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Roma

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

Roma





  Roman Empire
Roma from 264 BC (first Punic War) to 180 AD (Marcus Aurelius)
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📹 Overview of the Roman Empire / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Overview of the Roman Empire / Khan Academy (LINK)

Conquering armies, monumental architecture, and beautiful art: how did Rome achieve all of this?

 



📹 Ancient Rome in 20 minutes (VİDEO)

Ancient Rome in 20 minutes (LINK)

Caesar, The Colosseum, Republic, Nero, geese, plebeians, legions — everything that you once knew, but forgot — in a crash course video by Arzamas.

Narrated by Brian Cox.

"Ancient Rome in 20 minutes" is a Russian version of a Russian video by Arzamas.

 








  Roma
  • Roma Krallık ile başladı (İÖ 753-509).
  The traditional date given to the foundation of Rome by the time of the historian Marcus Terrentius Varro in the midfirst century BC was 753 BC.
The reality of a reign by Romulus, alleged founder of Rome and the first king, from c. 753 to c. 721 BC is now largely discounted by historians as a typical artificial ‘creation myth’ explaining the name of the city using an eponymous hero.
  — “A Chronology of the Roman Empire,” Ed. by Timothy Venning, 2011.
 

Krallık


Rome 750 BC.

Rome 400 BC.
Roma Kralları

753-716 BC Romulus
715-673 BC Numa Pompilius
673-642 BC Tullus Hostilius
642-616 BC Ancus Marcius
616-579 BC L. Tarquinius Priscus
578-535 BC Servius Tullius
535-509 BC L. Tarquinius Superbus
 

 



📹 History of Rome — 1 — The Foundation of Rome (VİDEO)

History of Rome — 1 — The Foundation of Rome (LINK)

 

 




 

Charles Christian Nahl, “El rapto de las Sabinas.”
To boost the population of Rome, Romulus welcomed everyone to the new city regardless of their pasts. This attracted a large number of ex-slaves, criminals, and freemen to Rome. The population grew quickly, and the city expanded onto the nearby hills of the Capitoline, Aventine, Caelian and Quirinal.

Romulus' policies for increasing the city's population resulted in a disproportionate amount of men. This forced Romulus to come up with a cunning plan. He arranged for a large festival to take place in Rome and he invited the population of a nearby Sabine city. At the festival, Romulus and his men abducted as many of the unmarried Sabine women as they could. An event that would later become known as the 'Rape of the Sabine Women'.


 

“Dead Lucrecia” (1804), by Spanish sculptor Damià Campeny, Barcelona.
Lucretia is the most fascinating heroine of the antiquity. A woman whose story is suspended between truth and legend, and portrayed in several works of art. Thanks to her, the Roman people found the strength to stage a rebellion against the monarchy ruled by the Family of Tarquin and to establish the Roman Republic. (L)


 
  • Sonra tekerkliğin gücü kötüye kullanabildiği görülünce, patrisyenlerden oluşan Senato krallığı kaldırdı ve yerine yalnızca bir yıl süre için seçilen iki konsülden ve ikincil kurumlardan oluşan bir tür Cumhuriyet yönetimine döndü (İÖ 509-İÖ 27).
  Tarquinius and family are expelled, probably by a group of the leading noble ‘patrician’ clans and supposedly after the rape of Lucretia by Tarquinius’ son Sextus; revolt led by the king’s nephew Lucius Iunius Brutus and his ally Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. The official story has the new Republic exiling all royals and banning the names of Tarquinius and King – which is at odds with the leadership of the new state by one consul with that name and the other related to the exiled ruler.
  — “A Chronology of the Roman Empire,” Ed. by Timothy Venning, 2011.

Cumhuriyet


Extent of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between 218 BC and 117 AD.

 



📹 History of Rome — 2 — The Imperial Republic (VİDEO)

History of Rome — 2 — The Imperial Republic (LINK)

 

 



 

  • Cumhuriyet askeri gücü yoluyla genişledi ve sonunda kapsadığı kültürel türlülüğü devletin kendisindeki istenç türlülüğü nedeniyle yönetemez oldu ve bir dizi iç savaş yer aldı.
  • Devletin güçsüzleşip çözülmeye başlaması bireysel önderlerin ortaya çıkışını zorunlu kıldı ve dereceli olarak Cumhuriyet yerini İmparatorluk biçimine bıraktı.

 

Vercingetorix surrendering to Julius Caesar after the epic Siege of Alesia.

 

📹 The History of the Romans / Every Year (VİDEO)

The History of the Romans / Every Year (LINK)

See the entire history and progression of Roman civilization from the city-state Kingdom all the way to the last Byzantine successor state.

 




 
  • Bölüngüler arasındaki iç savaş gücün tek bir erkte yoğunlaşması sonucuna götürdü (Sezar, ve yeğeni Oktavian).
  • Politik erk en sonunda tek-erktir, çünkü İstenç kavramı gereği Birdir (bir ‘istençler türlülüğü’ istençsizlik yaratır).
  • İmparatorlukta erk tekil bir bireyin istencidir ve devletin yazgısı tekerkin özencine bağımlıdır.
  • Demokrasi — istençsiz halkın tersine — özgür yurttaş toplumunun evrensel hak, duyunç özgürlüğü ve yasa egemenliği temelindeki türdeş istencidir.

İmparatorluk

Roman provinces during Trajan’s reign (98-117 AD)
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📹 History of Rome — 3 — The Rise of An Empire (VİDEO)

History of Rome — 3 — The Rise of An Empire (LINK)

 

 




 
  • Politik olarak, Helenik tikellik tini ile karşıtlık içinde, Roma soyut evrensellik tinidir: Onda bireysel kent-devletlerinin atomik türlülüğü yerini katı evrensel Yasanın gücüne bırakır.
  • Roma İmparatoru tek-erk olarak yasanın saltık belirleyicisidir.
  • Roma İmparatoru Senatonun, Sensorun, Konsülün ve Tribünün gücünü kendi istencinde birleştirir ve bu kurumları salt birer görünüşe indirger.
  • Bütün bir askeri güç onun istenci altındadır ve onun istenci önünde herkes politik haktan yoksun ve herkes eşittir.

 

The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period

The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period (W)


The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period.

Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).

 



 

  • Augustus, Trajan, Hadrian gibi İmparatorlar Roma görkemini doruğuna yükselttiler. Nero, Caligula gibi İmparatorlar tekerki tikelliğin olumsallığına bozdular.

 

 

📹 The Digital Hadrian’s Villa Project: State vs. Reconstruction (VİDEO)

The Digital Hadrian’s Villa Project: State vs. Reconstruction (LINK)

 

 



 

 

 

  • 212’de Caracalla’nın egemenliği sırasında imparatorluğun tüm özgür doğan uyruklarına yurttaşlık hakları tanındı.

 

A Roman wedding.


 

“The Roman Bath,” Emmanuel Oberhausen.


