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Batı Roma’nın Çöküşü

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

Batı Roma’nın Çöküşü





  The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Migrations and invasions — Huns, Germans and Slavs
🔎

The west and the rise of the successor kingdoms
🔎


SİTE İÇİ ARAMA       

  The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
4’üncü yüzyıl
  • Konstantin I (306-337) İmparatorluğun yeni başkenti olarak Konstantinopolis’i kurdu ve Hıristiyanlığa döndü (Konstantin’den sonra Julian dışında tüm Roma İmparatorları Hıristiyan idiler).
  • Hunlardan kaçan Vizigotlar ile ilk savaş; Edirne Savaşında (378) büyük bir Roma ordusu yenildi ve İmparator Valens öldürüldü.
  • Theodosius I (379-395) İmparatorluğun doğu ve batı bölümlerini yeniden birleştirdi ve Hıristiyanlığı devlet dini yaptı.

5’inci yüzyıl


  • 406’da Vandallar, Suebi ve Alanlar Ren nehrini geçerek Galya’yı yağmalamaya başladılar; barbarların bir bölümü Hispania ve Afrika’ya geçti.
  • Alaric önderliğindeki Vizigotlar ile ikinci savaşta Gotlar Yunanistan’a yönelik saldırılarının arkasından İtalya’yı ele geçirildiler ve Roma’yı yağmaladılar (410); sonra İtalya’dan çekilerek Güney Galya ve Hispania’da Vizigot Krallığını kurdular.
  • Attila altında Hun İmparatorluğu (434-455) doğdu; Balkanlar, Galya ve İtalya yağmalandı, hem Konstantinopolis hem de Roma barbar gözdağı altına düştü.
  • Roma ikinci kez Vandallar tarafından yağmalandı (455).
  • Afrika’yı yeniden kazanmak için Vandallara karşı düzenlenen deniz seferleri (461-468) Roma kuvvetlerinin yenilgisi ile sonuçlandı.
  • Batıda Romulus Augustus 476’da Odoacer tarafından tahttan indirildi; Odoacer İtalya’nın egemeni oldu ve Doğu İmparatoru Zeno tarafından vekil olarak tanındı.
  • 493’te İtalya’da Theodoric altında Ostrogot Krallığı kuruldu ve bununla Roma İmparatorluğu bütün Batı bölümünü yitirmiş oldu.


Germenlerden sonra Colesseum. Germanik feodal dönemde Klasik dünyanın sanat ve yazın yapıtları, felsefesi, matematiği, bilimleri bütünüyle yitti..


  • Roma İmparatorluğu dördüncü yüzyıl sonunda Hıristiyanlığı devlet dini olarak kabul etti (Theodosius).
  • Hıristiyanlık üçlülük öğretisine bağlı evrensel eşitlik ve özgürlük ilkesinden ötürü politik olarak İmparatorluk biçimi ile bağdaşmaz.
  • Sonuç İmparatorluğun Hıristiyanlığa uyarlanmasından çok Hıristiyanlığın İmparatorluğa uyarlanması oldu. (Justinian bir tekerk olarak davrandı ve Hıristiyan Kiliseyi devlet denetimi altına aldı.)
  • Ne Katolik Hıristiyanlık ne de Ortodoks Hıristiyanlık biçimleri Din Kavramına uygun düşer.
  • Hıristiyanlık ne Roma bölümünde, ne de Konstantinopolis bölümünde doğrudan doğruya özsel karakterini kazandı (Reformasyon Hıristiyanlığın doğuşundan 1500 yıl sonra geldi).


Parthenon (İÖ 432) Germanik tin tarafından 2000 yıl sonra keşfedildi.


  • Batıda pagan barbar Germanik kabileler Klasik Grek-Roma Tinini ortadan kadırdılar.
  • Batıda “Katolik Kilisesi,“ “Feodalizm,” “Orta Çağlar” (ya da, Petrarch ile birlikte, “Karanlık Çağlar”) ve “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu” terimleri ile tanımlanan döneme geçildi.
  • Germanik tin Avrupa’nın
  • Roma İmparatorluğu Batı bölümünün yitirilişi ile İmparatorluk karakterini yitirmedi.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu Doğuda Sasani ve Arap İmparatorluklarını durdurmayı ve dengelemeyi başardı.
  • Ortodoks Hıristiyanlık her zaman İmparatorluk gücüne altgüdümlü kaldı.
  • “Bizans” terimi “Roma” karakterini temsil etmez.
  • Ne Romalılar, ne Selçuklular, ne de Osmanlılar “Bizans İmparatorluğu” terimini biliyordu.


Avrupa, yklş. 650 (L).


THE COLOSSEUM

THE COLOSSEUM (LINK)


THE COLOSSEUM (LINK)
THE COLOSSEUM


"A noble wreck in ruinous perfection."—Byron.

The vast amphitheatre erected in the centre of ancient Rome by Vespasian was known to the ancient Romans as the Flavian Amphitheatre. It was begun by the Flavian emperors A.D. 72, and dedicated A.D. 80. It is 157 feet high, and is 1900 feet in circumference, and was built by the captive Jews after the fall of Jerusalem. Originally the upper story was of wood, but this was burned down, and it was rebuilt with travertine stone like the rest of the edifice. Martial tells us that its site was formerly occupied by the artificial lakes of Nero; and Marcellinus (xvi. x. 14) says, "The vast masses of the amphitheatre so solidly erected of Tiburtine stone, to the top of which human vision can scarcely reach." All the brickwork we now see are repairs at various dates after the dedication; but there is enough travertine left at different points to show that it was originally built of this stone, as recorded by the historian. For nearly five hundred years it was the popular resort of the Roman populace and their betters. There were eighty arches of entrance, and it held one hundred thousand people, and could be emptied in ten minutes; such were the order kept and regulations observed that there was no confusion. It was devoted to the exhibition of wild beasts, their fighting together, gladiators fighting together, or with beasts, and naval fights. On these latter displays the stage or arena was moved, water let in, and naval fights represented in real earnest.

Suetonius ("Vespasian," vii.), says, "He began an amphitheatre in the middle of the city, upon finding that Augustus had projected such a work." Ibid. ("Titus," vi.): "He entertained the people with most magnificent spectacles, and in one day brought into the amphitheatre five thousand wild beasts of all kinds."

The last display was given by Theodoric in 523; and in 555 the lower part was destroyed by a flood from the Tiber, when the whole of Rome was under water for seven days. From then we must date the ruin of the Flavian Amphitheatre—the Romans themselves hastening on the work, using the material for building purposes.

"Which on its public shows unpeopled Rome,
And held uncrowded nations in its womb."—Juvenal.

It is held by the Roman Church, on the authority of an inscription found in the Catacombs, that the architect of the Colosseum was one Gaudentius; but that inscription only says that he was employed there. We believe the architect to have been Aterius, whose monument is now in the Lateran, and upon which several buildings are represented of which he was no doubt the architect, also the machine used to raise the stones into their places. He flourished at the end of the first century, and, no doubt, these buildings shown in relief upon his tomb were erected by him, the dates agreeing; for if not, why should they be there represented?

First, we have an arch which says on it, "Arcus ad Isis." Now if we compare this with the Arch of Constantine, we find it is the same without the attic. Then we have the amphitheatre without the upper story; then an arch (query, Arch of Domitian?). Then another arch with the words, "Arcus in Sacra Via Summa:" compare this with the Arch of Titus, and, minus the restorations, it will be found to be the same. Then there is a temple agreeing with the descriptions of that of Jupiter Stator upon the Palatine. All these buildings were erected or rebuilt about this time, and from being recorded on this monument of the Aterii, tend to show that Aterius was the architect of them.

When perfect, the Colosseum consisted of four stories—the lowest, of the Doric order, 30 feet high; the second, Ionic, 38 feet high; the third, Corinthian, about the same height; and the fourth, also Corinthian, 44 feet high. The holes in the cornice with the corbels below them were to receive the masts that supported the velaria on the outside.

The numerous holes in the stone were made in the middle ages for the purpose of extracting the iron cramps that kept the stones from shifting. The long diameter is 658 feet, the shorter 558 feet; the arena is 298 feet by 177 in its widest part.

The last performance was a bull-fight, held at the expense of the Roman nobles, in the year 1332. Many martyrs are said to have perished in the Colosseum during the persecutions of the early Christians, and among others S. Ignatius, who was brought from Antioch to be devoured by wild beasts. Benedict XIV. consecrated the building to the Christian martyrs, A.D. 1750.

In excavating the Basilica of S. Clement, the Rev. Father Mullooly found (1870) the remains of S. Ignatius, and had them carried with great ceremony over the scene on the anniversary of his martyrdom.

