in Anatolia. Although victorious against the Serbian Prince Lazar and his allies at the battle of Kosovo in 1389, Murad died during the battle. Accounts of his assassination differ, though the Serbian tradition alleges that he was murdered by Milos Obilic, a Serbian nobleman who, claiming to be a deserter, gained an audience with Murad and murdered him with a dagger.

The present work appears to have been part of a collection of portraits of Ottoman rulers. A portrait of the same size depicting Sultan Selim I, attributed to Bernardino Campi and now in the collection of the Orientalist Museum, Doha (OM. 411) also bears the same 'G.37' inscription in the lower corner, and was sold together with a portrait of Barbarossa at auction in 1997 (Christie's, London, 3 December 1997, lot 63).

Learned interest in the celebrated rulers of the Ottoman Empire had been championed as early as the 16th century by the prolific historian and collector Paolo Giovio (1483-1552), whose collection at his death included some four hundred portraits of historical figures, each with a label summarising the character and achievements of the person depicted. The collection was known through a series of prints by Tobias Stimmer, published as Elogia Virorum Bellica virtute Illustrium.

As no accurate likeness of Murad I painted from life existed on which our portrait could be based, it is likely that several individual likenesses were combined — most notably portrait medals and prints of the corsair Khayr al-Din (Khidir) Pasha, or Barbarossa (see lot 123), possibly with elements from the prints published in the Elogia (see fig. 1).

 



 








  Bayezid I (1360-1403) (1389-1402)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY (W)

The Imperial House of Osman / GENEALOGY


 
Bayezid I.
   
1389 - 1403 Sultan Bayezid Khan I Ghazi Yildirim, 4th Sovereign of the House of Osman, Jalal ud-din Saif ud-din Ghias ud-Dunya ud-din, Sultan-i-Iklim-i-Rum (Emperor of Rome), Khan of Khans, Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philippolis. b. at Bursa, 1360, educ. privately. Became Vali Ahad (Crown Prince) March 1362. Governor of Kutahya 1381-1389. Succeeded on the death of his father, 20th June 1389. Conquered Valachia in 1396, Karaman and Sivas, as well as Bosnia. Defeated and captured at the battle of Angora by the Mongols under Tamerlane, 28th July 1402. m. (firstly) 1372, Angelina Khanum (m. secondly, Don Diego Gonzalez de Contreras), a lady of Greek parentage. m. (secondly) 1372, a daughter of Constantine. m. (thirdly), 1378, Daulat Shah Khanum (b. at Kutahya, 1365; d. at Bursa, 1414), daughter of Amir Sulaiman Shah II Bey Adil, Bey of Germiyan, by his wife, Mutahhari Abida Khanum, daughter of Sultan Valad b. Maulana Jalil ud-din of Rumelia. m. (fourthly), Maria (m. secondly, Don Payo Gomez de Soto Mayor), daughter of Count John of Hungary. m. (fifthly), at Yenishkhir, 1386, a daughter of Emperor Manuel Paleologus, Emperor of Byzantium. m. (sixthly), 1389, a daughter of John V Paleologus, Emperor of Byzantium, by his wife, Helena Cantacuzenu. m. (seventhly), 1390, Hafisa Khanum, daughter of Amir Fakhr ud-din 'Isa Bey, Amir of Aydin. m. (eighthly), Karamanoglu ... Khanum. m. (ninthly), Sultan Khanum, daughter of Amir Sulaiman Shah Suli Bey, Amir of Dulkadir. m. (tenthly), at Krushevatch Jami, 1390, Princess Despina Maria Olivera Khanum (b. 1372), daughter of Lazar I Grebelyanovich, King of Serbia, by his wife, Queen Militza, née Bulco. m. (twelfth), Daulat Khanum (d. at Bursa, January 1414).He d. (comitted suicide) at Akshahir, 9th March 1403 (bur. Bursa), having had issue, six sons and one daughter:

  • 1) Prince (Shahzada) Ertugrul Shalabi. b. 1376. Vali Ahad from 1389. Governor of Sarihan 1390-1396. He d. 1396, having had issue, one son:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) ... Bey Zeches.
  • 2) Amir 'Isa Shalabi Khan, Amir of Bursa. b. 1378 (s/o Daulat Shah). Governor of Anatolia 1390, of Balikizir 1402-1403. Appointed as ruler of Bursa by Tamerlane, 1403. Deposed 1404. m. (firstly) 1402, ... Khanum, daughter of Ioannis Tuntares. m. (secondly) Bazirji Khanum. He d. at Kutahya, 1405.
  • 3) Sultan Mustafa Shalabi Khan Duzme. b. 1380 (s/o Daulat Shah). Sultan of Rumelia January 1419-1420 and January 1421-May 1422. m. 1400, a daughter of Ahmad Jalayir Ilhan. He d. at Venice, May 1422, having had issue, a son:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) ... Bey.
  • 4) Prince (Shahzada) Buyuk Musa Khan (s/o Daulat Shah).
  • 5) Prince (Shahzada) Ibrahim Shalabi.
  • 6) Prince (Shahzada) Kasim Shalabi. b. 1397. Sent as a hostage to Constantinople together with his sister, Fatima. He d. 1417, having had issue:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Orkhan Shalabi. b. 1412. He d. 29th May 1453, having had issue, four sons:
      • i) Prince (Shahzada) 'Ali Shah.
      • ii) Prince (Shahzada) Jahan Shah.
      • iii) Prince (Shahzada) Vali Khan.
      • iv) Prince (Shahzada) Buga Khan.
  • 7) Prince (Shahzada) Yusuf Shalabi.
  • 8) Prince (Shahzada) Hasan Shalabi.
  • 9) Sultan Musa Shalabi Khan, Sultan of Rumelia - see below.
  • 10) Sultan Sulaiman Shalabi Khan, Sultan of Rumelia - see below.
  • 10) Prince (Shahzada) Omar.
  • 11) Prince (Shahzada) Muhammad Shalabi.