  • Hıristiyan ve Müslüman dünyalarda etik yaşam biçimi dinsel inak tarafından verilidir ve insana yalnızca onu yorumlamak düşer.
  • Helenik ve Romanik dünyalarda mitolojik dinin moral bağlamı yoktur ve etik yaşam problemini çözmek bütünüyle insan duyuncuna düşer.
  • İlk kez Roma Dünyasında insanın salt insan olarak sonsuz değerinin bilinci doğdu (neo-Platonizm ve İznik Konseyi yoluyla).
  • İnsanın bu saltık büyüklüğü insanlığı evrensel eşitlik bilincine doğru güdüler ve insanın özsel olarak Logos (Us) olması ya da Tanrı ile Birliği düşüncesi onu saltık özgürlük bilincine doğru yönlendirir.
  • İstençsiz kitleler Katolik ve Ortodoks Hıristiyanlık başlıkları altında ve sonu gelmeyen teolojik çekişmeler ortasında mitolojik inançlarına bağlı kalmayı sürdürdüler.
  • Roma Dünyası bir evrensel gelişim süreci olan Modern Dünyanın öncülüdür ve aradaki tüm zaman insanlığın tüzel, moral ve törel büyümesi için, evrensel hak, duyunç özgürlüğü ve politik eşitlik bilincine doğru eğitimi için gereken zamandır.

 
The so-called Five Good Emperors (from left to right): Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.


Roman provinces during Trajan’s rule (98-117 AD).



Roman Empire at the time of Hadrian (117-138 AD).


📹 The History of Rome (Every Year) (VİDEO)

The History of Rome (Every Year) (LINK)

The city of Rome originated as a village of the Latini in the 8th century BC. It was initially ruled by kings, but the Roman Republic was established in 509 BC. During the 5th century BC, Rome gained regional dominance in Latium, and eventually the entire Italian peninsula by the 3rd century BC.

 



📹 History of Rome and the Roman Empire / The Map as History (VİDEO)

History of Rome and the Roman Empire / The Map as History (LINK)

This animated map describes the history of the city of Rome. It is one of the videos in our series "Rome and its Empire" and is provided as a demo to let you discover our concept.

 



📹 HISTORY IN 3D - ANCIENT ROME 320 AD - Walking around Colosseum_1 (VİDEO)

HISTORY IN 3D — ANCIENT ROME 320 AD —
Walking around Colosseum 1 (LINK)

Here is the 3rd video trailer, illustrating our project dedicated to reconstruction of the whole center of ancient Rome city as it was in 320 AD. Also this is the last trailer before the release of 3d walkthrough, where you will be able to enjoy this reconstruction by yourself using modern and innovative 3D technologies.

 








  Roman Republic (509-27)

Roman Republic

Roman Republic (W)

The Roman Republic (Latin: Rēs pūblica Rōmāna, Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]; Italian: Repubblica romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin, Etruscan, and Greek elements, which is especially visible in the Roman Pantheon. Its political organisation was strongly influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, legislative, judicial, military, and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families (called gentes) monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.

Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who even sacked the city in 387 BC. The Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean.

The Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against which it waged three wars. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world. It then embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated


At home, the Republic similarly experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who finally achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC. Later, the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order.

Mass slavery also caused three Servile Wars; the last of them was led by Spartacus, a skilful gladiator who ravaged Italy and left Rome powerless until his defeat in 71 BC.

In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system. Marius (between 105-86 BC), then Sulla (between 82-78 BC) dominated in turn the Republic; both used extraordinary powers to purge their opponents. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars; the first between the two generals Julius Caesar and Pompey. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but then turned against each other. The final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which effectively made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic.

 




📹 Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage / Khan Academy (LINK)

Three Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage mark the end of the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire and leave the Roman Republic dominant in the Mediterranean.

 



📹 Die Punischen Kriege (VİDEO)

Die Punischen Kriege (LINK)

In diesem Video erklären wir dir, wie die Punischen Kriege abliefen.

 




📹 Roman social and political structures / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Roman social and political structures / Khan Academy (LINK)

Patricians and plebeians; Roman citizens and Senate and consuls: the political and social structures of ancient Rome.

 








  📹 Roman Republic: The Brothers Gracchi (Extra History — VİDEO)

📹 Roman Republic: The Brothers Gracchi

📹 The Brothers Gracchi (1) How Republics Fall (VİDEO)

The Brothers Gracchi (1) How Republics Fall (LINK)

Rome had doubled the size of its empire in a single generation, but such expansion came at great cost. The wars enriched the wealthy and impoverished the soldiers who fought in them. Into these turbulent times came a talented and well-connected young man named Tiberius Gracchus, who soon learned the power of appealing to the populace over the elite.

Rome had expanded rapidly during the 2nd century BCE. It now stretched from Spain to Greece, with holdings in Africa, and showed no signs of stopping. At home, this growth destabilized the entire economy. Slaves from captured lands became field workers for the wealthy. Common soldiers who used to own land could no longer tend it during the long campaigns, and returned to find themselves either bankrupt or forced to sell to the large slave-owning elites. Now these displaced landowners flooded Rome looking for work, but many of them remained unemployed or underemployed. In the midst of this, two boys named Tiberius and Gaius were born to the Gracchus family. They were plebeians, but of the most distinguished order. Their mother, Cornelia, was the daughter of Scipio Africanus. Their father was a two-time consul who'd celebrated two triumphs for winning great campaigns. But their father died early, so Cornelia raised her children alone and made sure they had a firm grounding in the liberal arts. As soon as he could, the elder boy, Tiberius, ran for office as a military tribune and joined the final campaign against Carthage. There he earned great honor for himself, and learned from the Scipio Aemilianus, his half-brother who also happened to be the leading general. Upon return to Rome, he ran for quaeastor and was sent to serve in the Numantian Wars in Spain. This time, the general he served under was struggling and suffered defeat after defeat. At the end, he tried to flee, only to be captured by the Numantians along with the entire army. The Numantians insisted on discussing surrender terms with Tiberius Gracchus, whose father had long ago earned their respect, and he successfully negotiated the release of 20,000 captured soldiers. In Rome, however, the elites looked on his treaty with scorn: they felt his surrender made Rome look weak. The families of the soldiers had a far different perspective: they celebrated Tiberius, and even saved him from punishment at the hands of the Senate. He had learned that power could be found in appealing to the people.

 



📹 The Brothers Gracchi (2) Populares (VİDEO)

The Brothers Gracchi (2) Populares (LINK)

Tiberius Gracchus took up the cause of land reform, determined to restore property rights to the average citizen and curtail the abuses of the rich. But another tribune vetoed his proposed law, so Tiberius began to fight back with his own veto and ground the government to a halt. At last, he held a special vote to remove his opponent from office so that his land reform bill could pass.

Tiberius Gracchus returned from war to find a Rome where soldiers reaped no rewards for their service, and the rich worked all the farmland with slaves who were the spoils of war. Determined to fix this, he took up the cause of land reform. His first goal: to restore the ager publicus, or "public land." Tradition held that some of the land won in war would always be set aside and distributed to the citizens, with no one allowed to hold more than 500 acres of it, but the rich had ignored that law so long that no one even tried to enforce it. Tiberius got himself electrd as tribune and wrote a law that didn't punish the rich, just asked them to surrender their illegally held land after the state paid them for it. Nevertheless, the richest of the rich accused him of trying to foment a revolution. They tried and failed to turn the people against Tiberius, but when his law passed anyway, they recruited one of his fellow tribunes to veto the law. Tiberius responded by drafting another, harsher version of the law - only to see this one vetoed also. He began using his own veto in retaliation, refusing to let any other law pass and stopping the senate from withdrawing money from the treasury. Government ground to a halt. Roman government had always relied on the responsible use of powers that were now being abused, and the snowball began to roll downhill. Tiberius took the unprecedented measure of holding a special vote to get his opponent, Octavius, removed from office by popular vote. Despite Octavius's efforts to hold out, the people voted with Tiberius: Octavius was stripped from office and barely escaped from the Campus Martius with his life after an angry crowd turned on him. But at last, with no more opposition from Octavius, the agrarian reform law proposed by Tiberius Gracchus passed.