At the present day there remains sufficient to indicate the construction of the building, though but a small portion of the immense outer shell, which originally both adorned and formed an impenetrable girdle round the whole, has been preserved. In the interior, a great deal of rebuilding has been necessary for its preservation.

Vast as the building is, its construction is easily understood; a simple segment of the whole serving to show how all the others succeed one another like the cells of a bee-hive.

 

The Project Gutenberg
Rambles in Rome, by S. Russell Forbes (1887)


 





Invasions of the Roman Empire, 100-500 CE.


“Invasion of the Barbarians” or “The Huns approaching Rome,” by Ulpiano Checa.


This fresco depicts the meeting between the Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun, and includes the images of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the sky bearing swords. Fresco was painted in 1514 by Raffael.


  • Roma İmparatorluğunun “Batı” bölümünün yıkılışının “Roma İmparatorluğunun Yıkılışı” olarak görülmesi iki ayrı imparatoluk sayıltısı üzerine dayanır.



Jerash - XIII: Cardo Maximus. (Virtual tour)
Still paved with the original stones, the 800 m “Cardo Maximus”, connecting the elliptic square to the northern city gate, was the architectural spine and focal point of Gerasa. Its direction is slightly different from the foreseen direction N-S.
The colonnated street was remodeled in the late 2nd century AD, probably after 170 AD, and more elaborate Corinthian columns replaced the 500 Ionic ones.
The column heights are variable according to the dimensions of the buildings in front of which they stand up.
According to the architectural style in fashion in the rich regions of the Eastern part of the Roman empire, two Tetrapyla set the crossroad between the Cardo Maximus and the southern and northern Decumanus
On either side, a broad sidewalk with shops which can still be clearly seen. An underground sewage system ran the full length of the Cardo, and the regular holes at the sides of the street drained rainwater into the sewers.

Elliptical Plaza
Approx. I century AD
Gerasa, Jordan.
(LINK)



The Roman city of Gerasa and the modern Jerash (in the background)
The Oval forum and the Cardo maximus of Jerash seen from the South theater, Jordan (LINK)
Most of the ancient city of Gerasa was destroyed in an earthquake
in 749 AD, leading to comparisons to another great Roman city: Pompeii. The ruins were re-discovered in 1806 by German explorer Ulrich Jasper Seetzen.


📹 Fall of the Roman Empire / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Fall of the Roman Empire / Khan Academy (LINK)

From the 3rd to the 5th centuries, the Roman Empire gets divided and less stable. The Western Roman Empire considered to end in 476 with control of Italy by Odoacer.

 



📹 The Fall of Rome Explained In 13 Minutes (VİDEO)

The Fall of Rome Explained In 13 Minutes (LINK)

The Fall of Rome/Fall of the Roman Empire marked a pivotal point in human history and ended Roman power in the west 1,000 years after the city’s foundation. The Roman empire, towards the end of its lifetime, could not stop the relentless barbarian attacks that chipped away at its borders until, by the time of Romulus, there was little more than Italy left. While the Eastern half of the empire, known as the Byzantine Empire, survived until 1453, the Western Roman Empire crumbled in the 5th century, never to be seen again.

 





Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire

Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire (W)

The causes and mechanisms of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He started an ongoing historiographical discussion about what caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, and the reduced power of the remaining Eastern Empire, in the 4th-5th centuries.

Gibbon was not the first to speculate on why the Empire collapsed, but he was the first to give a well-researched and well-referenced account. Many theories of causality have been explored. In 1984, Alexander Demandt enumerated 210 different theories on why Rome fell, and new theories emerged thereafter. Gibbon himself explored ideas of


"From the eighteenth century onward," historian Glen Bowersock wrote, "we have been obsessed with the fall: it has been valued as an archetype for every perceived decline, and, hence, as a symbol for our own fears."


Overview of historiography

Historiographically, the primary issue historians have looked at when analyzing any theory is the continued existence of the Eastern Empire or Byzantine Empire, which lasted almost a thousand years after the fall of the West. For example, Gibbon implicates Christianity in the fall of the Western Empire, yet the eastern half of the Empire, which was even more Christian than the west in geographic extent, fervor, penetration and vast numbers continued on for a thousand years afterwards (although Gibbon did not consider the Eastern Empire to be much of a success). As another example, environmental or weather changes affected the east as much as the west, yet the east did not "fall."

Theories will sometimes reflect the particular concerns that historians might have on cultural, political, or economic trends in their own times. Gibbon’s criticism of Christianity reflects the values of the Enlightenment; his ideas on the decline in martial vigor could have been interpreted by some as a warning to the growing British Empire.

In the 19th century socialist and anti-socialist theorists tended to blame decadence and other political problems. More recently, environmental concerns have become popular, with deforestation and soil erosion proposed as major factors, and destabilizing population decreases due to epidemics such as early cases of bubonic plague and malaria also cited. Global climate changes of 535-536, perhaps caused by the possible eruption of Krakatoa in 535, as mentioned by David Keys and others, is another example.

Ideas about transformation with no distinct fall mirror the rise of the postmodern tradition, which rejects periodization concepts (see metanarrative). What is not new are attempts to diagnose Rome's particular problems, with Satire X, written by Juvenal in the early 2nd century at the height of Roman power, criticizing the peoples' obsession with "bread and circuses" and rulers seeking only to gratify these obsessions.

One of the primary reasons for the vast number of theories is the notable lack of surviving evidence from the 4th and 5th centuries. For example, there are so few records of an economic nature it is difficult to arrive at even a generalization of the economic conditions. Thus, historians must quickly depart from available evidence and comment based on how things ought to have worked, or based on evidence from previous and later periods, on inductive reasoning. As in any field where available evidence is sparse, the historian's ability to imagine the 4th and 5th centuries will play as important a part in shaping our understanding as the available evidence, and thus be open for endless interpretation.

The end of the Western Roman Empire traditionally has been seen by historians to mark the end of the Ancient Era and beginning of the Middle Ages. More recent schools of history, such as Late Antiquity, offer a more nuanced view from the traditional historical narrative.

There is no consensus on a date for the start of the Decline. Gibbon started his account in 98. The year 376 is taken as pivotal by many modern historians. In that year there was an unmanageable influx of Goths and other Barbarians into the Balkan provinces, and the situation of the Western Empire generally worsened thereafter, with recoveries being incomplete and temporary.

Significant events include the Battle of Adrianople in 378, the death of Theodosius I in 395 (the last time the Roman Empire was politically unified), the crossing of the Rhine in 406 by Germanic tribes, the execution of Stilicho in 408, the sack of Rome in 410, the death of Constantius III in 421, the death of Aetius in 454, and the second sack of Rome in 455, with the death of Majorian in 461 marking the end of the last opportunity for recovery.

Gibbon took September 4, 476 as a convenient marker for the final dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, when Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain.

Some modern historians question the significance of the year 476 for its end. Julius Nepos, the Western emperor recognized by the Eastern Roman Empire, continued to rule in Dalmatia, until he was assassinated in 480. The Ostrogothic rulers of Italia considered themselves upholders of the direct line of Roman tradition, and the Eastern emperors considered themselves the sole rightful Roman rulers of a united empire. Roman cultural traditions continued throughout the territory of the Western Empire, and a recent school of interpretation argues that the great political changes can more accurately be described as a complex cultural transformation, rather than a fall.

Overview of events

The decline of the Roman Empire is one of the traditional markers of the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the European Middle Ages. Throughout the 5th century, the Empire's territories in western Europe and northwestern Africa, including Italy, fell to various invading or indigenous peoples in what is sometimes called the Migration period. Although the eastern half still survived with borders essentially intact for several centuries (until the Muslim conquests), the Empire as a whole had initiated major cultural and political transformations since the Crisis of the Third Century, with the shift towards a more openly autocratic and ritualized form of government, the adoption of Christianity as the state religion, and a general rejection of the traditions and values of Classical Antiquity. While traditional historiography emphasized this break with Antiquity by using the term “Byzantine Empire” instead of Roman Empire, recent schools of history offer a more nuanced view, seeing mostly continuity rather than a sharp break. The Empire of Late Antiquity already looked very different from classical Rome.

The Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Republic when Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar transformed it from a republic into a monarchy. Rome reached its zenith in the 2nd century, then fortunes slowly declined (with many revivals and restorations along the way). The reasons for the decline of the Empire are still debated today, and are likely multiple. Historians infer that the population appears to have diminished in many provinces — especially western Europe — from the diminishing size of fortifications built to protect the cities from barbarian incursions from the 3rd century on. Some historians even have suggested that parts of the periphery were no longer inhabited because these fortifications were restricted to the center of the city only. Tree rings suggest "distinct drying" beginning in 250.

