Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 


Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu





  Seljuq Empire (1037-1194)
The Consolidation of Seljuk Power from 1040 to the Death of Malik Shah in 1092
🔎





  Seljuq Empire (1037-1194)
Selçuk Türkleri

 

  • Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu (1037-1194)
  • Anadolu Selçuklu Sultanlığı (1077-1308)
  Anadolu Selçukluları Malazgirt Savaşından sonra Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğundan ayrıldı.
 
  • Türkik kabilelerin Orta Asya’dan Batıya doğru göçleri yaklaşık 400 yıl sürdü.
  • Kırsal göçebe Oğuz Türkleri arasında bir boy olan Selçuklular Sunni İslama döndükten sonra (985) Türkmenler olarak 11’inci yüzyılda Horasan’a yerleştiler ve 1040’ta Gaznelileri yenerek (Dandanakan) Horasan’a egemen oldular.
  • Daha sonra İran’a ilerlediler ve 1055’te Abbasi Halifesinin onayı ile ve herhangi bir direniş görmeksizin Tuğrul Bey altında Bağdad’a girdiler.
  • 1080’de Fatımileri Suriye’den uzaklaştırdılar.
  • Suriye’nin bütününü ele geçiren Selçuklular Roma İmparatorluğu ile komşu oldular.
SELÇUKLULAR 1037-1194
Abbasiler 750-1258 / 1261-1517
Eyyübiler 1171-1260
Fatımiler 909-1171
Gazneliler 977-1186
Samanidler 819-999
Karahanlılar 840-1212
 

 

 

  • Selçuklular Oğuz kabileleri arasındaki ana gruplardan yalnızca birine önderlik ediyor (yagbu) ve tümünü denetlemiyorlardı.
  • Oğuzlar yalnızca steplerde değil, kentlerde de yaşıyorlardı (Seyhun kıyısındaki kasabalar (Chach, Taraz ya da Talas, Savran, Shignaq ve başka birçokları).

 

  • Tuğrul yönetimindeki Türkmenlerin yağma dürtüleri ve Roma İmparatorluğunun iç çatışmalardan ötürü güçsüz düşmesi Selçukluları Azerbeycan’dan daha batıya doğru ilerlemeye götürdü.
  • 1071’de Alp Arslan komutasındaki Selçuklu ordusu Malazgirt’te Roma kuvvetlerini yendi.
  • Türk göçmenler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeyi sürdürürken Selçukluların ana kuvvetleri Suriye’de Fatımileri yendi.
  • İslama dönen ve Abbasi ordularına katılan Türkler 11’inci yüzyıl ortalarında Abbasi halifeleri karşısında üstünlük kazanmaya başladılar.
  • Abbasi devletinin son iki yüzyılı boyunca halifeler Türk sultanlar karşısında güçlerini ve önemlerini yitirdiler, simgeselleştiler.

 

 

  • Selçuk İmparatorluğu varlığını 150 yıl sürdürdü.
  • Melikşah’ın ölümünden (1092) sonra İmparatorluk beyliklere dağıldı.
  • Selçuklu egemenliği Orta Doğuda Sunni egemenliğini pekiştirdi (İkisi de Şii mezhebine bağlı olan Buyid hanedanlığına ve Fatımi İmparatorluğuna karşı).

📹 The Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Empire (VİDEO)

The Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Empire (LINK)

 



House of Seljuq (W)
Early Seljuqids
Sultans of the Seljuq Empire (1037-1194)
Governors of Khorasan (1040-1118)
Governors of Kerman (1048-1188)
Governors of Damascus (1078-1105)
Governors of Aleppo (1094-1117)
Sultans of Rum (1092-1307)
   
   

Seljuk Empire

Seljuk Empire (1037-1194) (W)


Seljuks and neighbors ca. 1200 CE.


The Seljuk Empire or Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq [Kınık] branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia and the Levant, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg (1016-1063) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was around 1260 invaded by the Mongols. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirates. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would conquer the rest.