 



📹 The Brothers Gracchi (3) Ochlocracy (VİDEO)

The Brothers Gracchi (3) Ochlocracy (LINK)

To protect himself from retaliation for his populist policies, Tiberius Gracchus ran for tribune a second time. On election day, he sought protection from the crowd among rumors that wealthy elites planned to assassinate him, but accidentally sent a message that he wished to be not elected, but crowned as king. A Senator formed an opposing mob that killed Tiberius and 300 of his supporters on the spot.

Tiberius looked to shore his support as many people questioned the way he'd stripped Octavius of office. His chance came when the King of Pergamum died, and left his kingdom and all its land to Rome in his will. Tiberius stepped in to tell the Senate he would draft a bill to deal with this new land and submit it directly to the people. This outraged the Senate: foreign policy had always been their domain, and even those who had been silent during his squabble with Octavius now spoke against Tiberius. Fearing retribution, Tiberius ran for tribune a second time: an unprecedented political act that would make his person sacrosanct. On Election Day, Tiberius received a warning that the wealthy elites of Rome planned to assassinate him and stop his re-election. He tried to indicate to his supporters that his life was in danger, but since they couldn't hear him above the din, he did so by pointing at his head. One onlooker interpreted this as him asking for a crown, and brought this news to the Senate. They called upon the consul to stop it, but he said he would just nullify the vote if that happened. One Senator did not accept this response. He gathered his own mob to take things into his own hands. They caught Tiberius and killed him, along with 300 of his followers. Many who escaped were later executed or exiled, and Gaius - the brother of Tiberius - was refused when he asked for his brother's body back to hold funeral rites. It was the first great act of political violence in Rome, and it set the stage for a new age of violent upheaval. After all, harming a tribune was supposed to be not only illegal but a sin before the gods, so if this mob had done just that and escaped without punishment, what other laws could not be broken? Into this troubled stage stepped Gaius Gracchus, already known for his fiery disposition and now determined to take up his dead brother's cause.

 



📹 The Brothers Gracchi (4) Enter Gaius (VİDEO)

The Brothers Gracchi (4) Enter Gaius (LINK)

Gaius Gracchus took up the mantle of his dead brother, overcoming resistance from the Senate and the elites to win the election for tribune. Although he had a hot temper, he shared his brother's charisma and talent, so he built a powerful base of popularity by creating programs for the poor, the army, and the middle class.

With Tiberius dead, it fell to his brother Gaius to take up his mantle. Both brothered were talented and charismatic, but Gaius had a much more fiery temper that made the Senate wary. During his political post, as a quaestor assigned to Sardinia, they tried to bind him to his post to prevet him from running in another election. Gaius broke tradition and defied the Senate's orders, but when they put him on trial, he brought the citizens over to his side and walked away freely. As they had feared, he ran for tribune: the same office his brother had held. Despite heavy opposition from his enemies, he won. Support for him both in and outside Rome had grown so large that people flooded the city just to vote for him. In his first act, he passed a law which applied retroactively to punish Popilius Laena, the man who had banished Tiberius's supporters after his death. Popilius fled rather than face the law. Over the remainder of his term, Gaius proved extremely active and efficient: he passed new laws and implemented programs to help the poor, the soldiers, and the middle class through measures like the grain dole. At the end of his term, he planned to step down from politics for a while, but there weren't enough people who won the election for tribune that year so he was reinstated by default. Now he had what his brother had died for: a second term as tribune.

 



📹 The Brothers Gracchi (5) The Final Fall (VİDEO)

The Brothers Gracchi (5) The Final Fall (LINK)

The Senate stole credit for all Gaius's proposals, and stole his popular support. Once he failed to win re-election for tribune, the Senate repealed his reforms. Gaius organized a protest, but the Senate brought it down with armed force and killed Gaius. Not a century later, the Republic would fall.

Gaius made a series of proposals to ease the strains on the poor people in Rome, such as new Roman colonies to ease overcrowding or renting public land to the people. The Senate, led by a man named Livius Drusus, decried him for pandering, only to implement those ideas themselves, take all the credit, and make sure that Gaius got to have no involvement with the administration of these popular public programs. Public support drained from Gaius, and he struggled to find a comeback. When he ran for a third term as tribune, he lost. With Gaius no longer a threat, the Senate started repealing all of the forms he'd fought for. Gaius organized a mob to protest these repeals, but one of his supporters got in a fight with a Senatorial supporter and killed him. The Senate seized this opportunity to declare martial law the next day. In response, Gaius planned a peaceful occupation of the Aventine Hill. The Senate sent representatives to negotiate with him, but they demanded Gaius and his closest supporters give themselves up, and his supporters refused. With no resolution in sight, the Senatorial faction had archers begin to fire into the crowd. Gaius and his supporters fled, but he did not escape: Gaus was caught and captured, his head taken for a bounty and his body thrown into to the Tiber River. The Senate congratulation itself for defeating him by building a temple to Concord, but an anonymous citizen graffiti tagged it as "The Work of Mad Discord." A deep rift had been opened, and the Republic never managed to close it. The reforms proposed by the Gracchi were right and necessary, but extreme factions, fearmongering, a rhetoric of violence, and abuse of the letter of the law all deteriorated the democracy that held Rome together. Less than a century after Gaius falls, so does the Roman Republic.

 



📹 Gracchus the Elder — Prequel: In His Footsteps (VİDEO)

Gracchus the Elder — Prequel: In His Footsteps (LINK)

Tiberius Gracchus the Elder has been overshadowed by his sons, but in his lifetime he had the most successful political career imaginable. Born just as the Second Punic War came to a close, he arrived on the political stage just in time to befriend the Scipio family during the Seleucid War. He secured a route of safe passage for their soldiers which led them to catch and defeat King Antiochus. The Scipios planted themselves in the east, dealing with the spoils of war and enriching themselves in the process. Upon their return to Rome, they were charged with corruption for accepting bribes, but Tiberius Gracchus the Elder had just been elected tribune of the plebs, and he voted their trial entirely. Scipio Africanus rewarded him by giving him the hand of Cornelia, his daughter and an amazing woman in her own right. Tiberius Gracchus went on the be elected aedile, and threw such lavish public games that the Senate passed a law restricting future games. It worked for him, though: he won his next election and became a praetor assigned to nearer Spain, where he launched a fierce and successful military campaign buffered by a land redistribution effort. In that way, he solved the underlying problems of poverty among the Celtiberians and secured peace for 25 years. For his success, he received a triumph and was elected consul, two of the highest honors in Roman politics. But here he played a dangerous game. Already allied with the Scipiones, he served as consul alongside their family's biggest rival: a Claudius. He won the game and formed a relationship that would later provide his sons with important allies. Next he went to Sardinia to protect against rebellious tribes, and again he succeeded. The Gracchi name was now honored in both Spain and Sardinia, a legacy his sons would rely upon. This won him a second triumph and a role as censor, after which he joined a traveling embassy of senators to assess Rome's client kingdom. Tiberius Gracchus used this opportunity to forge friendships with foreign kings, like the King of Pergamum who would one day form a key part of Tiberius's efforts to redistribute land. Finally, he won a second consulship, but here he made the mistake of screwing over a man whose son would one day lead the assault that killed Tiberius in the forum. At the end of his days, Tiberius Gracchus the Elder wasn't just a prominent senator, but one of the most powerful men in Rome. It was the duty of a son to surpass the fame of his father, which must have seemed impossible... but Tiberius and Gracchus, building on the legacy he left, did exactly that.