By the late 3rd century, the city of Rome no longer served as an effective capital for the Emperor and various cities were used as new administrative capitals. Successive emperors, starting with Constantine, privileged the eastern city of Byzantium, which he had entirely rebuilt after a siege. Later renamed Constantinople, and protected by formidable walls in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, it was to become the largest and most powerful city of Christian Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Since the Crisis of the Third Century, the Empire was intermittently ruled by more than one emperor at once (usually two), presiding over different regions. At first a haphazard form of power sharing, this eventually settled on an east–west administrative division between the Western Roman Empire (centered on Rome, but now usually presided from other seats of power such as Trier, Milan, and especially Ravenna), and the Eastern Roman Empire (with its capital initially in Nicomedia, and later Constantinople). The Latin-speaking west, under dreadful demographic crisis, and the wealthier Greek-speaking east, also began to diverge politically and culturally. Although this was a gradual process, still incomplete when Italy came under the rule of barbarian chieftains in the last quarter of the 5th century, it deepened further afterward, and had lasting consequences for the medieval history of Europe.

Throughout the 5th century, Western emperors were usually figureheads, while the Eastern emperors maintained more independence. For most of the time, the actual rulers in the West were military strongmen who took the titles of magister militum, patrician, or both, such as Stilicho, Aetius, and Ricimer. Although Rome was no longer the capital in the West, it remained the West's largest city and its economic center. But the city was sacked by rebellious Visigoths in 410 and by the Vandals in 455, events that shocked contemporaries and signaled the disintegration of Roman authority. Saint Augustine wrote The City of God partly as an answer to critics who blamed the sack of Rome by the Visigoths on the abandonment of the traditional pagan religions.

In June 474, Julius Nepos became Western Emperor but in the next year the magister militum Orestes revolted and made his son Romulus Augustus emperor. Romulus, however, was not recognized by the Eastern Emperor Zeno and so was technically an usurper, Nepos still being the legal Western Emperor. Nevertheless, Romulus Augustus is often known as the last Western Roman Emperor. In 476, after being refused lands in Italy, Orestes' Germanic mercenaries under the leadership of the chieftain Odoacer captured and executed Orestes and took Ravenna, the Western Roman capital at the time, deposing Romulus Augustus. The whole of Italy was quickly conquered, and Odoacer was granted the title of patrician by Zeno, effectively recognizing his rule in the name of the Eastern Empire. Odoacer returned the Imperial insignia to Constantinople and ruled as King in Italy. Following Nepos' death Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, conquered Italy with Zeno's approval.

Meanwhile, much of the rest of the Western provinces were conquered by waves of Germanic invasions, most of them being disconnected politically from the East altogether and continuing a slow decline. Although Roman political authority in the West was lost, Roman culture would last in most parts of the former Western provinces into the 6th century and beyond.

The first invasions disrupted the West to some degree, but it was the Gothic War launched by the Eastern Emperor Justinian in the 6th century, and meant to reunite the Empire, that eventually caused the most damage to Italy, as well as straining the Eastern Empire militarily. Following these wars, Rome and other Italian cities would fall into severe decline (Rome itself was almost completely abandoned). Another blow came with the Persian invasion of the East in the 7th century, immediately followed by the Muslim conquests, especially of Egypt, which curtailed much of the key trade in the Mediterranean on which Europe depended.

The Empire was to live on in the East for many centuries, and enjoy periods of recovery and cultural brilliance, but its size would remain a fraction of what it had been in classical times. It became an essentially regional power, centered on Greece and Anatolia. Modern historians tend to prefer the term Byzantine Empire for the eastern, medieval stage of the Roman Empire.

 




Crisis of the Third Century

Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235-284) (W)

The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235-284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of


The crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Severus Alexander by his own troops in 235. This initiated a 50-year period during which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals, who assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors.

By 268, the empire had split into three competing states:


Later, Aurelian (270-275) reunited the empire; the crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284.

The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the empire's institutions, society, economic life and, eventually, religion, that it is increasingly seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity.


Crisis of the Third Century
Reign of Maximinus Thrax (235-238)


Year of the Six Emperors
(238)


Reign of Gordian III
(238-244)


Reign of Philip the Arab (244-249)


Reign of Decius and Herennius Etruscus (249-251)


Reign of Trebonianus Gallus (251-253)


Reign of Aemilianus (253)


Reign of Valerian and Gallienus (253-260)


Reign of Gallienus (260-268)


Reign of Claudius
II (268-270)


Reign of Aurelian
(270-275)

Roman imperial dynasties
Crisis of the Third Century
Chronology
Barracks Emperors 235284
Gordian dynasty 238244
Valerian dynasty 253261
Gallic Emperors 260274
Illyrian Emperors 268284
Caran dynasty 282285
Britannic Emperors 286297
Succession
Preceded by
Severan dynasty
Followed by
Diocletian and the Tetrarchy

 




Fall of the Western Roman Empire

Fall of the Western Roman Empire (W)

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire {?} or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over its Western provinces; modern historians mention factors including

  • the effectiveness and numbers of the army,
  • the health and numbers of the Roman population,
  • the strength of the economy,
  • the competence of the Emperors,
  • the internal struggles for power,
  • the religious changes of the period, and
  • the efficiency of the civil administration.


Increasing pressure from invading barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. The reasons for the collapse are major subjects of the historiography of the ancient world and they inform much modern discourse on state failure.

Relevant dates include 117 CE, when the Empire was at its greatest territorial extent, and the accession of Diocletian in 284. Irreversible major territorial loss, however, began in 376 with a large-scale irruption of Goths and others.

In 395, after winning two destructive civil wars, Theodosius I died, leaving a collapsing field army and the Empire, still plagued by Goths, divided between the warring ministers of his two incapable sons. Further barbarian groups crossed the Rhine and other frontiers, and like the Goths were not exterminated, expelled or subjugated. The armed forces of the Western Empire became few and ineffective, and despite brief recoveries under able leaders, central rule was never effectively consolidated.

By 476 when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus, the Western Roman Emperor wielded negligible military, political, or financial power and had no effective control over the scattered Western domains that could still be described as Roman.

Barbarian kingdoms had established their own power in much of the area of the Western Empire. While its legitimacy lasted for centuries longer and its cultural influence remains today, the Western Empire never had the strength to rise again.

The Eastern Empire survived, and though lessened in strength remained for centuries an effective power of the Eastern Mediterranean.

While the loss of political unity and military control is universally acknowledged, the Fall is not the only unifying concept for these events; the period described as Late Antiquity emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the political collapse.

 



 

🎨 Sack of Rome

Sack of Rome (W)

Historical events involving the city of Rome

Sack of Rome



"Brennus and His Share of the Spoils", also known as: "Spoils of the Battle"
Battle of the Allia (W). The Battle of the Allia was fought between the Senones (one of the Gallic tribes which had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic.



The Sack of Rome by the Barbarians in 410 by Joseph-Noël Sylvestre.
The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410 AD. The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.




Genseric sacking Rome, by Karl Briullov.
The sack of 455 was the third of four ancient sacks of Rome; it was conducted by the Vandals, who were then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus.

 








  Barbar Göçleri (Völkerwanderung)
  • Tarihsel olgularıın ortaya çıkışını tek bir neden ile açıklamak yerine, tüm koşulları bulunduğunda olgu ortaya çıkar demek daha iyidir.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu geçici idi, çünkü insan doğasına (hak, ahlak ve etik kavramlarına) bütünüyle uygun düşmüyordu.
  • İmparatorlukta halk istençsizdir ve egemenlik tek bir bireyin istencinde toplanır; hak ve özgürlük yalnızca onun istenci tarafından belirlenir.
  • İmparatorluk oluş sürecinde olan bir etik yapıdır ve özgür ulusların gelişimi tarafından ortadan kaldırılır.
  • Ulus bilincinin doğuşu evrensel özgürlük bilincinin doğuşunun bir sonucudur.
  • Kültürün süredurumu imparatorluğun sürekliliğini sağlar. (İmparatorların sözde “başlangıç, gelişim ve çöküş dönemleri” için kanıt yalnızca ressamların tablolarıdır.)
  • Roma İmparatorluğunun çökmesi Batı Roma’nın barbarların eline geçmesi ile başladı ve Konstantinopolis’in Osmanlılar tarafından alınması ile tamamlandı.

 

  • Roma İmparatorluğunun batı yarısı İS 476’da batıdaki son Roma imparatoru Romulus Augustulus’un Odoacer tarafından tahttan indirilmesi ile politik bir yapı olarak ortadan kalktı.

📹 Die Völkerwanderung (VİDEO)

Die Völkerwanderung (LINK)

Was war die Völkerwanderung und wer wanderte eigentlich wohin dabei? Das erklären wir dir hier!

Vor einigen Jahrhunderten gab es richtig viel Bewegung in Europa, denn als das römische Reich langsam zu Ende ging begannen viele verschiedene Volksstämme umherzuwandern und nach einem besseren Leben zu suchen. Das nennen wir die Völkerwanderung.