Seljuk gave his name to both the Seljuk empire and the Seljuk dynasty. The Seljuks united the fractured political landscape of the eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized in culture and language, the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition, even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia. The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive Turkicization of those areas.

📹 The Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Empire (L)



Founder of the dynasty

The apical ancestor of the Seljuqs was their beg, Seljuk, who was reputed to have served in the Khazar army, under whom, circa 950, they migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend, where they converted to Islam.

Expansion of the empire


The Seljuqs were allied with the Persian Samanid shahs against the Qarakhanids. The Samanid fell to the Qarakhanids in Transoxania (992–999), however, whereafter the Ghaznavids arose. The Seljuqs became involved in this power struggle in the region before establishing their own independent base.


Turks / Seljuq Turks

Turks / Seljuq Turks (B)

For almost 400 years a succession of Turkic peoples entered eastern Islamdom from Central Asia. These nearly continuous migrations can be divided into three phases: Seljuqs (1055-92), Mongols (1256-1411), and neo-Mongols (1369–1405). Their long-term impact, more constructive than destructive on balance, can still be felt through the lingering heritage of the great Muslim empires they inspired. The addition of tribally organized warrior Turks to the already widely used Turkic slave soldiery gave a single ethnic group an extensive role in widening the gap between rulers and ruled.

Seljuq Turks

The Seljuqs were a family among the Oghuz Turks, a label applied to the migratory pastoralists of the Syr Darya–Oxus basin. Their name has come to stand for the group of Oghuz families led into Ghaznavid Khorāsān after they had been converted to Sunni Islam, probably by Sufi missionaries after the beginning of the 11th century. In 1040 the Seljuqs’ defeat of the Ghaznavid sultan allowed them to proclaim themselves rulers of Khorāsān. Having expanded into western Iran as well, Toghrïl Beg, also using the title “sultan,” was able to occupy Baghdad (1055) after “petitioning” the ʿAbbāsid caliph for permission. The Seljuqs quickly took the remaining Būyid territory and began to occupy Syria, whereupon they encountered Byzantine resistance in the Armenian highlands. In 1071 a Seljuq army under Alp-Arslan defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert north of Lake Van; while the main Seljuq army replaced the Fāṭimids in Syria, large independent tribal bands occupied Anatolia, coming closer to the Byzantine capital than had any other Muslim force.

Selçuklular 1040 yılında Gaznelileri yendikten sonra Horasan'ın egemenleri oldular. Abbasi halifesinin onayı ile Bağdad'ı aldılar ve Suriye'de denetimi ele geçirdikten sonra Roma İmparatorluğu ile karşı karşıya kaldılar. Alp-Arslan Malazgirt'te Roma İmparatorluğunun güçlerini yenince Türk boyları Anadolu'ya girmeye başladılar.

 



Migration and renewal (1041–1405)

Migration and renewal (1041-1405) (B)

During this period, migrating peoples once again played a major role, perhaps greater than that of the Arabs during the 7th and 8th centuries. No other civilization in premodern history experienced so much in-migration, especially of alien and disruptive peoples, or showed a greater ability to assimilate as well as to learn from outsiders. Nowhere has the capacity of a culture to redefine and incorporate the strange and the foreign been more evident. In this period, which ends with the death in 1405 of Timur (Tamerlane), the last great tribal conqueror, the tense yet creative relationship between sedentary and migratory peoples emerged as one of the great themes of Islamicate history, played out as it was in the centre of the great arid zone of Eurasia. Because this period can be seen as the history of peoples as well as of regions, and because the mobility of those peoples brought them to more than one cultural region, this period should be treated group by group rather than region by region.

Türkler göç etmelerine karşın "göçmen/nomadic" ya da "çoman/pastoral" değildirler ve akrabalık bağları ile tanımlanan "kabile/tribe" karakterini de taşımazlar.