  • 1) Princess Irhondu Khanum. m. after 1405, Damad Yakub Bey, son of Pars Bey, and had issue, two sons.
  • 2) Princess ... Khanum. b. 1391 (d/o Despina). m. 1403, Damad 'Abu Bakar Mirza (d. 1408), son of Jalal ud-din Miran Shah bin Timur of Iran. She d. at Samarkand.
  • 3) Princess Pasha Malika Khanum. b. 1392 (d/o Despina). m. 1403, Amir Damad Jalal ud-din Islam, son of Shams ud-din Muhammad, a General in Timur's service.
  • 4) Princess Sultana Fatima Khanum. b. 1393. Sent as a hostage to Constantinople together with her brother, Kasim. m. at Bursa, 1420, Damad ... Sanjak Bey.
  • 5) Princess Oruz Khanum (d/o Despina). m. after 1405, … and had issue, one son and one daughter.
  • 6) Princess Hundi Khanum. m. 1402, Damad Seyyid Shams ud-din Muhammad Bokhari, Amir Sultan (b. at Bokhara, 1369; d. at Bursa, 1429), son of 'Ali Hasan ul-Bokhara. She had issue, one son and several daughters.
  • 7) Princess Fatima Khanum. m. 1420, …



1402 - 1410 Sultan Sulaiman Shalabi Khan, as-Sultan ul-Azam, Sayyid us-Saladin ul-Arab wal Ajam, Malik ur-Rikaab ul-Umam, Ghiyas ud-Daula wa ud-Dunya, Sultan ul-Islam was ul-Muslimin, as-Sultan ibni us-Sultan, Hasib-i-Nasib-I-Zaman, Amir of Rumelia. b. at Bursa, 1375, educ. privately. Became Vali Ahad (Crown Prince) 20th June 1389. Governor of Sarihan 1396-1402. Appointed as ruler of Rumelia by Tamerlane, 28th July 1402. Deposed 18th May 1410. m. (firstly) 1396, a daughter of George II Strasimir, Prince of Arnavudluk in Serbia. m. (secondly) October 1402, a daughter of John Theodore Paleologus, by his wife, the daughter of Nerio I Acciajuoli. He was k. 17th February 1411, having had issue, two sons and one daughter:

  • 1) Prince (Shahzada) Orkhan Shalabi. b. 1395. Became Vali Ahad to his father, 28th July 1402. Sent as a hostage to Constantinople together with his sister. Blinded on the orders of Sultan Muhammad I. m. at Bursa, 1420, ... Khanum (b. 1402; d. at Cairo, 1460), He d. of the plague, at Bursa, 1429, having had issue, one son and two daughters:
    • a) Prince (Shahzada) Sulaiman. b. at Bursa, 1422. He d. at Cairo, 1437.
    • a) Princess Fatima Hundi Khanum. b. at Bursa, 1424. m. (firstly) 1438, Sultan Ashraf Barsbay, Mamluk Sultan (d. 1438). m. (secondly) 1438 (div. 25th December 1450) Sultan Zahir Jakmak, Mamluk Sultan (d. 13th February 1453), by whom she had issue four sons who all died of the plague at Cairo, 26th March 1449. m. (thirdly) 1451, Damad Amir Barsbay Bujashi (d. 1455). She d. at Cairo, July 1455.
    • b) Princess Khadija Khanum. m. 1440, …
  • 2) Prince (Shahzada) Muhammad Shah. b. 1408. He was k. 30th December 1421.
  • 1) Princess Pasha-Malika Khanum. b. 1405. m. at Bursa, 1420, …, the Governor of Sanjak, by whom she had issue, one son and one daughter.

1410 - 1413 Sultan Musa Shalabi Khan, Salah ud-Dunya va ud-din. b. 1388, educ. privately. Governor of Bursa 1403-1404. Proclaimed as Sultan at Adrianople in succession to his elder brother, 18th May 1410. m. 1407, … (d. 1408), a daughter of Mircea the Great, Prince of Wallachia. Contested the succession but was defeated and k. by his brother Muhammad, at the battle of Camurlu, Serbia, 5th July 1413.

1403 -1413 The Great Interregnum, when the Empire was divided and disputed between the sons of Bayezid Khan I.




Copyright © Christopher Buyers, December 2000 - April 2003 (L)

 




  • Yıldırım Bayezid (1360-1403) dünyanın o zamana dek bildiği en büyük orduyu kurdu.
  • Güçlü Anadolu Beyliklerini tek tek zor yoluyla Osmanlı egemenliği altına aldı.
  • Konstantinopolis’i kuşattı, ama sekiz yıl süren kuşatmadan sonra kenti ele geçirmeyi başaramadı.
  • “Roma Sultanı” sanını aldı.
  • Macar-Venedik kuvvetlerinden oluşan Haçlıları Niğbolu’da (Nicopolis) yendi (1396).
  • Aralarında sürekli savaş durumunda olan Anadolu Beyliklerini ortadan kaldırdı.
  • Ankara Savaşında Timur’a yenildi ve tutsak düştü (1402).
  • Timur’u Bayezid’e karşı kışkırtan Türk Beylikleri Osmanlılara karşı Timur’un yanında savaştılar.
  • Bayezid’in ordusu Avrupalı vasallarının askerlerinden oluşuyordu.
Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
🔎

Bayezid I

Bayezid I (1360-1403) (1389-1402) (W)

Bayezid I.
 

Bayezid I

Born: c. 1354, Ottoman Beylik
Died: 8 March 1403 (aged 48-49), Timurid Empire

Reign 16 June 1389 ‒ 20 July 1402
Predecessor Murad I
Successor Interregnum (1402–1413)
Mehmed I
 
   
 

Bayezid I (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد اول‎; Turkish: I. Bayezid, Yıldırım Bayezid (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Gülçiçek Hatun. He built one of the largest armies in the known world at the time and unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople.

He adopted the title of Sultan-i Rûm, Rûm being an old Islamic name for the Roman Empire. He decisively defeated the Crusaders at Nicopolis (in modern Bulgaria) in 1396, and was himself defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and died in captivity in March 1403, triggering the Ottoman Interregnum.

 
Family

His mother was Gülçiçek Hatun who was of ethnic Greek descent.
Consorts

Bayezid had five consorts

Sons

  • Şehzade Ertuğrul Çelebi; (1378 - 1400);
  • Şehzade Süleyman Çelebi (1377–1411), co-sultan of Rumelia;
  • Şehzade İsa Çelebi (1380–1406), governor of Anatolia;
  • Şehzade Mehmed Çelebi (1382–1421), governor of Anatolia, and later sultan Mehmed I(1413–1421), with Devlet Hatun;
  • Şehzade Musa Çelebi (1388-1413), sultan of Rumelia (1410–1413)
  • Şehzade Mustafa Çelebi (1393–1422);
  • Şehzade Yusuf Çelebi – son, converted to Christianity, changed his name to Demetrios;
  • Şehzade Kasım Çelebi – son, sent as a hostage to Constantinople together with his sister, Fatma Hatun;

Daughters

  • Hundi Hatun – daughter, married to Damat Seyyid Şemseddin Mehmed Buhari, Emir Sultan;
  • Erhondu Hatun – daughter, married to Damat Yakup Bey son of Pars Bey;
  • Fatma Hatun – daughter, married to a Sanjak Bey;
  • Oruz Hatun, who had a daughter named Ayşe Hatun;
  • A daughter, married to Abu Bakar Mirza, son of Jalal ud-din Miran Shah son of Timur;

 


Biography

The first major role of Bayezid was as governor of Kütahya, a city that was conquered from the Germiyanids. He was an impetuous soldier, earning the nickname Lightning in a battle against the Karamanids.