Mit der Völkerwanderung sind vor allem die Wanderungen der Hunnen und der germanischen Stämme in die Gebiete des römischen Reiches gemeint. Das fand ungefähr zwischen 375 und 568 nach Christus statt.

Zum einen lag das daran, dass sie selbst von anderen Stämmen aus ihrer Heimat vertrieben worden waren.
Zum anderen gab es Klimaschwankungen und Missernten, die zu Kälte und Hunger führten.
Darum wanderten die Menschen meist in Richtung Süden ab.

Die Völkerwanderung begann mit den Hunnen. Die vertrieben 375 nach Christus zunächst die Goten, die am Schwarzen Meer ansässig waren.

Die vertriebenen Goten baten nun um Aufnahme in das Römische Reich. Sie boten den Römern im Gegenzug militärische Hilfe an. Doch die Aufnahme und Integration der Goten funktionierte nicht besonders gut und deswegen kam es zu einer Schlacht, die die Goten gegen die Römer gewannen.

Nun siedelten sich die Goten im Römischen Reich an und das kam Rom letztlich zu Gute, denn 451 kämpften die Westgoten zusammen mit den Römern gemeinsam gegen die Hunnen. Diese Schlacht ist als „Die Schlacht auf den katalaunischen Feldern“ bekannt geworden.

Doch Rom kam einfach nicht zur Ruhe. 455 nach Christus fielen die germanischen Vandalen in Rom ein. Sie kamen von Nordafrika her, eroberten Rom und plünderten es.

Der letzte weströmische Kaiser, Romulus Augustus, wurde dann von dem germanischen Truppenführer, Odoaker, abgesetzt.

Doch seine Macht war nicht sehr lang, weil der ostgotische König Theoderich Krieg gegen Odoaker führte und ihn schließlich umbrachte. Damit war Theoderich Herrscher über Italien.

Die Völkerwanderung endete mit dem germanischen Stamm der Langobarden. Sie kamen 568 nach Christus über die Alpen und eroberten Norditalien.

Zusammengefasst: Die Völkerwanderung begann mit dem Einfall der Hunnen nach Europa um 375, und als Ende gilt die Eroberung Norditaliens durch die Langobarden 568.

 



 

Odoacer, the first barbarian king of Italy, meets Severin.


  • 376’da Gotlar Tuna Nehri cephesinde göründüler; Roma topraklarına hem barışçıl olarak hem de zor yoluyla girdiler.


Danube basin.


  • Göçmen nüfus sayıları 10.000 ile 20.000 arasında değişen gruplardan oluşuyordu ve ilk 10 yıl içinde sayıları 1.000.000’a yaklaştı.
  • Germenler göçebe Parsilerin, Dorların, Arapların, Türklerin ya da giderek Moğolların bile yaptığı şeyi yapamadılar ve yüksek kültürü bütünüyle yadsıdılar.
  • Avrupa’da Katolik Kilise ve Germanik Göçler birlikte duran fenomenlerdir.
  • Germenler Avrupa’da yeni bir dönem, Karanlık Orta Çağlar dönemini başlattılar.
  • Uygarlıktan bütünüyle yalıtılmış bir kültür olarak Vandallar salt etnik bir karakter sergilediler.


Genseric’s Vandals in Italy.

 
  • Gotik kabileler ilk olarak kuzey Polonya’dan geldiler (Romalıların sandığı gibi İskandinavya’dan değil).
  • Batı Roma barbarlar ile birlikte varolmaya çabalarken, Doğu Roma barbar göçlerinden daha az etkilendi.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu doğuda Persler, Araplar ve Türkler ile komşu idi.
  • Roma topraklarının batısında İmparatorluğun yeri Barbar Krallıklar tarafından dolduruldu (Gotlar, Lombardlar).
  • Roma toprakları Asya’da önce Araplar, sonra Selçuklular, ve sonra Osmanlılar tarafından ele geçirildi.
 

📹 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (VİDEO)

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (LINK)

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. The anti-Roman alliance was led by Arminius, who had acquired Roman citizenship and received a Roman military education, thus enabling him to personally deceive the Roman commander and foresee the Roman army's tactical responses.

 

 

Born into a noble family of the Germanic Cherusci tribe around 18 B.C., Arminius (known in Germany as Hermann) was plucked from his home by the Romans as a boy and served in the Roman army. In 9 A.D., his Cherusci forces ambushed and massacred three Roman legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus, governor of the province of Germania, in Teutoburg Forest. In the wake of the humiliating defeat — after which a crushed Varus fell on his own sword — the Romans withdrew behind the Rhine, and did not attempt any further invasions.

Though Arminius would be hailed as a nationalist hero during the unification of Germany in the late 19th century, his reputation suffered in the wake of World War II, when modern Germans associated his historic exploits with the militant nationalism of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich. (L)

 




Barbarian

Barbarian (W)

A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype; barbarians can be any member of a nation judged by some to be less civilized or orderly (such as a tribal society), but may also be part of a certain "primitive" cultural group (such as nomads) or social class (such as bandits) both within and outside one's own nation. Alternatively, they may instead be admired and romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may also be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, and insensitive person.


Germanic warriors as depicted in Philipp Clüver's Germania Antiqua (1616).
 

 

The term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος (barbaros pl. βάρβαροι barbaroi). In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs.

In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Celts, Gauls, Iberians, Thracians, Illyrians, Berbers, Parthians, and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes later, the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks, in a clearly pejorative manner.


Origins

The Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος (barbaros), "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης (politēs), “citizen” (from πόλις – polis, “city-state”). The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek 𐀞𐀞𐀫, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script.

The Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians, Medes and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness. According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds “bar ... bar ...;” the alleged root of the word βάρβαρος, which is an echomimetic or onomatopoeic word. However, in various occasions, the term was also used by Greeks, especially the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states (such as Epirotes, Eleans, Macedonians, Boeotians and Aeolic-speakers) but also fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner. Of course, the term also carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning. The verb βαρβαρίζω (barbarízō) in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians.

Plato (Statesman 262de) rejected the Greek-barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian frequently in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once (Iliad 2.867), in the form βαρβαρόφωνος (barbarophonos) ("of incomprehensible speech"), used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure largely in archaic literature before the 5th century BC.[15] It has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but simply those who spoke Greek badly.

A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period 'barbarian' is often used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war.

The Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, and in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age (as, among the Greeks, after the Persian wars, the Persians), including the Germanic peoples, Persians, Gauls, Phoenicians and Carthaginians.

 




Migration Period

Migration Period (375 AD-538 AD) (W)

The Migration Period was a period that lasted from 375 AD (possibly as early as 300 AD) to 538 AD, during which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, during and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns. This period has also been termed in English by the German loanword Völkerwanderung and — from the Roman and Greek perspective — the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Hunnic, Slavic and other peoples into the territory of the then declining Roman Empire, with or without accompanying invasions or war.

Historians give differing dates regarding the duration of this period, but the Migration Period is typically regarded as beginning with the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia in 375 and ending either with the conquest of Italy by the Lombards in 568, or at some point between 700 and 800.

Various factors contributed to this phenomenon, and the role and significance of each one is still very much discussed among experts on the subject. Starting in 382, the Roman Empire and individual tribes made treaties regarding their settlement in its territory. The Franks, a Germanic tribe that would later found Francia — a predecessor of modern France and Germany — settled in the Roman Empire and were given a task of securing the northeastern Gaul border. Western Roman rule was first violated with the Crossing of the Rhine and the following invasions of the Vandals and Suebi. With wars ensuing between various tribes, as well as local populations in the Western Roman Empire, more and more power was transferred to Germanic and Roman militaries.

There are contradicting opinions whether the fall of the Western Roman Empire was a result or a cause of these migrations, or both.

The Eastern Roman Empire was less affected by migrations and survived until the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453.

In the modern period, the Migration Period was increasingly described with a rather negative connotation, and seen more as contributing to the fall of the empire. In place of the fallen Western Rome, Barbarian kingdoms arose in the 5th and 6th centuries and decisively shaped the European Early Middle Ages.

The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time.

Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century, often defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD. The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the

the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths),


they were later pushed westward by



19th century portrayal of the Huns as barbarians. (W)
 

 

Later invasions — such as the Viking, the Norman, the Varangian, the Hungarian, the Moorish, the Turkic and the Mongol— also had significant effects (especially in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Anatolia and Central and Eastern Europe); however, they are usually considered outside the scope of the Migration Period.

 




📕 Ammianus Marcellinus, The Movement Of The Huns And Goths Into The Roman Empire, Late 4th Century

Ammianus Marcellinus, The Movement Of The Huns And Goths Into The Roman Empire, Late 4th Century (W)

Ammianus Marcellinus (c.325-c.391) was a Roman historian who wrote a history of the Roman world from 96 to 378. In this passage he describes the Huns and the passage of the Goths into the Empire around the year 376.