P.S. If you've read this far, we think it's only fair we tell you that Mike Duncan is aware the proper Latin name for the Scipio family is "Scipiones" but he allowed us to shorten it to "Scipios" to make it easier for non-Latin speakers to understand.

 



 

 








  Pax Romana

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THE PANTHEON

THE PANTHEON (LINK)

THE PANTHEON
THE PANTHEON


Bust of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa from the Forum of Gabii, currently in the Louvre, Paris.
 
   

This incomparable circular edifice, originally intended by Agrippa to form the conclusion of his thermæ [Warm baths which were destined for public use only], with which it is intimately connected, is one of the noblest and most perfect productions of that style of architecture specifically denominated Roman. When the first wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the founder of this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to have felt that it was not adapted to be the every-day residence of men, but to be a habitation for the gods.

The Church of S. Maria ad Martyres was originally the sudatorium, or sweating-room, of the baths of Agrippa, being similar in construction to all the sweating-rooms now existing, notably one in the Villa of Hadrian at Tivoli. It exactly answers Vetruvius's description of this department of the baths. It seems afterwards to have been dedicated as a temple of the gods, or Pantheon of the Julian line, according to Dion Cassius (liii. 27), when the portico was added in the third consulship of Agrippa.

M. AGRIPPA . L. F. COS . TERTIUM . FECIT.

The straight vertical joint where the Greek portico has been built up to the Roman body can be distinctly seen, and the pediment and entablature can be observed behind the portico. It was burned in the fire under Titus; and was restored, as the inscription on the architrave tells us, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla—

PANTHEUM VETUSTATE CORRUPTUM CUM OMNI CULTU RESTITVERUNT.

Recent explorations have shown that in front of the Pantheon was a large enclosure surrounded by a covered arcade, somewhat after the manner of the colonnade at S. Peter's, and entered by an arch of triumph. Remains of this arch exist under the houses in front of the Pantheon, which are to be pulled down.

When Agrippa dedicated the Pantheon as a temple, it was consecrated to Jupiter the Avenger. "Some of the finest works that the world has ever beheld ... the roofing of the Pantheon of Jupiter Ultor that was built by Agrippa" (Pliny, "N. H." xxxvi. 24). The repairs commenced by Septimius Severus and Caracalla were completed by Alexander Severus, who built his baths close by. We call attention to a coin of this emperor, which represents the temple and its enclosure on the reverse; on the obverse is the emperor's portrait, and the legend IMP . C . M . AVR . SEV . ALEXANDER . AUG. On the coin the columns are placed close on either flank, and two are omitted, to show the seated statue of Jupiter in the temple, which statue is now in the Hall of Busts in the Vatican Museum, and is a copy of the celebrated Jupiter of Phidias.

The fact that the Pantheon was originally built as a sudatorium has been proved to a certainty by the excavations made in the sudatorium of the Baths of Caracalla. There we have, as it were, the Pantheon in ruins. It is slightly smaller, the diameter being 125 feet—17 less than the Pantheon. Opposite to the entrance is an apse, and on each side there are three recesses, as at the Pantheon, which were used as caldaria, but are now, in the Pantheon, chapels of the saints.

Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom, 1836. (An 1836 view of the Pantheon by Jakob Alt, showing twin bell towers, often misattributed to Bernini.) (W)

 

The portico is 110 feet long, and 44 feet deep. Sixteen Corinthian columns, 46½ feet high and 5 feet in diameter, support the roof. The Pantheon was converted into a church by Boniface IV. in 609, by permission of the Emperor Phocas, and it was dedicated to the martyrs on November 1st (All Saints' Day), 830. The doors and grating above, of ancient bronze, with the rim round the circular opening in the vault of the interior, are all that is left of the ancient metal work. The interior is 142 feet in diameter, and 143 feet high, and is lighted by an open space of 28 feet in diameter. It is the burial-place of Raphael and of Victor Emanuel II.—right of high altar.

Pliny says ("Nat. Hist." xxxvi. 4): "The Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the caryatides by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence. The same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof, though, in consequence of the height, they have not had an opportunity of being so well appreciated." "The capitals, too, of the pillars which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, were made of Syracusan metal" (ibid., xxxiv. 7). Marcellinus (xvi. x. 14) says: "The Pantheon, with its vast extent, its imposing height, and the solid magnificence of its arches, and the lofty niches rising one above the other like stairs, is adorned with the images of former emperors."

Einblick Panorama Pantheon, Rom.

 

"It is as difficult to reconcile the statements of different authors respecting the original idea of Agrippa, as it is hazardous to attempt to prove the successive metamorphoses which the plan sketched by the artist has undergone. This much, however, is certain, that with respect to the modern transformation of the whole, the consequences have been most melancholy and injurious. The combination of the circular edifice with the rectilinear masses of the vestibule, notwithstanding all the pains bestowed, and the endless expenditure of the most costly materials, has been unsuccessful; and the original design of the Roman architect has lost much of its significance, or, at all events, of its phrenological expression, by being united with ordinary Grecian forms of architecture, which in this place lose great part of their value. No one previously unacquainted with the edifice could form an idea, from the aspect of the portico, of that wondrous structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest triumphs of the human mind over matter in connection with the law of gravity.

"Conflagrations, earthquakes, sacrilegious human hands, and all the injuries of time, have striven together in vain for the destruction of this unique structure. It has come off victorious in every trial; and even now, when it has not only been stripped of its noblest decorations, but, what is still worse, been decked out with idle and unsuitable ornaments, it still stands in all its pristine glory and beauty.

"In order to obtain a notion of the size and solid excellence of the work, it will be well first to make the circuit of the entire edifice. We shall thus have an opportunity of admiring the fine distribution of the different masses. After the first circular wall or belt, which rests upon a base of travertine, has attained a height of nearly forty feet, it is finished off with a simple cornice, serving as a solid foundation for the second belt. As a preservative against sinking, this is, moreover, provided with a series of larger and smaller construction arches, alternating symmetrically with one another. After rising some thirty feet, further solidity is given to the wall by a girdle suitably decorated with consoles, and on this the third belt (which is but a few feet lower) is supported. A similar number of the arches already mentioned, introduced as frequently as possible, enables this wall to support the weight pressing upon it, and to raise the harmoniously rounded cupola boldly aloft.

Rom, Pantheon bei Nacht. (W)

 

"In ancient times the whole building, which is composed of brick, was covered and embellished with a coating of stucco. On the upper cornice, at the back, between the consoles, portions of terra-cotta decorations still remain, seeming to have formed part of this ornamental facing.

"In our examination of the interior, we are, unfortunately, much hindered in our attempt to investigate the constructive connection of the whole by the unmeaning ornamental additions, and the thoughtless transformation of the different organic masses.

"So much, however, may be discovered even on a superficial survey—namely, that the architect has everywhere endeavoured, not merely to diminish the pressure on the walls of the lower belt (which is nearly twenty feet thick) by inserting hollow chambers, but has given them additional strength by means of the vaulted constructions thus introduced. A hall, supported on pillars, lies between each of the eight modern altars, and behind each of them, on the outside, are niches, reached through the different doors, recurring at regular distances throughout.

"The slabs of coloured marble belonging to the attica were carried off some hundred years ago, under Benedict XIV., and their place supplied by the present coulisse paintings. This polychrome system would have greatly facilitated our researches into the coloured architecture of the ancients, and its loss is therefore much to be regretted.

"For, although this portion of the edifice was thus transformed at a comparatively late period, still the effect of those finely harmonized masses must have been a remarkable one.