Bayezid ascended to the throne following the death of his father Murad I, who was killed by Serbian knight Miloš Obilić during (15 June), or immediately after (16 June), the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, by which Serbia became a vassal of the Ottoman Sultanate. Immediately after obtaining the throne, he had his younger brother strangled to avoid a plot. In 1390, Bayezid took as a wife Princess Olivera Despina, the daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia, who also lost his life in Kosovo. Bayezid recognized Stefan Lazarević, the son of Lazar, as the new Serbian leader (later despot), with considerable autonomy.

The upper Serbia resisted the Ottomans until general Pasha Yiğit Bey captured the city of Skopje in 1391, converting the city to an important base of operations.


Bayezid I, "The Thunderbolt," Routs the Crusaders at the Battle of Nicopolis, from the Hunernama of Loqman, 1584
Opaque watercolor and ink on paper
single page
Jerome Wheelock Fund
1935.13. (LINK)
 

 

Meanwhile, the sultan began unifying Anatolia under his rule. Forcible expansion into Muslim territories could endanger the Ottoman relationship with the gazis, who were an important source of warriors for this ruling house on the European frontier. So Bayezid began the practice to first secure fatwas, or legal rulings from Islamic scholars, justifying their wars against these Muslim states. However he suspected the loyalty of his Muslim Turkoman followers, for Bayezid relied heavily on his Serbian and Byzantine vassal troops to perform these conquests.

In a single campaign over the summer and fall of 1390, Bayezid conquered the beyliks of Aydin, Saruhan and Menteshe. His major rival Sulayman, the emir of Karaman, responded by allying himself with the ruler of Sivas, Kadi Burhan al-Din and the remaining Turkish beyliks. Nevertheless, Bayezid pushed on and in the fall and winter of 1390 overwhelmed the remaining beyliks — Hamid, Teke, and Germiyan — as well as taking the cities of Akşehir and Niğde, as well as their capital Konya from the Karaman. At this point, Bayezid accepted peace proposals from Karaman (1391), concerned that further advances would antagonize his Turkoman followers and lead them to ally with Kadi Burhan al-Din. Once peace had been made with Karaman, Bayezid moved north against Kastamonu which had given refuge to many fleeing from his forces, and conquered both that city as well as Sinop. However, his subsequent campaign was stopped by Burhan al-Din at the Battle of Kırkdilim.

From 1389 to 1395 he conquered Bulgaria and northern Greece.

In 1394 Bayezid crossed the River Danube to attack Wallachia, ruled at that time by Mircea the Elder. The Ottomans were superior in number, but on 10 October 1394 (or 17 May 1395), in the Battle of Rovine, on forested and swampy terrain, the Wallachians won the fierce battle and prevented Bayezid’s army from advancing beyond the Danube.

In 1394, Bayezid laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Anadoluhisarı fortress was built between 1393 and 1394 as part of preparations for the Second Ottoman Siege of Constantinople, which took place in 1395.

A 15th century CE illustration by Sébastien Mamerot of the Battle of Nicopolis (aka Nicopolis Crusade) of 1396 CE when a Christian army was routed by the Ottoman Turks.
 

 

On the urgings of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus a new crusade was organized to defeat him. This proved unsuccessful: in 1396 the Christian allies, under the leadership of the King of Hungary and future Holy Roman Emperor (in 1433) Sigismund, were defeated in the Battle of Nicopolis. Bayezid built the magnificent Ulu Cami in Bursa, to celebrate this victory.

Thus the siege of Constantinople continued, lasting until 1402. The beleaguered Byzantines had their reprieve when Bayezid fought the Timurid Empire in the East. At this time, the empire of Bayezid included Thrace (except Constantinople), Macedonia, Bulgaria, and parts of Serbia in Europe. In Asia, his domains extended to the Taurus Mountains. His army was considered one of the best in the Islamic world.

In 1397, Bayezid defeated the emir of Karaman in Akçay, killing him and annexing his territory. In 1398, the sultan conquered the Djanik emirate and the territory of Burhan al-Din, violating the accord with Timur. Finally, Bayezid occupied Elbistan and Malatya.

In 1400, the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur succeeded in rousing the local Turkic beyliks who had been vassals of the Ottomans to join him in his attack on Bayezid, who was also considered one of the most powerful rulers in the Muslim world during that period. In the fateful Battle of Ankara, on 20 July 1402, Bayezid was captured by Timur and the Ottoman army was defeated. Many writers claim that Bayezid was mistreated by the Timurids. However, writers and historians from Timur's own court reported that Bayezid was treated well, and that Timur even mourned his death. One of Bayezid's sons, Mustafa Çelebi, was captured with him and held captive in Samarkand until 1405.


Bayezid I captured and taken to Tamerlane
 

 

Four of Bayezid's sons, specifically Süleyman Çelebi, İsa Çelebi, Mehmed Çelebi, and Musa Çelebi, however, escaped from the battlefield and later started a civil war for the Ottoman throne known as the Ottoman Interregnum. After Mehmed's victory, his coronation as Mehmed I, and the death of all four but Mehmed, Bayezid's other son Mustafa Çelebi emerged from hiding and began two failed rebellions against his brother Mehmed and, after Mehmed's death, his nephew Murat II.


Bayezid I held captive by Timur, painting by Stanisław Chlebowski. (LINK: Terrors Of The Tyrant Tamerlane).

 



 

Bayezid I (B)

Bayezid I (B) (B)

Murad was killed during the Battle of Kosovo. His son and successor, Bayezid I, was unable to take advantage of his father’s victory to achieve further European conquest. In fact, he was compelled to restore the defeated vassals and return to Anatolia. That return was precipitated by the rising threat of the Turkmen principality of Karaman, created on the ruins of the Seljuq empire of Anatolia with its capital at Konya. Bayezid’s predecessors had avoided forceful annexation of Turkmen territory in order to concentrate on Europe. They had, however, expanded peacefully through marriage alliances and the purchase of territories. The acquisition of territory in central Anatolia from the emirates of Hamid and Germiyan had brought the Ottomans into direct contact with Karaman for the first time. Murad had been compelled to take some military action to prevent it from occupying his newly acquired Anatolian territories but then had turned back to Europe, leaving the unsolved problem to his successor son.