“Attila” — Eugene Ferdinand Victor Delacroix, fragment.
 

The people called Huns, barely mentioned in ancient records, live beyond the sea of Azof, on the border of the Frozen Ocean, and are a race savage beyond all parallel. At the very moment of birth the cheeks of their infant children are deeply marked by an iron, in order that the hair instead of growing at the proper season on their faces, may be hindered by the scars; accordingly the Huns grow up without beards, and without any beauty. They all have closely knit and strong limbs and plump necks; they are of great size, and low-legged, so that you might fancy them two-legged beasts, or the stout figures which are hewn out in a rude manner with an ax on the posts at the end of bridges.

They are certainly in the shape of men, however uncouth, and are so hardy that they neither require fire nor well flavored food, but live on the roots of such herbs as they get in the fields, or on the half-raw flesh of any animal, which they merely warm rapidly by placing it between their own thighs and the backs of their horses.

They never shelter themselves under roofed houses, but avoid them, as people ordinarily avoid sepulchers as things not fit for common use. Nor is there even to be found among them a cabin thatched with reeds; but they wander about, roaming over the mountains and the woods, and accustom themselves to bear frost and hunger and thirst from their very cradles. . . .

There is not a person in the whole nation who cannot remain on his horse day and night. On horseback they buy and sell, they take their meat and drink, and there they recline on the narrow neck of their steed, and yield to sleep so deep as to indulge in every variety of dream.

And when any deliberation is to take place on any weighty matter, they all hold their common council on horseback. They are not under kingly authority, but are contented with the irregular government of their chiefs, and under their lead they force their way through all obstacles. . . .

None of them plow, or even touch a plow handle, for they have no settled abode, but are homeless and lawless, perpetually wandering with their wagons, which they make their homes; in fact, they seem to be people always in flight. . . .

This active and indomitable race, being excited by an unrestrained desire of plundering the possessions of others, went on ravaging and slaughtering all the nations in their neighborhood till they reached the Alani. . . .

[After having harassed the territory of the Alani and having slain many of them and acquired much plunder, the Huns made a treaty of friendship and alliance with those who survived. The allies then attacked the German peoples to the west.] In the meantime a report spread far and wide through the nations of the Goths, that a race of men, hitherto unknown, had suddenly descended like a whirlwind from the lofty mountains, as if they had risen from some secret recess of the earth, and were ravaging and destroying everything which came in their way.

And then the greater part of the population resolved to flee and to seek a home remote from all knowledge of the new barbarians; and after long deliberation as to where to fix their abode, they resolved that a retreat into Thrace was the most suitable for these two reasons: first of all, because it is a district most fertile in grass; and secondly, because, owing to the great breadth of the Danube, it is wholly separated from the districts exposed to the impending attacks of the invaders.

Accordingly, under the command of their leader Alavivus, they occupied the banks of the Danube, and sent ambassadors to the emperor Valens, humbly entreating to be received by him as his subjects. They promised to live quietly, and to furnish a body of auxiliary troops if necessary.

While these events were taking place abroad, the terrifying rumor reached us that the tribes of the north were planning new and unprecedented attacks upon us; and that over the whole region which extends from the country of the Marcomanni and Quadi to Pontus, hosts of barbarians composed of various nations, which had suddenly been driven by force from their own countries, were now, with all their families, wandering about in different directions on the banks of the river Danube.

At first this intelligence was lightly treated by our people, because they were not in the habit of hearing of any wars in those remote districts till they were terminated either by victory or by treaty.

But presently the belief in these occurrences grew stronger and was confirmed by the arrival of ambassadors, who, with prayers and earnest entreaties, begged that their people, thus driven from their homes and now encamped on the other side of the river, might be kindly received by us.

The affair now seemed a cause of joy rather than of fear, according to the skillful flatterers who were always extolling and exaggerating the good fortune of the emperor. They congratulated him that an embassy had come from the farthest corners of the earth, unexpectedly offering him a large body of recruits; and that, by combining the strength of his own people with these foreign forces, he would have an army absolutely invincible. They observed further that the payment for military reinforcements, which came in every year from the provinces, might now be saved and accumulated in his coffers and form a vast treasure of gold.

Full of this hope, he sent forth several officers to bring this ferocious people and their carts into our territory. And as such great pains were taken to gratify this nation which was destined to overthrow the Empire of Rome, that not one was left behind, not even of those who were stricken with mortal disease. Moreover, so soon as they had obtained permission of the emperor to cross the Danube and to cultivate some districts in Thrace, they poured across the stream day and night, without ceasing, embarking in troops on board ships and rafts and on canoes made of the hollow trunks of trees. . . .

In this way, through the turbulent zeal of violent people, the ruin of the Roman Empire was brought about. This, at all events, is neither obscure nor uncertain, that the unhappy officers who were intrusted with the charge of conducting the multitude of the barbarians across the river, though they repeatedly endeavored to calculate their numbers, at last abandoned the attempt as hopeless. The man who would wish to ascertain the number might as well (as the most illustrious of poets says) attempt to count the waves in the African sea, or the grains of sand tossed about by the zephyrs. . . .

At that period, moreover, the defenses of our provinces were much exposed, and the armies of barbarians spread over them like the lava of Mount Etna. The imminence of our danger manifestly called for generals already illustrious for their past achievements in war; but nevertheless, as if some unpropitious deity had made the selection, the men who were sought out for the chief military appointments were of tainted character. The chief among them were Lupicinus and Maximus, — the one being count of Thrace, the other a leader notoriously wicked, — both men of great ignorance and rashness.

And their treacherous covetousness was the cause of all our disasters. . . . For when the barbarians who had been conducted across the river were in great distress from want of provisions, those detested generals conceived the idea of a most disgraceful traffic; and having collected dogs from all quarters with the most insatiable rapacity, they exchanged them for an equal number of slaves, among whom were several sons of men of noble birth. . . .

So now, with rage flashing in their eyes, the barbarians pursued our men, who were in a state of torpor, the warmth of their veins having deserted them. Many were slain without knowing who smote them; some were overwhelmed by the mere weight of the crowd which pressed upon them; and some died of wounds inflicted by their own comrades. The barbarians spared neither those who yielded nor those who resisted. . . .

Just when it first became dark, the emperor, being among a crowd of common soldiers as it was believed, — for no one said either that he had seen him or been near him, — was mortally wounded with an arrow, and, very shortly after, died, though his body was never found. For as some of the enemy loitered for a long time about the field in order to plunder the dead, none of the defeated army or of the inhabitants ventured to go to them.

 
   
Ammianus includes some autobiographical references in his Book of Deeds (Rerum Gestarum Libri, or Res Gestae Libri). From these references, it has been deduced that he was born probably between 325 and 330 to an educated family of Greek descent, possibly in Antioch. This probability hinges on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a contemporary, Libanius. The date of his death is unknown, but he must have lived until 391, as he mentions Aurelius Victor as the city prefect for that year.

 





Europe & the Roman Empire, 525-565 CE
🔎





  Goths

Goths

Goths (W)

 

Götaland, south Sweden, with the island of Gotland in the east, a possible origin of the Goths; the southernmost and westernmost parts, Scania, Halland, Blekinge and Bohuslän, were originally not a part of Götaland, but were Dano-Norwegian territory until 1658.

 

The Goths (Gothic: Gut-þiuda; Latin: Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe. The Goths dominated a vast area, which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric possibly extended all the way from the Danube to the Don, and from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.

The Goths spoke the Gothic language, one of the extinct East Germanic languages.

 


In 376 AD the Goths appeared on the lower Danube frontier of the Roman Empire. They came as a whole tribe, with warriors, women and children. They came on foot, on horseback, and in lumbering ox-drawn wagons, refugees on the retreat from a foe even fiercer than themselves. They came knocking on the Roman door. (LINK)

📹 Siege of Rome 537-538 — Roman-Gothic War (VİDEO)

Siege of Rome 537-538 — Roman-Gothic War (LINK)

During the Vandalic War, the best general of Emperor Justinian — Belisarius — reconquered the province of Africa from the Vandals of Gelimer at the battles of Ad Decimum and Tricamarum. The province was back under the imperial control, but it was just the beginning, as taking Italy and Rome from the Ostrogoths was the real goal. Belisarius entered Rome with ease but had to defend it against the king Vitiges in 537-538. The Gothic War was just starting.