 

As a general term, “migrating” peoples is preferable because it does not imply aimlessness, as “nomadic” does; or herding, as “pastoralist” does; or kin-related, as “tribal” does. “Migrating” focuses simply on movement from one home to another. Although the Franks, as the Crusaders are called in Muslim sources, differed from other migrating peoples, most of whom were pastoralists related by kinship, they too were migrating warriors organized to invade and occupy peoples to whom they were hostile and alien. Though not literally tribal, they appeared to behave like a tribe with a distinctive way of life and a solidarity based on common values, language, and objectives. Viewing them as alien immigrants comparable to, say, the Mongols helps to explain their reception: how they came to be assimilated into the local culture and drawn into the intra-Muslim factional competition and fighting that was under way in Syria when they arrived.

Yerleşik olmayan, tersine akışkan olan karakterleri Oğuz Türklerinin (Türkmenler) yerel kültürlere assimile olmalarını kolaylaştırdı.

 



   

 








  Roma-Selçuklu Savaşları

Roman Empire 1076 (W)




Roman Empire, 1025 (W)

Aftermath of Manzikert (1071)



Roman-Seljuq wars

Roman-Seljuq Wars (W)

The Byzantine-Seljuq Wars (Turkish: Bizans-Selçuklu Savaşları) were a series of decisive battles that shifted the balance of power in Asia Minor and Syria from the European Byzantine Empire to the Central AsianSeljuq.

Riding from the steppes of Central Asia, the Seljuq replicated tactics practiced by the Huns hundreds of years earlier against a similar Roman opponent but now combining it with new-found Islamic zeal; in many ways, the Seljuq resumed the conquests of the Muslims in the Byzantine–Arab Wars initiated by the Rashidun, Umayyad and Abassid Caliphate in the Levant, North Africa and Asia Minor.

Today, the Battle of Manzikert is widely seen as the moment when the Byzantines lost the war against the Turks; however the Byzantine military was of questionable quality before 1071 with regular Turkish incursions overrunning the failing theme system. Even after Manzikert, Byzantine rule over Asia Minor did not end immediately, nor were any heavy concessions levied by the Turks on their opponents — it took another 20 years before the Turks were in control of the entire Anatolian peninsula and not for long either.

During the course of the war, the Seljuq Turks and their allies attacked the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, capturing Jerusalem and catalyzing the call for the First Crusade. Crusader assistance to the Byzantine Empire was mixed with treachery and looting, although substantial gains were made in the First Crusade.

Within a hundred years of Manzikert, the Byzantines had (with Crusader assistance) successfully driven back the Turks from the coasts of Asia Minor and extended their influence right down to Palestine and even Egypt. Later, the Byzantines were unable to extract any more assistance, and the Fourth Crusade even led to the sack of Constantinople. Before the conflict petered out, the Seljuqs managed to take more territory from the weakened Empire of Nicaea until the Sultanate itself was taken over by the Mongols, leading to the rise of the ghazis and the conclusive Byzantine–Ottoman wars.

 



 




  Georgian-Seljuk Wars

Georgian–Seljuk wars

Georgian-Seljuk wars (1048-1213) (W)


Caucasus region during 1072–1174.


Political map of the Caucasus region in ca. 1060.

Georgian-Seljuk wars, also known as Georgian Reconquista is a long series of battles and military clashes that took place from c. 048 until 1213, between the Kingdom of Georgia and the different Seljuqid states that occupied most of Transcaucasia. The conflict is preceded by deadly raids in the Caucasus by the Turks in the 11th century, known in Georgian historiography as the Great Turkish Invasion.

Background

In 1048-9, the Seljuk Turks under Ibrahim Yinal made their first incursion in Byzantine frontier region of Iberia. The emperor Constantine IX requested help from the Georgian duke of Liparit IV of Kldekari, whom the Byzantines had aided in his struggle against the Georgian king Bagrat IV. Liparit, who had been fighting on the Byzantine side, was captured at the Battle of Kapetron. Bagrat took advantage of this, and acquired his possessions.