Karaman willingly cooperated with Serbia in inciting opposition to Ottoman rule among Murad’s vassals in both Europe and Anatolia. That opposition strengthened the Balkan Union that was routed by the Ottomans at Kosovo and stimulated a general revolt in Anatolia that Bayezid was forced to meet by an open attack as soon as he was able. By 1390 Bayezid had overwhelmed and annexed all the remaining Turkmen principalities in western Anatolia. He attacked and defeated Karaman in 1391, annexed several Turkmen states in eastern Anatolia, and was preparing to complete his conquest in the area when he was forced to turn back to Europe to deal with a revolt of some of his Balkan vassals, encouraged and assisted by Hungary and Byzantium. Bayezid quickly smashed the rebels (1390-93), occupied Bulgaria and installed direct Ottoman administration for the first time, and besieged Constantinople. In response, Hungary organized a major European Crusade against the Ottomans. The effort was beaten back by Bayezid at the Battle of Nicopolis (Niğbolu) on the Danube in 1396. Europe was terrorized, and Ottoman rule south of the Danube was assured; Bayezid’s prestige in the Islamic world was so enhanced that he was given the title of sultan by the shadow ʿAbbāsid caliph of Cairo, despite the opposition of the caliph’s Mamlūk masters (the rulers of Egypt, Syria, and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina), who wanted to retain the title only for themselves.

Turning back to Anatolia to complete the conquests aborted by his move against the Crusaders, Bayezid overran Karaman, the last Turkmen principality, in 1397.

His advances, however, attracted the attention of Timur (Tamerlane), who had been building a powerful Tatar empire in Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mesopotamia and whose invasion of India in 1398 had been halted by his fear of the rising Ottoman power on his western flank. Encouraged by several Turkmen princes who had fled to his court when their territories were taken by Bayezid, Timur decided to destroy Bayezid’s empire before turning his attentions back to the east and thus invaded Anatolia. As Bayezid and Timur moved toward battle, the former’s Turkmen vassals and Muslim followers deserted him because he had abandoned the old Ottoman ghazi tradition of advancing against the infidel. Left only with forces provided by his Christian vassals, Bayezid was decisively overwhelmed by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. Taken captive, Bayezid died within a year.


Restoration of the Ottoman Empire, 1402-81 (W)

Timur’s objective in Anatolia had been not conquest but rather a secure western flank that would enable him to make further conquests in the east. He thus followed his victory by retiring from Anatolia after restoring to power the Turkmen princes who had joined him; evidently Timur assumed that a divided Anatolia would constitute no threat to his ambitions. Even Bayezid’s sons were able to assume control over the family’s former possessions in western Anatolia, and the Ottoman Empire in Europe was left largely untouched. At that time a strong European Crusade might have pushed the Ottomans out of Europe altogether, but weakness and division south of the Danube and diversion to other matters to the north left an opportunity for the Ottomans to restore what had been torn asunder without significant loss.

Internal divisions, however, were to hinder Ottoman efforts to restore their power during a period that has come to be known as the Interregnum (1402-13), during which four of Bayezid’s sons competed for the right to rule the entire empire. His eldest son, Süleyman, assumed control in Europe, establishing a capital at Edirne, and gained the support of the Christian vassals and those who had stimulated Bayezid to turn toward conquest in the East. The descendants of the Turkmen notables who had assisted the early Ottoman conquests in Europe supported the claims of Mehmed. With the additional support of the Anatolian Muslim religious orders and artisan guilds, Mehmed was able to defeat and kill his brothers Mûsa Bey, who had established his capital at Bursa, and İsa Bey of Balıkesir in southwestern Anatolia, as well as Süleyman, and so assume undisputed possession of the entire empire as Sultan Mehmed (Muḥammad) I.

 

 




 

📹 Battle of Nicopolis 1396 / Hungarian Crusade (VİDEO)

Battle of Nicopolis (Niğbolu) 1396 / Hungarian Crusade (LINK)

The Ottoman invasion that was ramping up despite heavy losses in the battle of Kosovo in 1389, was met with growing resistance.

The King of Hungary Sigismund called for one of the last a crusade in history and the Crusader army consisting of forces from France, Burgundy, Hungary, Wallachia, Bulgaria, England, Aragon, Germany, Bohemia, Poland, Teutonic Order and Knights Hospitaller fought the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I (Yıldırım Bayezid) and the Prince of Serbia Stefan Lazarević at Nicopolis in Bulgaria (Никопол | Niğbolu).

 



📹 Battle of Ankara 1402 / Ottoman-Timurid War (VİDEO)

Battle of Ankara 1402 / Ottoman-Timurid War (LINK)

Despite heavy casualties during the battle of Kosovo (1389) against a broad alliance of the Balkan peoples led by Serbian lord Lazar and battle of Nicopolis (1396) against European Crusaders led by Jean of Never, Sigismund I of Hungary and Mircea I of Wallachia, Ottoman empire continued to expand under the leadership of sultan Yildirim Bayezid I.

To the east new empire under amir Timur (Tamerlane) was on the rise and as the borders of two empires touched, the war was inevitable.

The battle of Ankara of 1402 was one of the biggest fought between the Muslim empires. At the same time, results of this massive battle impacted Ottoman, Timurid, Byzantine empires and changed the course of the history of Europe, Asia, Middle East and Balkans.

 



📹 Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (VİDEO)

Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (LINK)

The defeat at Ankara in 1402 was the first real setback for the Ottoman empire. Its sultan — Bayezid — became a hostage of the new conqueror Timur, and soon sons of the sultan started fighting each other in order to get to the throne. This period is called Ottoman Interregnum, but it was basically a Civil War between 6 princes.

Eventually, this civil war came to an end, and as the agressive invasion of the South and Central Europe continued, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Transylvania, Lithuania, Wallachia, Bohemia, Ruthenia and others started a crusade called the Crusade of Varna against the Ottoman sultan Murad II.

The crusade was concluded in 1444 with the battle of Varna between Murad II on one side, king of Poland and Hungary Wladyslaw III and voivode of Transylvania John Hunyadi on the other.

 









  Mehmed I (1379-1421) (1413-1421)
  • I. Mehmed Osmanlı Interregnumunda (11 yıl kardeşleri (Süleyman, İsa ve Musa) üzerinde utku kazandı ve Anadolu ve Rumeli bölgelerini denetimi altına aldı.
  • Avrupa ve Asya’da fetihleri sürdürdü.
  • Osmanlı Sultanlığının “İkinci Kurucusu” olarak kabul edilir.
  • Şeyh Bedreddin’in Avrupa’da başlayan isyanını bastırdı.

Mehmed I

Mehmed I (1379-1421) (1413-1421) (W)


Mehmed I with his dignitaries. Ottoman miniature painting, kept at Istanbul University.
 