 




Origins



The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the
Penguin Atlas of World History1988):

Settlements before 750 BC
New settlements by 500 BC
New settlements by 250 BC
New settlements by AD 1
 

 
The exact origin of the ancient Goths remains unknown. Evidence of them before they interacted with the Romans is limited. The traditional account of the Goths' early history depends on the Ostrogoth Jordanes’ Getica written c.551 AD. Jordanes states that the earliest migrating Goths sailed from what is now Sweden to what is now Poland. If this is accurate, then they may have been the people responsible for the Wielbark archaeological complex. Modern academics have generally abandoned this theory. Today, the Wielbark culture is thought to have developed from earlier cultures in the same area. Archaeological finds show close contacts between southern Sweden and the Baltic coastal area on the continent, and further towards the south-east, evidenced by pottery, house types and graves. Rather than a massive migration, similarities in the material cultures may be products of long-term regular contacts. However, the archaeological record could indicate that while his work is thought to be unreliable, Jordanes' story was based on an oral tradition with some basis in fact.

Sometime around the 1st century AD, Germanic peoples may have migrated from Scandinavia to Gothiscandza, in present-day Poland. Early archaeological evidence in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland suggests a general depopulation during this period. However, there is no archaeological evidence for a substantial emigration from Scandinavia and they may have originated in continental Europe.

Upon their arrival on the Pontic Steppe, the Germanic tribes adopted the ways of the Eurasian nomads. The first Greek references to the Goths call them Scythians, since this area along the Black Sea historically had been occupied by an unrelated people of that name. The application of that designation to the Goths appears to be not ethnological but rather geographical and cultural — Greeks regarded both the ethnic Scythians and the Goths as barbarians.

The earliest known material culture associated with the Goths on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea is the Wielbark culture, centered on the modern region of Pomerania in northern Poland. This culture replaced the local Oxhöft or Oksywie culture in the 1st century AD, when a Scandinavian settlement developed in a buffer zone between the Oksywie culture and the Przeworsk culture.

The culture of this area was influenced by southern Scandinavian culture beginning as early as the late Nordic Bronze Age and early Pre-Roman Iron Age (c. 1300 – c. 300 BC). In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from c. 1300 BC (period III) and onwards was so considerable that some see the culture of the region as part of the Nordic Bronze Age culture. In Eastern Europe the Goths formed part of the Chernyakhov culture of the 2nd to 5th centuries AD.

Migrations and contact with Rome (W)

Around 160 AD, in Central Europe, the first movements of the Migration Period were occurring, as Germanic tribes began moving south-east from their ancestral lands at the mouth of River Vistula, putting pressure on the Germanic tribes from the north and east. As a result, in episodes of Gothic and Vandal warfare Germanic tribes (Rugii, Goths, Gepids, Vandals, Burgundians, and others) crossed either the lower Danube or the Black Sea, and led to the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of what is now Italy in the Roman Empire period. It has been suggested that the Goths maintained contact with southern Sweden during their migration. Goths also served in the Roman military and played a limited role, e.g. Gainas.

Battle of Adrianople (378) (W)

The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern. The battle took place in the vicinity of Adrianople, in the Roman province of Thracia (modern Edirne in European Turkey). It ended with an overwhelming victory for the Goths and the death of Emperor Valens.

Part of the Gothic War (376–382), the battle is often considered the start of the process which led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.

A detailed account for the leadup to the battle from the Roman perspective is from Ammianus Marcellinus and forms the culminating point at the end of his history.

 

Visigoths and Ostrogoths

By the 4th century, the Goths had captured Roman Dacia which Aurelian had evacuated in 274 and divided into at least two distinct groups separated by the Dniester River: the Thervingi (led by the Balti dynasty) and the Greuthungi (led by the Amali dynasty). The Goths separated into two main branches,



Vizigotlar ve Ostrogotlar.

...

The Goths remained divided – as Visigoths and Ostrogoths – during the 5th Century. These two tribes were among the Germanic peoples who clashed with the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period. The Visigoths were settled south of the Danube in 376. They kept to the treaty of 382 as federates of the Romans and sent troops to fight for Theodosius I during the civil war of 394 in which Eugenius and Arbogast, usurpers in the West were defeated. Alaric and his Goths ravaged Greece in the years 395-97. They moved west into Italy in 402. They were held in check but in led by Alaric I sacked Rome in 410. Honorius granted the Visigoths lands in Aquitania after they savaged the Sueves, Alans and Vandals in 417. The Visigoths had taken over the south of France and most of Spain in the 470s.


Visigoths


Alaric
 
   

The Visigoths, after the Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric I, were settled by the Romans in Aquitaine in 418 as foederati. Periodically they marched on Arles, the seat of the praetorian prefect but were always pushed back. In 437 they signed a treaty with the Romans which they kept. In 451 they provided one-third of the army of other tribes and Romans which defeated the Huns confederation of Eastern peoples led under Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.

They were led by their king Theodoric I in 451. They became independent of the Empire under his son, Euric who extended their territory over most of the Iberian peninsula and Gaul in the 460s and 470s.


Alaric’s Goth army storms the streets of Rome during a brutal sacking of the city that would last for three days. The worst offenders would be the mercenary Huns.


In 507, the Visigoths were pushed into Hispania by the Frankish Kingdom
following the Battle of Vouillé in which the combined forces of Franks and Burgundians fell on them. They were able to retain Narbonensis and Provence after the timely arrival of an Ostrogoth detachment sent by Theodoric the Great.

By the late 6th century, the Visigoths had converted to Catholicism. Their kingdom fell and was progressively conquered from 711 when the Muslim Moors defeated their last kings Roderic and Ardo (ruling until 724 over Catalonia and Narbonne) during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Some nobles found refuge in the mountain areas of the East Pyrenees and Cantabrian West and founded different autonomous realms, as Gothia, Pamplona and the Kingdom of Asturias in 718, they all began later to regain control under the leadership of the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias, whose victory at the Battle of Covadonga (c. 722) it is taken to be the earliest at the centuries-long Reconquista. It was from the Asturian kingdom that some parts of modern Spain and Portugal evolved.

These Goths never became completely Romanized, as they became rather ‘Hispanicized’ and further became widespread over a large territory and body of population. They progressively adopted a new culture, retaining little of their original culture except for practical military customs, some artistic modalities, family traditions such as heroic songs and folklore, as well as select conventions to include Germanic names still in use in present-day Spain. It is these artifacts of the original Visigothic culture that give ample evidence of its contributing foundation for the present regional culture.

In the late 6th Century Goths settled as foederati in parts of Asia Minor. Their descendants, who formed the elite Optimatoi regiment, still lived there in the early 8th Century. While they were largely assimilated, their Gothic origin was still well-known: the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor calls them Gothograeci.

Ostrogoths


Theodoric the Great
 
   

Christopher I. Beckwith suggests that the entire Hunnic thrust into Europe and the Roman Empire was an attempt to subdue independent Goths in the west. It is possible that the Hunnic attack came as a response to the Gothic eastwards expansion.

In the 4th century, the Greuthungian king Ermanaric became the most powerful Gothic ruler, coming to dominate a vast area of the Pontic Steppe which possibly stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea as far eastwards as the Ural Mountains. Emanaric's dominance of the Volga-Don trade routes made historian Gottfried Schramm consider his realm as a forerunner of the Viking founded state of Kievan Rus. Ermanaric later committed suicide, and the Greuthungi fell under Hunnic dominance.

In 454 AD, the Ostrogoths successfully revolted against the Huns at the Battle of Nedao and their leader Theoderic the Great invaded what is now Italy in 488 and settled his people there, founding an Ostrogothic Kingdom which eventually gained control of the whole Italian peninsula.

Under Theodemir, the Ostrogoths broke away from Hunnic rule following the Battle of Nedao in 454, and decisively defeated the Huns again under Valamir at Bassianae in 468. At the request of emperor Zeno, Theoderic conquered all of Italy from the Scirian Odoacer beginning in 488.

The Goths were briefly reunited under one crown in the early 6th century under Theoderic, who became regent of the Visigothic kingdom following the death of Alaric II at the Battle of Vouillé in 507. Procopius interpreted the name Visigoth as "western Goths" and the name Ostrogoth as "eastern Goth", reflecting the geographic distribution of the Gothic realms at that time.

The Ostrogothic kingdom persisted until 553 under Teia, when Italy returned briefly to Byzantine control. This restoration of imperial rule was reversed by the conquest of the Lombards in 568. Shortly after Theoderic's death, the country was conquered by the Byzantine Empire in the Gothic War (535–554) that devastated and depopulated the peninsula.

In 552, after their leader Totila was killed at the Battle of Taginae (552), effective Ostrogothic resistance ended, and the remaining Goths in Italy were assimilated by the Lombards, another Germanic tribe, who invaded Italy and founded the Kingdom of the Lombards in 567 AD.

In the late 18th century, Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea — then known as Crimean Goths — were still mentioned as existing in the region and speaking a Crimean Gothic dialect, making them the last true Goths. The language is believed to have been spoken until as late as 1945. They are believed to have been assimilated by the Crimean Tatars.