"To judge from the combination of coloured stones still remaining in this edifice, the effect must have been very rich and beautiful. The elaborate capitals and bases of white marble must have formed a fine contrast to the yellow shafts of the pillars and the stripe of porphyry inserted in the architrave. The largest specimen of this coloured mode of decoration has been preserved in the pavement; although here also we must take it for granted that the original arrangement has been disturbed, the sunken bases of the columns sufficing to prove that the pavement has been raised in course of time. This circumstance is not without optical reaction on the proportions of the different masses. The horse-shoe arch over the entrance-door is remarkable. It forms a striking contrast to that of the tribune, where the projecting cornice rests upon two pillars, whereas the architrave, broken through by the doorway, is supported only by pilasters.

"The ædiculæ, now converted into altars, are covered in, partly with gables, partly with arches, the former resting upon fluted pillars of yellow marble, the latter upon porphyry pillars. The walls behind are likewise faced with slabs of coloured marble, which, in their original splendour, must have reflected the magnificence of the pillars.

"The facing of the door is the only considerable portion still remaining of the rich bronze-work with which this edifice was formerly fitted up. Simple as the decoration of these massive doors now appears, it is yet imposing for such persons as are capable of appreciating pure symmetry and a judicious distribution of the parts in surfaces so extensive. The nails, with heads in the form of rosettes, separating the different panels, are the only ornament. The window above the door is closed by a grating composed of curves placed one above the other, thus admitting both light and air. The destruction of the bronze cross-beams which formed the roof of the vestibule till the time of Urban VIII., is most to be regretted. This was composed of bronze tubes, on precisely the same principle as that on which Stephenson, a few years ago, constructed the bridge over the Menai Straits.

"The cupola is nearly seventy feet in height, and rests on the attica, corresponding to the second outer belt. This attica has suffered most severely from modern alterations. The walls behind this afford space for a series of chambers. The massive wall of the third belt, on the other hand, surrounding the cupola to a third of its height, is rendered accessible by a passage running round the whole; and this again is spanned by frequently recurring arches, and lighted by the windows visible on the outside.

"The diameter of the cupola is nearly equal to its height. The round aperture at the top, by means of which the interior is lighted with a magical effect, measures about twenty-eight feet in diameter. Here is still to be seen the last and only remnant of the rich bronze decorations of which this edifice formerly boasted. It consists of a ring, adorned with eggs and foliage, encircling the aperture, and not merely strengthening the edge of the wall, but constituting a graceful and at the same time a simple and judicious ornament.

"It is certain that the five converging rows of gradually diminishing cassettoni have been decorated in a similar manner, and it is stated that vestiges of metal were discovered during the process of whitewashing.

"The six niches between the altars are each supported by two fluted pillars and a corresponding number of pilasters, the greater portion of them being composed of monoliths of that costly yellow marble frequently employed by the ancients. They are more than thirty-two feet in height, and, as regards size, are unique of their kind. It has been impossible, even for the ancients, to erect, of this rare material, all the pillars required for the embellishment of this splendid edifice, for which reason they were obliged to substitute six of pavonazzetto. These, however, they stained, without injuring the brilliancy of the marble or the transparency of the grain, in such a manner as to bring them into harmony with the other yellow masses, and to deceive even the most practised eye. This circumstance is of great importance in forming an opinion on the coloured architecture of the Greeks, as it shows how they contrived to harmonize the white marble masses without concealing the texture of the noble material.

"It is stated by Pliny that caryatides were placed here by a certain Diogenes of Athens, corresponding to the pillars which support the architrave.

"Apparently they were a free repetition of the caryatides of the Pandrosium; and probably the statue in the Braccio Nuovo, which was brought from the Palazzo Paganica, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Pantheon, was one of these, the scale being precisely adapted to this situation.

"Some of the large nails used in riveting the bronze plates together are still preserved in the different museums. We are indebted to Serlio, an architect of the sixteenth century, who preserved a drawing of it, for the only information we possess concerning this ingenious piece of mechanism. The Pope mentioned above, a member of the Barberini family, had the barbarity to carry off and melt down these important remains. An inscription on the left of the principal door celebrates the judicious transformation of these masses of bronze into cannons, and ornaments for churches" (Braun).

Urban VIII. "That the useless and almost forgotten decorations might become ornaments of the apostle's tomb in the Vatican temple, and engines of public safety in the fortress of S. Angelo, he moulded the ancient relics of the bronze roof into columns and cannons, in the twelfth year of his pontificate" (Inscription).

"What the barbarians did not the Barberini have done" (Pasquino).

"On each side of the entrance to the Rotunda are two immense niches, constructed of brick, in which the colossal statues of Augustus and Agrippa are supposed to have been placed. This opinion seems to me too hazardous, and contrary to the spirit of these two eminent statesmen.

"Standing among the sixteen granite pillars supporting the vestibule, we feel that there is something overpowering in the impression it produces. This, however, diminishes when we step out upon the piazza, which lies too high. At its original level, a flight of five steps led up to the building; and the effect when viewed from a distance must have been essentially different, as we may judge from the portion of pavement which has been excavated to the right of the Rotunda" (Braun).

Raphael's tomb is in the third chapel on the left.

“Living, great Nature feared he might outvie
Her works; and, dying, fears herself to die.”

— Cardinal Bembo: translated by Pope.

 

A bust, by Nardini, of Raphael was originally placed near here, but was removed in 1820, in consequence of people offering their devotions to it.




 



📹 The Pantheon / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

The Pantheon / Khan Academy (LINK)

The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.

 




Pax Romana

Pax Romana (W)

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the early Roman Empire. It is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BC and concluding in 180 AD with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the "good emperors".

Since it was inaugurated by Augustus with the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic, it is sometimes called the Pax Augusta. During this period of approximately 207 years, the Roman empire achieved its greatest territorial extent and its population reached a maximum of up to 70 million people — a third of the world’s population. According to Cassius Dio, the dictatorial reign of Commodus, later followed by the Year of the Five Emperors and the crisis of the third century, marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".

 



Augustus

Augustus

“I found a city of brick and left it one of marble.”


The aim of Augustus and his successors was to guarantee law, order, and security within the empire. Roman people understood and valued the peace and security that Augustus’s new order brought to the empire.

İlk İmparator — Augustus (İÖ 27-İÖ 14)

Jül Sezar’ın yeğeni olan Gaius Octavius Thurinus Senato tarafından Roma ordusunun bütünü üzerinde yetke taşıyor olarak kabul edildi. Yaşam boyu Tribün olarak dilediği zaman Senatoyu toplantıya çağırma, onu çalıştırma ve kararlarını veto etme hakkı vardı. Bir Sensorun güçleri ile donatılı olarak, kamu ahlakını gözetim altında tutma ve yasaların Roma’nın gerçek çıkarına olmasını sağlamak için onları inceleme yetkisi vardı. Ve ‘Augustus’ sanı dinsel yetkesi olduğunu belirtiyordu.

 




📹 Emperors of Pax Romana / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Emperors of Pax Romana / Khan Academy (LINK)

Starting with the reign of Augustus and ending with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Pax Romana is a relatively stable 200 year period. The first five emperors are of the Julio-Claudia Dynasty. The last five of the Pax Romana are considered the "good" emperors by Machiavelli.

 



🎨 Roman Life

 

Roman life.

 

Sephoris, Roman Villa — Artist’s reconstruction of a villa at Sephoris. Luxury for those at the top of society — poverty for those at the bottom.

 

Women in a Roman bath house. Note the strigilis, the mosaics on the floor and the nice decorations on the wall.