   
5th Ottoman Sultan
Full name: Mehmed bin Bayezid
Reign 5 July 1413 – 26 May 1421
Predecessor Interregnum (1402–1413)
Bayezid I
Successor Murad II
 
Born 1379
Bursa, Ottoman Sultanate
Died 26 May 1421 (aged 41–42)
Bursa, Ottoman Sultanate
Burial
Green Tomb, Bursa
Consorts Şehzade Hatun
Kumru Hatun
Emine Hatun
Issue See below
 
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Bayezid I
Mother Devlet Hatun
Religion Sunni Islam
 
Mehmed I (1379 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (Ottoman Turkish: چلبی محمد‎, "the noble-born") or Kirişçi (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421. The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413). Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia and then the European territories (Rumelia) under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, and ruling it until his death in 1421.
 
Family
Consorts
  • Şehzade Hatun, daughter of Dividdar Ahmed Paşa, third ruler of Kutluşah of Canik;
  • Emine Hatun (m.1403), daughter of Şaban Süli Bey, fifth ruler of Dulkadirids;
  • Kumru Hatun, mother of Selçuk Hatun;
 

Sons

  • Sultan Murad II, son of Emine Hatun;
  • Şehzade Küçük Mustafa Çelebi (1408 – killed October 1423);
  • Şehzade Mahmud Çelebi (1413 – August 1429, buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa);
  • Şehzade Yusuf Çelebi (1414 – August 1429, buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa);
  • Şehzade Ahmed Çelebi (died in infancy);

Daughters

  • Selçuk Hatun (died 25 October 1485, buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa), married Prince Damat Taceddin Ibrahim II Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids (1392 – 30 May 1443), son of Prince İsfendiyar Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids;
  • Sultan Hatun (died 1444), married Prince Damat Kasim Bey (died 1464), son of Prince Isfendiar Bey, ruler of Isfendiyarids;
  • A daughter, married to Damat Karaca Paşa (died 10 November 1444);
  • Hafsa Hatun (buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa), married Damat Mahmud Bey (died January 1444), son of Ibrahim Paşa Çandarlı;
  • İlaldi Hatun, married Prince Damat Ibrahim II Bey, ruler of Karamanids (died 16 July 1464), son of Prince Mehmed II Bey;
  • A daughter, married to Prince Damat Isa Bey (died 1437), son of Prince Damat Mehmed II Bey;
  • Ayşe Hatun (buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa);
  • Sitti Hatun (buried in Mehmed I Mausoleum, Bursa);
  • A daughter, married to Prince Damat Alaattin Ali Bey, ruler of Karamanids, son of Prince Halil Bey;
 
Early life

Mehmed was born in 1379 as the fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I (r. 1389-1402) and one of his consorts, the slave girl Devlet Hatun. Following Ottoman custom, when he reached adolescence in 1399, he was sent to gain experience as provincial governor over the Rûm Eyalet (central northern Anatolia), recently conquered from its Eretnid rulers.

On 20 July 1402, his father Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the Turko-Mongol conqueror and ruler Timur. The brothers (with the exception of Mustafa, who was captured and taken along with Bayezid to Samarkand) were rescued from the battlefield, Mehmed being saved by Bayezid Pasha, who took him to his hometown of Amasya. Mehmed later made Bayezid Pasha his grand vizier (1413-1421).

The early Ottoman Empire had no regulated succession, and according to Turkish tradition, every son could succeed his father. Of Mehmed's brothers, the eldest, Ertuğrul, had died in 1400, while the next in line, Mustafa, was a prisoner of Timur. Leaving aside the underage siblings, this left four princes — Mehmed, Süleyman, İsa, and Musa, to contend over control of the remaining Ottoman territories in the civil war known as the “Ottoman Interregnum.” In modern historiography, these princes are usually called by the title Çelebi, but in contemporary sources, the title is reserved for Mehmed and Musa. The Byzantine sources translated the title as Kyritzes (Κυριτζής), which was in turn adopted into Turkish as kirişçi, sometimes misinterpreted as güreşçi, "the wrestler".


Reign

After winning the Interregnum, Mehmed crowned himself sultan in the Thracian city of Edirne that lay in the European part of the empire (the area dividing the Anatolian and European sides of the empire, Constantinople and the surrounding region, was still held by the Byzantine Empire), becoming Mehmed I. He consolidated his power, made Edirne the most important of the dual capitals, and conquered parts of Albania, the Jandarid emirate, and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from the Mamelukes. Taking his many achievements into consideration, Mehmed is widely known as the “second founder” of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Soon after Mehmed began his reign, his brother Mustafa Çelebi, who had originally been captured along with their father Bayezid I during the Battle of Ankara and held captive in Samarkand, hiding in Anatolia during the Interregnum, reemerged and asked Mehmed to partition the empire with him. Mehmed refused and met Mustafa's forces in battle, easily defeating them. Mustafa escaped to the Byzantine city of Thessaloniki, but after an agreement with Mehmed, the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos exiled Mustafa to the island of Lemnos.

However, Mehmed still faced some problems, first being the problem of his nephew Orhan, who Mehmed perceived as a threat to his rule, much like his late brothers had been. There was allegedly a plot involving him by Manuel II Palaiologos, who tried to use Orhan against Sultan Mehmed; however, the sultan found out about the plot and had Orhan blinded for betrayal, according to a common Byzantine practice.

Furthermore, as a result of the Battle of Ankara and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. A very powerful social and religious movement arose in the empire and became disruptive. The movement was led by Sheikh Bedreddin (1359-1420), a famous Muslim Sufi and charismatic theologian. He was an eminent Ulema, born of a Greek mother and a Muslim father in Simavna (Kyprinos) southwest of Edirne (formerly Adrianople). Mehmed's brother Musa had made Bedreddin his “qadi of the army,” or the supreme judge. Bedreddin created a populist religious movement in the Ottoman Sultanate, "subversive conclusions promoting the suppression of social differences between rich and poor as well as the barriers between different forms of monotheism." Successfully developing a popular social revolution and syncretism of the various religions and sects of the empire, Bedreddin's movement began in the European side of the empire and underwent further expansion in western Anatolia.

In 1416, Sheikh Bedreddin started his rebellion against the throne. After a four-year struggle, he was finally captured by Mehmed's grand vizier Bayezid Pasha and hanged in the city of Serres, a city in modern-day Greece, in 1420.