Alaric (370?-410?) in Athens by Ludwig Thiersch, 1894.

Invasions of the Roman Empire

Time c. 375–568 AD or later
Place Europe and the Mediterranean Region
Event Tribes invading the declining Roman Empire
 

Empire of Attila the Hun, 450 AD.


Spread of Slavic tribes from the 7th to 9th centuries AD in Europe.


Old Great Bulgaria and migration of Bulgarians, 7th century.



Lenguas eslavas orientales; East Slavic languages.
 

Lenguas eslavasoccidentales; West Slavic languages.


Invasions and Rebellions, AD 250-71.


The Risa of Constantine, AD 306-24.


The Empire divided, c. AD 400.

 



📹 A brief history of goths — Dan Adams (VİDEO)

A brief history of goths — Dan Adams (LINK)

 

 




  Odoacer (c. 433-493 AD)
  • Odoacer — ve “Roma İmparatorluğu”ndan “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu”na geçişin başlangıcı.
  • Odoacer — ve Avrupa’da Karanlık Çağların ya da Orta Çağların başlangıcı.

 

  • “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu” ve Karanlık Orta Çağlar Roma İmparatorluğun kendisinin ve Arap İmparatorluklarının, Anadolu Roma-Selçuklu Sultanlığının ve Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun yanısıra ortaya çıkan fenomenlerdir.

🗺️ Historical Map of Europe in the time of Odoacer, 476-493

Historical Map of Europe in the time of Odoacer, 476-493 (L)
🔎

 




Odoacer

Odoacer (c. 433-493 AD) (W)


Romulus Augustulus resigns the Roman crown to and Odoacer.


Flavius Odoacer
(c. 433-493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Latin: Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a barbarian statesman who in 476 became the first King of Italy(476-493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer is the earliest ruler of Italy for whom an autograph of any of his legal acts has survived to the current day.

Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of the emperor in Constantinople.

Odoacer generally used the Roman honorific patrician, granted by the emperor Zeno, but is referred to as a king (Latin: rex) in many documents. He himself used it in the only surviving official document that emanated from his chancery, and it was also used by the consul Basilius.

Odoacer introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He had the support of the Roman Senate and was able to distribute land to his followers without much opposition. Unrest among his warriors led to violence in 477-478, but no such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of Trinitarian state church of the Roman Empire.

Of East Germanic descent, according to most opinions, Odoacer was a military leader in Italy who led the revolt of Herulian, Rugian, and Scirian soldiers that deposed Romulus Augustulus on 4 September AD 476. Augustulus had been declared Western Roman Emperor by his father, the rebellious general of the army in Italy, less than a year before, but had been unable to gain allegiance or recognition beyond central Italy. With the backing of the Roman Senate, Odoacer thenceforth ruled Italy autonomously, paying lip service to the authority of Julius Nepos, the previous Western emperor, and Zeno, the emperor of the East. Upon Nepos's murder in 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, to punish the murderers. He did so, executing the conspirators, but within two years also conquered the region and incorporated it into his domain.

When Illus, master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer's help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer invaded Zeno's westernmost provinces. The emperor responded first by inciting the Rugii of present-day Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487-488 Odoacer crossed the Danube and defeated the Rugii in their own territory. Zeno also appointed the Ostrogoth Theoderic the Great who was menacing the borders of the Eastern Empire, to be king of Italy, turning one troublesome, nominal vassal against another. Theoderic invaded Italy in 489 and by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on 5 March 493; Theoderic invited Odoacer to a banquet of reconciliation and there killed him.


Ethnicity

Except for the fact that he was not considered Roman, Odoacer’s precise ethnic origins are not known. Most opinions consider him to be of Germanic descent, from one of several East Germanic tribes such as the Turcilingi, Scirii, Heruli, Rugii and Gothi, or possibly also of partial Thuringii descent; while a minority opinion holds that he was a Hun.

Both the Anonymus Valesianus and John of Antioch state his father's name was Edeko (Edika). However, it is unclear whether this Edeko is identical to one—or both—men of the same name who lived at this time: one was an ambassador of Attila to the court in Constantinople, and escorted Priscus and other Imperial dignitaries back to Attila's camp; the other, according to Jordanes, is mentioned with Hunulfus as chieftains of the Scirii, who were soundly defeated by the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Bolia in Pannonia about 469. Since Sebastian Tillemont in the 17th century, all three have been considered to be the same person. In his Getica, Jordanes describes Odoacer as king of the Turcilingi (Turc-ilingi or Torcilingorum rex). However, in his Romana, the same author defines him as a member of the Rugii (Odoacer genere Rogus). The Consularia Italica calls him king of the Heruli, while Theophanes appears to be guessing when he calls him a Goth. The sixth-century chronicler, Marcellinus Comes, calls him "the king of the Goths" (Odoacer rex Gothorum).

Reynolds and Lopez explored the possibility that Odoacer was not Germanic in their 1946 paper published by The American Historical Review, making several arguments that his ethnic background might lie elsewhere. One of these is that his name, “Odoacer,” for which an etymology in Germanic languages had not been convincingly found, could be a form of the Turkish “Ot-toghar” (“grass-born” or “fire-born”), or the shorter form “Ot-ghar” (“herder”).*!

*Reynolds, Robert L.; Lopez, Robert S. (1946). "Odoacer: German or Hun?". The American Historical Review. 52 (1): 36-53, page 45. doi:10.1086/ahr/52.1.36. JSTOR 1845067.

 

Other sources believe the name Odoacer is derived from the Germanic Audawakrs, from aud- "wealth" and wakr- "vigilant". This form finds a cognate in another Germanic language, the titular Eadwacer of the Old English poem Wulf and Eadwacer (where Old English renders the earlier Germanic sound au- as ea-).

Odoacer’s identity as a Hun was then accepted by a number of authorities, such as E. A. Thompson and J. M. Wallace-Hadrill — despite Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen's objection that personal names were not an infallible guide to ethnicity. Subsequently, while reviewing the primary sources in 1983, Bruce Macbain proposed that while his mother might have been Scirian and his father Thuringian, in any case he was not a Hun.


 



Odoacer, KING OF ITALY

Odoacer, KING OF ITALY (B)

Odoacer, also called Odovacar, or Odovakar, (born c. 433—died March 15, 493, Ravenna), first barbarian king of Italy. The date on which he assumed power, 476, is traditionally considered the end of the Western Roman Empire.

Odoacer was a German warrior, the son of Idico (Edeco) and probably a member of the Sciri tribe. About 470 he entered Italy with the Sciri; he joined the Roman army and rose to a position of command. After the overthrow of the Western emperor Julius Nepos by the Roman general Orestes(475), Odoacer led his tribesmen in a revolt against Orestes, who had reneged on his promise to give the tribal leaders land in Italy. On Aug. 23, 476, Odoacer was proclaimed king by his troops, and five days later Orestes was captured and executed in Placentia (now Piacenza), Italy. Odoacer then deposed and exiled Orestes’ young son, the emperor Romulus Augustulus.

Odoacer’s aim was to keep the administration of Italy in his own hands while recognizing the overlordship of the Eastern emperor, Zeno. Zeno granted him the rank of patrician, but Odoacer styled himself “King.” He refused to acknowledge Julius Nepos, Zeno’s candidate, as Western emperor.

Odoacer introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He had the support of the Senate at Rome and, apparently without serious opposition from the Romans, was able to distribute land to his followers. Unrest among the German tribesmen led to violence in 477-478, but evidently no such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of the Roman Catholic church.

In 480 Odoacer invaded Dalmatia (in present Croatia) and within two years conquered the region. When Illus, master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, begged Odoacer’s help (484) in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer attacked Zeno’s westernmost provinces. The emperor responded by inciting the Rugi (of present Austria) to attack Italy. During the winter of 487-488 Odoacer crossed the Danube and defeated the Rugi in their own territory. Although he lost some land to the Visigothic king Euric, who overran northwest Italy, Odoacer recovered Sicily (apart from Lilybaeum) from the Vandals. Nevertheless, he proved to be no match for the Ostrogothic king Theodoric, who was appointed king of Italy by Zeno in 488 in order to prevent the Ostrogoths from raiding in the Eastern Empire. Theodoric invaded Italy in 489 and by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on March 5, 493; Theodoric invited Odoacer to a banquet and there killed him.

 








  Battle of Adrianople, 378

Battle of Adrianople

Battle of Adrianople, 378 (W)

The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern. The battle took place in the vicinity of Adrianople, in the Roman province of Thracia (modern Edirne in European Turkey). It ended with an overwhelming victory for the Goths and the death of Emperor Valens.

Part of the Gothic War (376–382), the battle is often considered the start of the process which led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.

A detailed account for the leadup to the battle from the Roman perspective is from Ammianus Marcellinus and forms the culminating point at the end of his history.