 

Roman banquette.


 

Roman family at home.


 

Rehearsal of 'The Fluteplayer' and 'The Diomedes' wife' in the atrium of the Pompeian house of Prince, by Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger. (La Domus Romana) (Il Gardino Romana)



 








  Roman Empire
  • Krallık — İÖ 753-509.
  • Cumhuriyet — İÖ 509-İÖ 27
  • İmparatorluk — İÖ 27-İS 1453 (395-476/480 Batı; 395-1453 Doğu).

 

  • İmparatorluk İÖ 27-İS 285 arasında Roma’dan yönetildi.
  • İmparatorluk Diocletian (hükümr. 284-305) tarafından Doğu ve Batı yönetimleri olarak iki bölgeye ayrıldı.

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” V — Frieze A / Frieze of “Profectio” or departure of emperor Domitian for military campaign 93 AD — Palazzo della Cancelleria, Roma.
🔎

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” II – Frieze A

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” II – Frieze A (F)

The two reliefs, frieze A) and frieze B), found beneath the “Palazzo della Cancelleria” were part of the decoration of a public monument which can be dated to the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD).
The events described in the frieze A) happen a few years later than those described in the frieze B).

Relief A) shows or the departure, “profectio”, of the emperor Domitian for a military campaign, or his “reditus” from the Sarmatian campaign in A.D. 93. The face of Domitian was re-worked to represent his successor Nerva, after his memory was condemned to oblivion, “damnatio memoriae” following his violent death.

Relief B) shows the arrival, “adventus”, of the Emperor Vespasian in Rome, being greeted by a person wearing a toga, who is probably his son, Domitian.

Frieze A, list of characters, from left:
1 - Victory of whom only the left wing and part of the shoulder are extant;
2 - lictor, to be inferred from the axe-head visible against the right shoulder of character nr. 3, and from the surviving top of the fasce;
3 - lictor;
4 - Mars;
5 - Minerva;
6 - figure in tunic and paludamentum, Emperor Domitian reworked as Nerva’s portrait;
7, 8 - two lictors;
9 - Dea Roma or, perhaps less probably, Virtus;
10 - soldier;
11 - Genius Senatus;
12 - another soldier;
13 - Genius Publicus;
14,17 - four more military.

Source: H. Last, “On the Flavian Reliefs from Palazzo della Canceloleria” — The Journal of Roman Studies.

Roman marble relief
Domitian reign, 81 – 96 AD
From Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome
Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano

 




Roman Empire

Roman Empire (W)


Vexilloid of the Roman Empire (Flag of Roman Empire)


The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization.

Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome (27 BC-285 AD).

The Roman Empire was then divided between


and it was ruled by multiple emperors (with the exception of the sole rule of Constantine I between 324 and 337, and Theodosius I between 392 and 395).

The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.

In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar’s adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively making him the first emperor.

The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan (98-117 AD).

A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.

Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380.

Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD.

The Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453.


Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe. The Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire. Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of later republics such as the United States and France. The corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture

 



Crisis of the Third Century

Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235-284) (W)


The divided Empire in 271


The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235-284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of


The crisis began with the assassinationof Emperor Severus Alexander by his own troops in 235. This initiated a 50-year period during which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals, who assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors.

By 268, the empire had split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and (briefly) Hispania; the Palmyrene Empire, including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus; and the Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them. Later, Aurelian (270-275) reunited the empire; the crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284.

The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the empire's institutions, society, economic life and, eventually, religion, that it is increasingly seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity.

 




Roma’nın egemeni kişiler değil yasa idi ve bu olgu Roma tininin dayanıklılığının ve sürekliliğinin zeminidir. İmparatorluk döneminde bile yasa egemenliği imparatorların kendilerinin birincil dayanakları oldu ve bireysel özenci etkisizleştirdi.

 

Roma’nın gücü ve görkemi en temelde aşırı ölçüde sağlam boşinançlar üzerine, olmayan şeylere verilen saltık değer üzerine dayanıyordu. Bütün bir imparatorluk yalnızca sanal bir kültür olarak ortadan kalkışına doğru gelişti.


Vestal Virgins: Protectors of the city’s sacred flame

Vestal Virgins

Vestal Virgins (B)

Vestal Virgins, in Roman religion, six priestesses, representing the daughters of the royal house, who tended the state cult of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. The cult is believed to date to the 7th century BC; like other non-Christian cults, it was banned in AD 394 by Theodosius I.

Chosen between the ages of 6 and 10 by the pontifex maximus (“chief priest”), Vestal Virgins served for 30 years, during which time they had to remain virgins. Afterward they could marry, but few did. Those chosen as Vestal Virgins had to be of the required age, be freeborn of freeborn and respectable parents (though later the daughters of freedmen were eligible), have both parents alive, and be free from physical and mental defects. They lived in the House of the Vestal Virgins on the Roman Forum, near the Temple of Vesta. Their duties included tending the perpetual fire in the Temple of Vesta, keeping their vow of chastity, fetching water from a sacred spring (Vesta would have no water from the city water-supply system), preparing ritual food, caring for objects in the temple’s inner sanctuary, and officiating at the Vestalia (June 7–15), the period of public worship of Vesta. Failure to attend to their duties was punished by a beating; violation of the vow of chastity, by burial alive (the blood of a Vestal Virgin could not be spilled). But the Vestal Virgins also enjoyed many honours and privileges not open to married or single women of equivalent social status, including emancipation from their fathers’ rule and the ability to handle their own property.

 

 




📹 Religion im römischen Reich (VİDEO)

Religion im römischen Reich (LINK)

In diesem Video erklären wir dir die Religion im römischen Reich.

Die römische Religion war polytheistisch; das bedeutet, dass die Menschen an viele verschiedene Götter glaubten, die alle ihren eigenen Zuständigkeitsbereich haben. Und weil sich diese Götter überall einmischten, mussten sie durch Opfer milde gestimmt werden.

Die wichtigsten Götter im römischen Pantheon, das bedeutet Götterwelt, waren Jupiter, Juno und Minerva. Sie waren die drei Stadtgottheiten Roms.

Die kennst du vielleicht auch schon von den Griechen, nur unter den Namen Zeus, Hera und Athene.

Religion in der römischen Familie: Innerhalb der Familie wurden tägliche Rituale zur Verehrung der Gottheiten durchgeführt. Es gab bestimmte Hausgötter mit eigenen Aufgaben, die am sogenannten „Lararium“, einem Steinsockel, verehrt wurden.

Die meisten Rituale leitete der „pater familias“, also der Familienvater, doch manche wichtigen Riten führten Priester durch, zum Beispiel Bestattungen.

Die Geister von Verstorbenen spielten für die Römer nämlich eine wichtige Rolle. An speziellen Totenfesten bekräftigten sie ihre Verbundenheit mit verstorbenen Familienangehörigen und versuchten, Dämonen abzuwehren.

Öffentliche Kulthandlungen: Im Kapitol fanden öffentliche Kulthandlungen statt. Das Kapitol ist ein Tempel zugunsten von Jupiter, Juno und Minerva. Der oberste Priester im Tempel war der „pontifex maximus“. Daneben gab es weitere Priester und Priesterinnen, z. B. die Vestalinnen, die das Herdfeuer auf dem Forum Romanum hüteten, was als Symbol für das Zentrum des Staates angesehen wurde.

Die Verknüpfung zwischen Staat und Religion war bei den Römern sehr eng. Bevor sie in den Krieg zogen, befragten die Römer zunächst die Götter. Bestimmte Zeichen, wie z. B. ein Vogelflug wurden durch die Priester gedeutet, um den Willen der Götter zu erklären.