 









  Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413)

Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413)

Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413) (W)

The Ottoman Interregnum, or the Ottoman Civil War (20 July 14025 July 1413; Turkish: Fetret Devri, "Interregnum Period"), was a civil war in the Ottoman Empire between the sons of Sultan Bayezid I following the defeat of their father at the Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402. Although Mehmed Çelebi was confirmed as sultan by Timur, his brothers İsa Çelebi, Musa Çelebi, Süleyman Çelebi, and later, Mustafa Çelebi, refused to recognize his authority, each claiming the throne for himself. Civil war was the result. The Interregnum lasted a little under 11 years until the Battle of Çamurlu on 5 July 1413, when Mehmed Çelebi emerged as victor, crowned himself Sultan Mehmed I, and restored the empire.
Battles of the Ottoman Interregnum

 



Civil war

Civil war (W)

Isa and Mehmed

Civil war broke out among the sons of Sultan Bayezid I upon his death in 1403. His oldest son, Süleyman, with his capital at Edirne, ruled northern Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Thrace. The second son, İsa Çelebi, established himself as an independent ruler at Bursa[3] and Mehmed formed a kingdom at Amasya.[4] War broke out between Mehmed and İsa, and following the battles of Ermeni-beli[5] and Ulubad (March–May 1403),[3] Isa fled to Constantinople and Mehmed occupied Bursa.[6] The subsequent battle at Karasi between Mehmed and Isa resulted in a victory for Mehmed and Isa fleeing to Karaman.[7] Isa was later killed in a bath by agents of Mehmed.[8]

 

Suleyman enters civil war

Meanwhile, the other surviving son of Bayezid, Musa Çelebi, who was captured at the battle of Ankara, was released by Timur into the custody of Yakub of Germiyan Mûsa was freed, after Mehmed made a request for his brother's release. Following Isa's death, Süleyman crossed the straits with a large army. Initially, Süleyman was successful. He invaded Anatolia, capturing Bursa (March 1404) and Ankara later that year.

During the stalemate in Anatolia, which lasted from 1405-1410, Mehmed sent Musa across the Black Sea to Thrace with a small force to attack Suleyman's territories in south-eastern Europe. This maneuver soon recalled Suleyman to Thrace, where a short but sanguinary contest between him and Mûsa ensued. At first Suleyman had the advantage, winning the battle of Kosmidion in 1410, but in 1411 his army defected to Mûsa at Edirne and Suleyman was executed on the orders of Musa. Mûsa was now the ruler of the Ottoman dominions in Thrace.

 

Mehmed and Musa

Manuel II Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor, had been the ally of Suleyman; Mûsa therefore besieged Constantinople. Manuel called on Mehmed to protect him, and Mehmed's Ottomans now garrisoned Constantinople against Musa's Ottomans of Thrace. Mehmed made several unsuccessful sallies against his brother's troops, and was obliged to re-cross the Bosporus to quell a revolt that had broken out in his own territories. Mûsa now pressed the siege of Constantinople. Mehmed returned to Thrace, and obtained the assistance of Stefan Lazarevic, the Serbian Despot.

The armies of the rival Ottoman brothers met on the plain of Chamurli (today Samokov, Bulgaria). Hassan, the Agha of the Janissaries of Mehmed, stepped out before the ranks and tried to get the troops to change sides. Mûsa rushed towards Hassan and killed him, but was himself wounded by an officer who had accompanied Hassan. Mûsa's Ottomans fought well, but the battle was won by Mehmed and his allies. Mûsa fled, was later captured and strangled. With Mûsa dead, Mehmed was the sole surviving son of the late Sultan Bayezid I and became Sultan Mehmed I. The Interregnum was a striking example of the fratricide that would become common in Ottoman successions.

 



📹 Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (VİDEO)

Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (LINK)

The defeat at Ankara in 1402 was the first real setback for the Ottoman empire. Its sultan — Bayezid — became a hostage of the new conqueror Timur, and soon sons of the sultan started fighting each other in order to get to the throne. This period is called Ottoman Interregnum, but it was basically a Civil War between 6 princes.

Eventually, this civil war came to an end, and as the agressive invasion of the South and Central Europe continued, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Transylvania, Lithuania, Wallachia, Bohemia, Ruthenia and others started a crusade called the Crusade of Varna against the Ottoman sultan Murad II.

The crusade was concluded in 1444 with the battle of Varna between Murad II on one side, king of Poland and Hungary Wladyslaw III and voivode of Transylvania John Hunyadi on the other.

 








  Sheikh Bedreddin (1359-1420)

  • Şeyh Bedreddin gizemci bir ulema idi.
  • Kendini ‘Mehdi’ olarak gördü.
  • Selçuklu kraliyet hanedanından geldiğini ileri sürdü.
  • İbn al-Arabi’nin “gizemci bilgelik” öğretisinden güçlü olarak etkilendi.
  • Arabi’yi izleyerek, kendi gizemcilik anlayışını sunan “Varidat” (“Tanrısal Esinler”) başlıklı bir kitap yazdı.
  • Sinkretik bakış açısına göre her türden dinsel tasarım birarada kabul edilebilir.
  • Şeyh Bedreddin 1416’da Osmanlı Sultanlığına karşı bir ayaklanma başlattı.

Sheikh Bedreddin

Sheikh Bedreddin (W)

Sheikh Bedreddin (1359-1420) (Ottoman Turkish: شیخ بدرالدین‎) was an influential mystic, scholar, theologian, and revolutionary. He is most well known for his role in a 1416 revolt against the Ottoman Empire, in which he and his disciples posed a serious challenge to the authority of Sultan Mehmed I and the Ottoman state. His full name was Sheikh Bedreddin Mahmud Bin Israel Bin Abdulaziz.

Early life

Many details of Bedreddin's early life are disputed, as much of it is the subject of legend and folklore. He was born in 1359 in the town of Simavna (Kyprinos), near Edirne. His father was the ghazi of the town, and his mother was the daughter of a Greek Byzantine fortress commander. Notably, Bedreddin was of mixed Muslim and Christian parentage, with a Christian mother and a Muslim father; this contributed to his syncretic religious beliefs later in life. Turkish scholar Cemal Kafadar argues that Bedreddin's ghazi roots may also have contributed to his commitment to religious coexistence.

In his youth he was a kadi to Ottoman warriors on the marches, which gave him ample experience in jurisprudence, a field of study in which he would become well-versed. Bedreddin was exposed to a variety of different cultures during his education, traveling far from his birthplace in Thrace. He studied theology in Konya, and then in Cairo, which was the capital of the Mamluk sultanate. After this, he traveled to Ardabil, in what is now Iranian Azerbaijan. Ardabil was under the control of the Timurids, and was home to the mystic Safavid order. Surrounded by mystics and far removed from the religious norms of the Ottoman Empire, Bedreddin was in an excellent place to cultivate his unconventional religious ideology. There he found an environment sympathetic to his pantheistic religious beliefs, and particularly the doctrine of “oneness of being.” This doctrine condemned oppositions such as those of religion and social class as interference in the oneness of God and the individual, and such doctrine ran contrary to increasing Ottoman efforts to establish Sunni Islam as the state religion. By adopting it, Bedreddin further established himself as a subversive.