Date 9 August 378
Location Near Adrianople
Result Decisive Gothic victory

Belligerents
Goths
Alans
Eastern Roman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Fritigern
Alatheus
Saphrax
Emperor Valens †
Strength
12,000–15,000 or 20,000 15,000–20,000 or 25,000–30,000
Casualties and losses
Unknown 10,000–15,000 or 20,000 (roughly two-thirds of the Roman force) killed




 



 


Map of the battle, according to the History Department of the US Military Academy

 


Background

In AD 376, displaced by the invasions of the Huns, the Goths, led by Alavivus and Fritigern, asked to be allowed to settle in the Eastern Roman Empire. Hoping that they would become farmers and soldiers, the Eastern Roman emperor Valens allowed them to establish themselves in the Empire as allies (foederati). However, once across the Danube (and in Roman territory), the dishonesty of the provincial commanders Lupicinus and Maximus led the newcomers to revolt after suffering many hardships. Valens (of the Eastern Empire) then asked Gratian, the western emperor, for reinforcements to fight the Goths. Gratian sent the general Frigeridus with reinforcements, as well as the leader of his guards, Richomeres. For the next two years preceding the battle of Adrianople there were a series of running battles with no clear victories for either side.

In 378, Valens decided to take control himself. Valens would bring more troops from Syria and Gratian would bring more troops from Gaul.


📹 Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 1/4) (VİDEO)

Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 1/4) (LINK)

Long gone are the days of Augustus and with them the security and stability of the early Roman empire. Chaos now plagues internal affairs while enemies batter down the walls. We shall now look at the nature of the late empire and its inherent fragility.

 



📹 Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 2/4) (VİDEO)

Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 2/4) (LINK)

The tenuous situation along the border spirals out of control.With the barbarian pressure mounting, the emperor Valens now makes it his immediate goal to bring a decisive and swift end to this crisis.

 



📹 Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 3/4) (VİDEO)

Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 3/4) (LINK)

Valens has forced the Goths to seek refuge atop a hill in their wagon laager fort. The legions however are tired of waiting in the hot sun while the barbarians sit behind their barricades and launch a preemptive attack.

 



📹 Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 4/4) (VİDEO)

Battle of Adrianople, 378 (Part 4/4) (LINK)

The plan for a quick and decisive victory has been abandoned. Now matters dictate that Valens and the remaining romans fight for the very survival of the eastern army.

 







📹 The Battle of Adrianople 378 AD (VİDEO)

The Battle of Adrianople 378 AD (LINK)

 

 








  Lombards

Lombards

Lombards (W)


Migration of Lombards from Scania to Italy, I century BC-VI century AD. According to Lidia Capo (ed.) Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum, Mondadori 1992, map 1. (W)
 

The Lombards or Longobards (Latin: Langobardi; Italian: Longobardi were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids. The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids in 567.

Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become severely depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War (535-554) between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there.

In contrast with the Goths and the Vandals, the Lombards left Scandinavia and descended due south through Germany, Austria and Slovenia, only leaving Germanic territory a few decades before reaching Italy. The Lombards would have consequently remained a predominantly Germanic tribe by the time they invaded Italy. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central Italy and southern Italy. They established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy, later named Regnum Italicum (“Kingdom of Italy”), which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand.

In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne and integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known to the foreigners, by the name Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards), in the Norse runestones. Their legacy is also apparent in the regional name Lombardy (in the north of Italy).


Lombard invasion of the Roman Empire, 6th century.


Kingdom of the Lombards (568-774) (W)

The Kingdom of the Lombards (Latin: Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Latin: Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century. The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy.

The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, which retained control of much of the peninsula until the mid-8th century. For most of the kingdom's history, the Byzantine-ruled Exarchate of Ravenna and Duchy of Rome separated the northern Lombard duchies, collectively known as Langobardia Maior, from the two large southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, which constituted Langobardia Minor. Because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies.

Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, names, and traditions. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arian Christians or pagans, which put them at odds with the Roman population as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Pope. However, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. Nevertheless, their conflict with the Pope continued and was responsible for their gradual loss of power to the Franks, who conquered the kingdom in 774. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title “King of the Lombards,” although he never managed to gain control of Benevento, the southernmost Lombard duchy. The Kingdom of the Lombards at the time of its demise was the last minor Germanic kingdom in Europe, aside from the Frankish Empire.

Any genetic legacy of the Lombards was quickly diluted into the Italian population owing to their relatively small number and their geographic dispersal in order to rule and administer their kingdom. Some regions were never under Lombard domination, including Sardinia, Sicily, Calabria, southern Apulia, Naples and the Latium. In all these regions the Byzantines brought more Greco-Anatolian lineages, which were already the dominant lineages from the Magna Graecia period.

A reduced Regnum Italiae, a heritage of the Lombards, continued to exist for centuries as one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, roughly corresponding to the territory of the former Langobardia Maior. The so-called Iron Crown of Lombardy, one of the oldest surviving royal insignias of Christendom, may have originated in Lombard Italy as early as the 7th century and continued to be used to crown Kings of Italy until Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century.


The Lombard Kingdom (blue) at its greatest extent, under King Aistulf (749-756).

 








  📹 Barbarians Rising (No Subtitles)

Barbarians Rising

📹 Barbarians Rising / Alaric and the Sack of Rome (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Alaric and the Sack of Rome (LINK)

A Gothic military commander is determined to restore his people's honor with an unprecedented assault against Rome.

Jesus the fanbase for this series is so snobby... it's a totally free miniseries on YouTube, I doubt they're working with the Game of Thrones budget to tell the entire saga of multiple centuries of fighting and hit every single figure and create exact replicas of every era of armor and weaponry along the way. These are made to get people who have a casual to no interest in history and get them interested in the history of the world. All of these trivial details people are complaining about are things that other viewers can discover for themselves further down the road. I've also read several criticisms on this series that were commented on as if they were fact, but when you actually look it up, it's disputed. So really, a lot of this is people spouting off on their opinions or personal conclusions on incomplete evidence.

 



📹 Barbarians Rising / Arminius, the Stolen Son (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Arminius, the Stolen Son (LINK)

As a boy, Arminius is kidnapped from Germania and raised to be a Roman soldier; years later, he must choose between the Empire and the land he calls home.

 



   

📹 Barbarians Rising — Attila, King of the Huns (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising — Attila, King of the Huns (LINK)

Attila leads the Hunnic army on a bloody rampage across the Roman Empire, sealing his legacy as one of historys most ruthless military commanders.

 



📹 Barbarians Rising / Fritigern and the Battle of Adrianople (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Fritigern and the Battle of Adrianople (LINK)

Fritigern leads the Goths in a pivotal face-off against Rome on its own soil.

 



📹 Barbarians Rising / Boudica, Warrior Queen (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Boudica, Warrior Queen (LINK)

Celtic queen Boudica avenges her brutal humiliation at the hands of the Romans with a merciless campaign of fire and blood.

 



📹 Barbarians Rising / Viriatus Guerilla Warrior (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Viriatus Guerilla Warrior (LINK)

As Rome embarks on its bloody conquest of Spain, a Lusitanian shepherd leads a resistance with a signature strategy that devastates the Roman Army.

 



📹 Barbarians Rising / Spartacus and the Slave Rebellion (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Spartacus and the Slave Rebellion (LINK)

Forced to entertain bloodthirsty Roman audiences as a gladiator, Spartacus plots an escape that inspires a massive slave uprising.

 



 
   

📹 Barbarians Rising / Rise and Fall of an Empire (VİDEO)

Barbarians Rising / Rise and Fall of an Empire (LINK)

Rome was the world's greatest superpower for centuries until a series of events led to its spectacular collapse.

 



 

 








  Roman-Germanic Wars (113 BC-596 AD)

Roman-Germanic Wars

Roman-Germanic Wars (W)

"Germanic Wars" is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century BC. The series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.


“The Varus Battle” by Otto Albert Koch, 1909. (Otto Albert Koch: Varusschlacht, 1909 (Lippisches Landesmuseum Detmold))





Rome against the Anglo-Saxons

Rome against the Alemanni and the Juthungi

Rome against the Goths
Rome against the Vandals

Rome against the Visigoths

Roman–Germanic Wars
Cimbrian War (113 BC – 101 BC) Gallic Wars (58 BC – 57 BC) Clades Lolliana (16 BC) Early Imperial campaigns in Germania (12 BC – AD 16) Marcomannic Wars (166–180)(participating Roman units) Gothic invasion of the Balkans (250–251) Gothic invasion of the Balkans (254) Heruli invasion of the Balkans (267–268) Roman–Alemannic Wars Gothic War (376–382) Visigothic Wars Vandalic Wars Anglo-Saxon Wars Vandalic War (533–534) Gothic War (535–554)

 










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