Fremde Gottheiten anderer eroberter Völker wurden in die eigene Götterwelt übernommen. Die Religion übernahm deshalb auch eine wichtige Rolle bei der Integration von anderen Kulturen.

Der Einfluss fremder Kulturen: Zwei fremde Kulturen hatten besonders großen Einfluss auf die römische Religion. Einerseits die Griechen – von denen übernahmen die Römer die Beziehung zu den Göttern, sowie deren Darstellung in menschlicher Gestalt. Vorher betrachteten die Römer ihre Gottheiten etwas nüchterner.

Der andere große Einfluss kam aus Ägypter und zeigte sich in der Anbetung der Göttin Isis. So wurden dadurch Themen wie Magie, Wunder und Unsterblichkeit in die Religion der Römer aufgenommen.

Zusammenfassung:
Bei den alten Römern waren Jupiter, Juno und Minerva die wichtigsten Götter und der Staat und die Religion eng miteinander verknüpft waren.

Besonders die Integration der Götter anderer Völker war ein wichtiges Werkzeug für den Religionsfrieden im römischen Reich.

 




Devlet ve Din Kavramları


  • Ön modern dönem imparatorluklar dönemidir.
  • Modern dönem uluslar dönemidir.
  • İmparatorluklar ulusların doğuş yeridir.

 

  • Kavramına göre, devlet hak ve ahlak kavramları temelinde somut etik yaşam biçimidir.
  • Ya da, devlet evrensel hak eşitliği ve duyunç özgürlüğü temelinde yasa egemenliğidir.

 

  • Kavramına göre, din estetik duyarlığı ve ussal düşünceyi kapsayan duygu sonsuzluğudur.

 

  • Din kavramı insan eşitliğini doğrulamasında evrensel insan haklarının bilincine götürür.
  • Din kavramı insan özgürlüğünü doğrulamasında duyunç özgürlüğünün bilincine götürür.
  • Din kavramı etik yaşam idealini doğrulamasında ideal politik yaşam istencine götürür.
  • Din kavramına uygun düşmeyen inanç biçimleri devletleri grotesk biçimler üstlenmeye zorlar (etnik devletler, din devletleri).

 

  • Roma İmparatorluğu bir tek-erklik olarak, egemenliğin tek bir bireyin istencinde yoğunlaşması olarak evrensel insan eşitliğinin yadsınması ve tüm bireyselliğin devlete adanması koşulu üzerine dayanıyordu.
  • Tanrıyı evrensel Logos olarak, İnsanı ya da İsa’yı Tanrı ile bir ve aynı tözü taşıyor olarak, ve İnsanlığı Tanrı ve Oğul ile bir ve aynı töz olarak kabul eden Hıristiyanlık neo-Platonistler tarafından formüle edildi.
  • Katolik ve Ortodoks inanç biçimleri tarafından anlaşılmayan ve tanınmayan Hıristiyanlık ancak Reformasyonun duyunç özgürlüğünü getirmesinden sonra din kavramına uygun inanç biçimi olarak yayılmaya başladı.

Christianity in the Roman Empire

Christianity in the Roman Empire (W)

Roman investigations into early Christianity found it an irreligious, novel, disobedient, even atheistic sub-sect of Judaism: it appeared to deny all forms of religion and was therefore superstitio. By the end of the Imperial era, Nicene Christianity was the one permitted Roman religio; all other cults were heretical or pagan superstitiones.

After the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD, Emperor Nero accused the Christians as convenient scapegoats, who were later persecuted and killed. From that point on, Roman official policy towards Christianity tended towards persecution.

During the various Imperial crises of the 3rd century, "contemporaries were predisposed to decode any crisis in religious terms", regardless of their allegiance to particular practices or belief systems. Christianity drew its traditional base of support from the powerless, who seemed to have no religious stake in the well-being of the Roman State, and therefore threatened its existence. The majority of Rome's elite continued to observe various forms of inclusive Hellenistic monism; Neoplatonism in particular accommodated the miraculous and the ascetic within a traditional Graeco-Roman cultic framework. Christians saw these practices as ungodly, and a primary cause of economic and political crisis.

In the wake of religious riots in Egypt, the emperor Decius decreed that all subjects of the Empire must actively seek to benefit the state through witnessed and certified sacrifice to "ancestral gods" or suffer a penalty: only Jews were exempt. Decius' edict appealed to whatever common mos maiores might reunite a politically and socially fractured Empire and its multitude of cults; no ancestral gods were specified by name. The fulfillment of sacrificial obligation by loyal subjects would define them and their gods as Roman. Apostasy was sought, rather than capital punishment. A year after its due deadline, the edict expired.

Valerian singled out Christianity as a particularly self-interested and subversive foreign cult, outlawed its assemblies and urged Christians to sacrifice to Rome's traditional gods. In another edict, he described Christianity as a threat to Empire — not yet at its heart but close to it, among Rome's equites and Senators. Christian apologists interpreted his eventual fate — a disgraceful capture and death — as divine judgement.

The next forty years were peaceful; the Christian church grew stronger and its literature and theology gained a higher social and intellectual profile, due in part to its own search for political toleration and theological coherence. Origen discussed theological issues with traditionalist elites in a common Neoplatonist frame of reference — he had written to Decius' predecessor Philip the Arab in similar vein — and Hippolytus recognised a "pagan" basis in Christian heresies. The Christian churches were disunited; Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch was deposed by a synod of 268 both for his doctrines, and for his unworthy, indulgent, elite lifestyle. Meanwhile, Aurelian (270-75) appealed for harmony among his soldiers (concordia militum), stabilised the Empire and its borders and successfully established an official, Hellenic form of unitary cult to the Palmyrene Sol Invictus in Rome's Campus Martius.

In 295, Maximilian of Tebessa refused military service; in 298 Marcellus renounced his military oath. Both were executed for treason; both were Christians. At some time around 302, a report of ominous haruspicy in Diocletian's domus and a subsequent (but undated) dictat of placatory sacrifice by the entire military triggered a series of edicts against Christianity. The first (303 AD) “ordered the destruction of church buildings and Christian texts, forbade services to be held, degraded officials who were Christians, re-enslaved imperial freedmen who were Christians, and reduced the legal rights of all Christians... [Physical] or capital punishments were not imposed on them" but soon after, several Christians suspected of attempted arson in the palace were executed. The second edict threatened Christian priests with imprisonment and the third offered them freedom if they performed sacrifice. An edict of 304 enjoined universal sacrifice to traditional gods, in terms that recall the Decian edict.

In some cases and in some places the edicts were strictly enforced: some Christians resisted and were imprisoned or martyred. Others complied. Some local communities were not only pre-dominantly Christian, but powerful and influential; and some provincial authorities were lenient, notably the Caesar in Gaul, Constantius Chlorus, the father of Constantine I. Diocletian's successor Galerius maintained anti-Christian policy until his deathbed revocation in 311, when he asked Christians to pray for him. "This meant an official recognition of their importance in the religious world of the Roman empire, although one of the tetrarchs, Maximinus Daia, still oppressed Christians in his part of the empire up to 313.”