During the Ottoman Interregnum after the defeat of sultan Bayezid I by Tamerlane in 1402, Bedreddin served as the kadiasker, or chief military judge, of the Ottoman prince Musa as Musa struggled with his brothers for control of the Ottoman sultanate. Along with the frontier bey Mihaloglu, he was a chief proponent of Musa's revolutionary regime. While kadiasker, Bedreddin gained the favor of many frontier ghazis by distributing timars among them. Through this he aided these unpaid ghazis in their struggle against centralization, a clear indication of his subversive side.


Revolt of 1416

After Musa’s defeat by Ottoman sultan Mehmed I in 1413, Bedreddin was exiled to Iznik, and his followers were dispossessed of their timars. However, he soon decided to capitalize on the climate of opposition to Mehmed I following the disorder of the still-fresh interregnum. Leaving his exile in Iznik in 1415, Bedreddin made his way to Sinop and from there across the Black Sea to Wallachia. In 1416, he raised the standard of revolt against the Ottoman state.

Most of the revolts that ensued took place in regions of Izmir, Dobrudja, and Saruhan. The majority of his followers were Turcomans. The rest included frontier ghazis, dispossessed sipahis, medrese students, and Christian peasants. The first of these rebellions was kindled in Karaburun, near Izmir. There, Borkluje Mustafa, one of Bedreddin’s foremost disciples, instigated an idealistic popular revolt by preaching the communal ownership of property and the equality of Muslims and Christians. Most those who revolted were Turkish nomads, but Borkluje’s followers also included many Christians. In total, approximately 6,000 people revolted against the Ottoman state in Karaburun. Torlak Kemal, another of Bedreddin’s followers, led another rebellion in Manisa, and Bedreddin himself was the leader of a revolt in Dobrudja, in contemporary northeastern Bulgaria. The heartland for the Dobrudja revolt was in the "wild forest" region south of the Danube Delta. Bedreddin found disciples among many who were discontent with sultan Mehmed; he became a figurehead for those who felt they had been disenfranchised by the sultan, including disgruntled marcher lords and many of those who had been given timars by Bedreddin as Musa's kadiasker, which had been revoked by Mehmed.

These uprisings posed a serious challenge to the authority of Mehmed I as he attempted to reunite the Ottoman Empire and govern his Balkan provinces. Although they were all eventually stifled, the series of coordinated revolts instigated by Bedreddin and his disciples was suppressed after only great difficulty. Torlak Kemal’s rebellion in Manisa was crushed and he was executed, along with thousands of his followers. Borkluje's rebellion put up more of a fight than the others, defeating first the army of the governor of Saruhan and then that of the Ottoman governor Ali Bey, before finally it was finally crushed by the Vizier Bayezid Pasha. According to the Greek historian Doukas, Bayezid slaughtered unconditionally to ensure the rebellion's defeat, and Borkluje was executed along with two thousand of his followers. Sheikh Bedreddin's own Dobrudja rebellion was a short-lived one, and came to an end when Bedreddin was apprehended by Mehmed's forces and taken to Serres. Accused of disturbing the public order by preaching religious syncretism and the communal ownership of property, he was executed in the marketplace.


Thought and writings

Sheikh Bedreddin was a prolific writer and religious scholar, and a distinguished member of the Islamic religious hierarchy. He is often regarded as a talented voice in religious sciences, particularly for his thoughts on Islamic law. For his works on jurisprudence he is classed among the great scholars of Islamic thought. On the other hand, many condemn him as a heretic for his radical ideas on religious syncretism. Bedreddin advocated overlooking religious difference, arguing against zealous proselytism in favor of a utopian synthesis of faiths. This latitudinarian interpretation of religion was a major part of what allowed him and his disciples to instigate a broad-reaching popular revolt in 1416, unifying a very heterogeneous base of support.

Bedreddin’s religious origins were as a mystic. His form of mysticism was greatly influenced by the work of Ibn al-‘Arabi, and he is known to have written a commentary of al-‘ Arabi's book Fusus al-hikam (The Quintessence of Wisdom). Through his writings, he developed his own form of mysticism. His most significant book, Varidat, or Divine Inspirations, was a compilation of his discourses which reflected on his ideas about mysticism and religion. Bedreddin was a monist, believing that reality is a manifestation of God’s essence, and that the spiritual and physical worlds were inseparable and necessary to one another. As he writes in Varidat, he believed that “This world and the next, in their entirety, are imaginary fantasies; heaven and hell are no more than the spiritual manifestations, sweet and bitter, of good and evil actions.”

Bedreddin’s pantheistic beliefs greatly influenced many of his political and social ideas, particularly the doctrine of “oneness of being.” This doctrine condemns oppositions which its adherents believe hinder the oneness of the individual with God, including oppositions between religions and between the privileged and the powerless. This belief system is reflected in the beliefs of Bedreddin and his disciples, who, among other things, preached that all religions are essentially the same, as well as that ownership of property should be communal. Such ideas appealed greatly to those who felt marginalized in Ottoman society, and this egalitarian ideology played a major role in inspiring popular revolt in 1416.

Sheikh Bedreddin clearly had ambitious political aspirations when he began his rebellion. According to the 15th-century Sunni historian Idris of Bitlis, Bedreddin considered himself the Mahdi, who would bring about God's unity in the world by distributing his lands among his followers. Although Idris' account is partial, Bedreddin's ambitions as a political and religious leader are apparent. He even went so far as to claim that he was descended from the Seljuk royal house, undoubtedly to bolster his legitimacy as a potential ruler. It is plausible that he aspired to win the sultanate.


Impact

The revolt of 1416 marked a turning point in the toleration of non-Muslims by the Ottoman state. By crushing the rebellion aggressively and stigmatizing those who revolted, the state condemned popular discontent as illegitimate and further defined its position of opposition to religious nonconformists. After the revolt, Turco-Muslim presence in the Balkans became equivalent to an Ottoman presence. Bedreddin's rebellion made it clear to Ottoman statesmen that religious dissidence could pose a serious threat to their administrative structure, and in the years that followed, Murad II, Mehmed’s successor, took steps to ensure that Islam was further established as the state’s religion. For example, Murad expanded the Janissaries in the wake of the Bedreddin revolt to increase Ottoman military power, but also to create a steady flow of Christians being converted to Islam. This demonstrates a clear shift in Ottoman policy away from toleration of non-Muslims and closer to one of assimilation, a trend that would continue in the coming centuries.

Sects of Bedreddin's followers continued to survive long after his death. His teachings remained influential, and his sectarians were considered a threat until the late sixteenth century. Known as the Simavnis or the Bedreddinlus, a sect of his followers in Dobrudja and Deliorman continued to survive for hundreds of years after his execution. Unsurprisingly, the Ottoman government viewed this group with great suspicion. In the sixteenth century, they were regarded as identical to the Kizilbash, and persecuted along with them. Some of Bedreddin's doctrines also became common among some other mystic sects. One such sect was the Bektashi, a dervish order commonly associated with the Janissaries.

Sheikh Bedreddin continues to be known in Turkey, especially among socialists, communists, and other political leftists. In the twentieth century, he was brought back into the spotlight by the communist Turkish writer Nazim Hikmet, who wrote The Epic of Sheikh Bedreddin to voice opposition to the rise of fascism in the 1930s. Hikmet's work popularized Bedreddin as a historical champion of socialism and an opponent of fascist tyranny, and his name has remained well known to those on the left of the political spectrum. His bones were exhumed in 1924, but his devotees were so fearful of a backlash against Bedreddin's newfound political significance by the Turkish government that he was not buried until 1961. He was finally put to rest near the mausoleum of Mahmud II, in Istanbul.

 







  Murad II (1403-1451) (1421-1444; 1446-1451)

Murad II

Murad II (W)


Murad II.
 
   
6th Ottoman Sultan
Full name: Murad bin Mehmed
1st Reign 26 May 1421 – August 1444
Predecessor Mehmed I
Successor Mehmed II
2nd Reign September 1446 – 3 February 1451
Predecessor Mehmed II
Successor Mehmed II
 
Born 16 June 1403
Amasya, Ottoman Sultanate
Died 3 February 1451 (aged 46)
Edirne, Ottoman Sultanate
Burial
Consorts Yeni Hatun
Sultan Hatun
Hüma Hatun
Mara Hatun
Issue See below
 
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Mehmed I
Mother Emine Hatun
Religion Sunni Islam
 

Murad II (June 1403 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.

Murad II's reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christian feudal lords of the Balkans and the Turkish beyliks in Anatolia, a conflict that lasted 25 years. He was brought up in Amasya, and ascended the throne on the death of his father Mehmed I. His mother was Valide Sultan Emine Hatun (daughter of Suleyman Bey, ruler of Dulkadirids), his father's third consort. Their marriage served as an alliance between the Ottomans and this buffer state, and produced a son, Mehmed II, who would go on to successfully conquer the Byzantine Empire’s capital, Constantinople, in 1453.



Early life

Murad was born in June 1403 to Sultan Mehmed I and his wife Emine Hatun, and he spent his early childhood in Amasya. In 1410, Murad came along with his father to the Ottoman capital, Edirne. After his father ascended to the Ottoman throne, he made Murad governor of the Amasya Sanjak. Murad remained at Amasya until the death of Mehmed I in 1421. He was solemnly recognized as sultan of the Ottoman Sultanate at sixteen years of age, girded with the sabre of Osman at Bursa, and the troops and officers of the state willingly paid homage to him as their sovereign.


Sultan

Murad's reign was troubled by insurrection early on. The Byzantine Emperor, Manuel II, released the 'pretender' Mustafa Çelebi (known as Düzmece Mustafa) from confinement and acknowledged him as the legitimate heir to the throne of Bayezid I (1389-1402). The Byzantine Emperor had first secured a stipulation that Mustafa should, if successful, repay him for his liberation by giving up a large number of important cities. The pretender was landed by the Byzantine galleys in the European dominion of the sultan and for a time made rapid progress. Many Turkish soldiers joined him, and he defeated and killed the veteran general Beyazid Pasha, whom Murad had sent to fight him. Mustafa defeated Murad's army and declared himself Sultan of Adrianople (modern Edirne). He then crossed the Dardanelles to Asia with a large army but Murad out-manoeuvered Mustafa. Mustafa’s force passed over in large numbers to Murad II. Mustafa took refuge in the city of Gallipoli, but the sultan, who was greatly aided by a Genoese commander named Adorno, besieged him there and stormed the place. Mustafa was taken and put to death by the sultan, who then turned his arms against the Roman emperor and declared his resolution to punish the Palaiologos for their unprovoked enmity by the capture of Constantinople.

 

Murad II then formed a new army called Azap in 1421 and marched through the Byzantine Empire and laid siege to Constantinople. While Murad was besieging the city, the Byzantines, in league with some independent Turkish Anatolian states, sent the sultan's younger brother Küçük Mustafa (who was only 13 years old) to rebel against the sultan and besiege Bursa. Murad had to abandon the siege of Constantinople in order to deal with his rebellious brother. He caught Prince Mustafa and executed him. The Anatolian states that had been constantly plotting against him — Aydinids, Germiyanids, Menteshe and Teke — were annexed and henceforth became part of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Murad II then declared war against Venice, the Karamanid Emirate, Serbia and Hungary. The Karamanids were defeated in 1428 and Venice withdrew in 1432 following the defeat at the second Siege of Thessalonica in 1430. In the 1430s Murad captured vast territories in the Balkans and succeeded in annexing Serbia in 1439. In 1441 the Holy Roman Empire and Poland joined the Serbian-Hungarian coalition. Murad II won the Battle of Varna in 1444 against John Hunyadi.

Murad II relinquished his throne in 1444 to his son Mehmed II, but a Janissary revolt in the Empire forced him to return.

In 1448 he defeated the Christian coalition at the Second Battle of Kosovo (the first one took place in 1389). When the Balkan front was secured, Murad II turned east to defeat Timur's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Karamanid and Çorum-Amasya. In 1450 Murad II led his army into Albania and unsuccessfully besieged the Castle of Kruje in an effort to defeat the resistance led by Skanderbeg. In the winter of 1450-1451, Murad II fell ill, and died in Edirne. He was succeeded by his son Mehmed II (1451–81).


 




📹 Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (VİDEO)

Battle of Varna 1444 / Ottoman Civil War / Crusade (LINK)

The defeat at Ankara in 1402 was the first real setback for the Ottoman empire. Its sultan — Bayezid — became a hostage of the new conqueror Timur, and soon sons of the sultan started fighting each other in order to get to the throne. This period is called Ottoman Interregnum, but it was basically a Civil War between 6 princes.

Eventually, this civil war came to an end, and as the agressive invasion of the South and Central Europe continued, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Transylvania, Lithuania, Wallachia, Bohemia, Ruthenia and others started a crusade called the Crusade of Varna against the Ottoman sultan Murad II.

The crusade was concluded in 1444 with the battle of Varna between Murad II on one side, king of Poland and Hungary Wladyslaw III and voivode of Transylvania John Hunyadi on the other.

 










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