Emperor Constantine and Christianity

 

The conversion of Constantine I ended the Christian persecutions. Constantine successfully balanced his own role as an instrument of the pax deorum with the power of the Christian priesthoods in determining what was (in traditional Roman terms) auspicious — or in Christian terms, what was orthodox. The edict of Milan (313) redefined Imperial ideology as one of mutual toleration. Constantine had triumphed under the signum (sign) of the Christ: Christianity was therefore officially embraced along with traditional religions and from his new Eastern capital, Constantine could be seen to embody both Christian and Hellenic religious interests. He passed laws to protect Christians from persecution; he also funded the building of churches, including Saint Peter's basilica. He may have officially ended — or attempted to end — blood sacrifices to the genius of living emperors, though his Imperial iconography and court ceremonial outstripped Diocletian's in their supra-human elevation of the Imperial hierarch.

Constantine promoted orthodoxy in Christian doctrine, so that Christianity might become a unitary force, rather than divisive. He summoned Christian bishops to a meeting, later known as the First Council of Nicaea, at which some 318 bishops (mostly easterners) debated and decided what was orthodox, and what was heresy. The meeting reached consensus on the Nicene Creed. At Constantine's death, he was honored as a Christian and as an Imperial "divus". Later, Philostorgius would criticize those Christians who offered sacrifice at statues of the divus Constantine.


Transition to Christian hegemony

 

Christianity and traditional Roman religion proved incompatible. From the 2nd century onward, the Church Fathers had condemned the diverse non-Christian religions practiced throughout the Empire as "pagan". Constantine's actions have been regarded by some scholars as causing the rapid growth of Christianity, though revisionist scholars disagree. Constantine's unique form of Imperial orthodoxy did not outlast him. After his death in 337, two of his sons, Constantius II and Constans, took over the leadership of the empire and re-divided their Imperial inheritance. Constantius was an Arian and his brothers were Nicene Christians.

Constantine's nephew Julian rejected the "Galilean madness" of his upbringing for an idiosyncratic synthesis of neo-Platonism, Stoic asceticism and universal solar cult. Julian became Augustus in 361 and actively but vainly fostered a religious and cultural pluralism, attempting a restitution of non-Christian practices and rights. He proposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem's temple as an Imperial project and argued against the "irrational impieties" of Christian doctrine. His attempt to restore an Augustan form of principate, with himself as primus inter pares ended with his death in 363 in Persia, after which his reforms were reversed or abandoned. The empire once again fell under Christian control, this time permanently.

In 380, under Theodosius I, Nicene Christianity became the official state religion of the Roman Empire. Christian heretics as well as non-Christians were subject to exclusion from public life or persecution, though Rome's original religious hierarchy and many aspects of its ritual influenced Christian forms and many pre-Christian beliefs and practices survived in Christian festivals and local traditions.

The Western emperor Gratian refused the office of pontifex maximus, and against the protests of the senate, removed the altar of Victory from the senate house and began the disestablishment of the Vestals. Theodosius I briefly re-united the Empire: in 391 he officially adopted Nicene Christianity as the Imperial religion and ended official support for all other creeds and cults. He not only refused to restore Victory to the senate-house, but extinguished the Sacred fire of the Vestals and vacated their temple: the senatorial protest was expressed in a letter by Quintus Aurelius Symmachus to the Western and Eastern emperors. Ambrose, the influential Bishop of Milan and future saint, wrote urging the rejection of Symmachus's request for tolerance. Yet Theodosius accepted comparison with Hercules and Jupiter as a living divinity in the panegyric of Pacatus, and despite his active dismantling of Rome's traditional cults and priesthoods could commend his heirs to its overwhelmingly Hellenic senate in traditional Hellenic terms. He was the last emperor of both East and West.

 








  Eastern Roman Empire

  • “Roma” bir Krallık olarak başladı; sonra Cumhuriyet oldu; ve son olarak İmparatorluk oldu.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu ve Batı Roma İmparatorluğu olarak iki ayrı devlete bölünmedi.
  • ‘İki İmparator’ formülü geçersizdir, anlatım bir oxymorondur, ve ‘iki’ tek-erklik erksizlik, anarşi ve en sonunda iç-savaş demektir.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu Cumhuriyet alışkanlığından ötürü çoğunlukla birden çok ‘İmparator’ ya da eş-imparatorlar tarafından yönetildi (286-480 arasındaki dönemin büyük bölümü boyunca birden çok imparator vardı). (W)

 

  • “Bizans İmparatorluğu” anlatımı bir exonymdir.
  • 330’da Konstantin başkenti Roma’dan Konstantinopolis’e aktardı.

 

  • Yurttaşları için imparatorlukları “Bizans İmparatorluğu” ya da “Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu” değil, ama yalın olarak “Roma İmparatorluğu” idi ve kendilerini “Romalılar” olarak görüyorlardı.
  • Batı parçasının yitirilmesinden sonra Roma İmparatorluğu varlığını bin yıl daha sürdürdü.
  • Avrupa’daki ‘en’ güçlü ekonomik, kültürel ve askeri güç değildi, çünkü Roma İmparatorluğunun sınırlarının bittiği yerde uygarlık da bitiyor ve barbarlık başlıyordu.
  • ‘Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu’ sanal bir devlet idi.

 

  • Roma İmparatorluğunun başkenti hiçbir zaman “Bizans” değildi.
  The name "Byzantine Empire" was introduced by the historian Hieronymus Wolf only in 1555, a century after the empire had ceased to exist.
  • “Βυζάντιον, Byzántion” (ya da “Bizantium”) bir antikçağ Helenik kenti idi.
  • “Konstantinopolis” (“Κωνσταντινούπολις” (Konstantinoúpolis) means the “City of Constantine”).
  • “Konstantinopolis” “Yeni Roma” (Yun: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) olarak da adlandırılıyordu.
  After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330-1204), Latin (1204-1261), Palaiologos Byzantine (1261-1453) and Ottoman (1453-1922) empires.
  • Osmanlılar yeni başkentlerine “Kostantiniyye” (Ottoman Turkish: (قسطنطينيه ‎diyorlardı.
  The Turks called the city "Istanbul" (although it was not officially renamed until 1930); the name derives from "eis-ten-polin" (Greek: "to-the-city"). (W)
 
 
  • Hem Katolik hem de Ortodoks Hıristiyanlık pantheondaki tanrıların ve tanrıçaların yerine papa ve kardinallerden, patrik ve piskoposlardan oluşan bir dinadamları sınıfını geçirdi.
  • Roma moral ve etik bozulma sonucunda zayıfladı ve en sonunda büyük bir tarihin küçük bir artığı olarak Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Türkleri tarafından ortadan kaldırılıdı.

The Empire in 1025 AD.

Eastern Roman Empire

Eastern Roman Empire (W)

 
   
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Fatih, İstanbul, and formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical exonyms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

.

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I (r. 324-337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379-395), Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610-641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity


Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, 626 AD; the stripped areas experienced Sassanid raids.

The borders of the empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527-565), the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries.

The Byzantine-Sasanian War of 602-628 exhausted the empire’s resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, and by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 14th and 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond.


 

The Byzantine-Sasanian War of 602-628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arab caliphate.


Anachronistic painting of the Battle of Nineveh (627) between Heraclius' army and the Persians under Khosrow II. Fresco by Piero della Francesca, c. 1452. (W)

 

During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

 


Constantinople in the 13th C. by French Artist Antoine Helbert
.


The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, and by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 14th and 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire.The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond.

 




📹 The History of Byzantium [395-1453] (VİDEO)

The History of Byzantium [395-1453] (LINK)

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

 



📹 Comparing Roman and Byzantine Empires — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Comparing Roman and Byzantine Empires — Khan Academy (LINK)

Similarities and differences between the Roman Empire and the "Byzantine Empire" (which considered itself the continuation of the Roman Empire).

 











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