Although the Byzantine Empire and Georgia had centuries-long cultural and religious ties, and the Seljuqs posed a substantial threat to the empire itself, Constantinople’s aggressiveness on the Caucasian political scene contributed to an atmosphere of distrust and recrimination, and prevented the two Christian nations from effective cooperation against the common threat. With assertion of the Georgian Bagratid hegemony in the Caucasus being the cornerstone of Bagrat’s reign, his policy can be understood as the attempt to play the Seljuqs and Byzantines off against one another.


Initial Conflicts: 1060-1080

The second half of the 11th century was marked by the strategically significant invasion of the Seljuq Turks, who by the end of the 1040s had succeeded in building a vast empire including most of Central Asia and Persia. The Seljuqs made their first appearances in Georgia in the 1060s, when the Sultan Alp Arslan laid waste to the south-western provinces of the Georgian kingdom and reduced Kakheti. These intruders were part of the same wave of the Turkish movement which inflicted a crushing defeat on the Byzantine army at Manzikert in 1071.

 





Great Turkish Invasion

Great Turkish Invasion (W)


Map of the Caucasus c. 1090.

The Great Turkish Invasion, also translated as the Great Turkish Troubles (Georgian: დიდი თურქობა, didi turkoba) is the term by which the Georgian historiography refers to continuous attacks and settlement of the Seljuq-led Turkic tribes in the Georgian lands during the reign of George II in the 1080s. The term has it origin in the 12th-century Georgian chronicle and is accepted in the modern scholarship of Georgia. The Seljuq invasions resulted in a severe crisis in the kingdom of Georgia, leaving several of its provinces depopulated and weakening the royal authority, until the tide was reversed by the military victories of King David IV of Georgia (r. 1089-1125).

Invasion

In 1080, George II was surprised, in the vicinity of Queli, by a large Turkish force led by Aḥmad, probably of the Mamlān dynasty, whom the Georgian chronicle calls "a powerful emir and strong archer". George was put to flight, through Adjara, to Abkhazia. The Turks conquered Kars from the Georgians and returned to their bases laden with wealth. This was soon followed by even larger inroads, led by Yaʿqub and ʿIsā-Böri. On June 24, 1080, the half-nomadic Turks began to arrive en masse in the southern provinces of Georgia, quickly moving deeper into the country and overrunning Asispori, Klarjeti, Shavsheti, Adjara, Samtskhe, Kartli, Argueti, Samokalako, and Chqondidi. The key towns of Kutaisi and Artanuji and the vibrant Christian hermitages of Klarjeti were all burnt down. Those who survived the fighting had to flee to the mountains, where many of them found their death of cold and starvation.

Watching his kingdom being destroyed, George II, in despair, repaired to Isfahan, to Malik Shah, who treated the Georgian monarch with much consideration and promised security from the nomads in exchange of a tribute (kharaj).


Results

George's acceptance of the Seljuq suzerainty did not bring a real peace for Georgia. The Turks continued their seasonal movement into the Georgian territory to make use of the rich herbage of the Kura valley and the Seljuq garrisons occupied the key fortresses in Georgia's south.

These inroads and settlements had a ruinous effect on Georgia’s economic and political order. Cultivated lands were turned into pastures for the nomads and peasant farmers were compelled to seek safety in the mountains. The contemporary Georgian chronicler laments that "in those times there was neither sowing nor harvest. The land was ruined and turned into forest; in place of men beasts and animals of the field made their dwelling there. Insufferable oppression fell on all the inhabitants of the land; it was unparalleled and far worse than all ravages heard of or experienced."

A similar situation was found in neighboring Armenia as related in Aristakes Lastivertsi's chronicle. To make the things worse, a severe earthquake struck the southern provinces of Georgia, devastating Tmogvi and the surrounding area on April 16, 1088.

The great nobles of Georgia capitalized on weakening of the royal power to promote their autonomy. George II attempted to make use of Malik Shah's favor to bend Aghsartan I, the recalcitrant king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia, into submission, but failed to achieve any result due largely to his contradictory actions. Aghsartan was able to outplay him by offering submission to Malik Shah and buy security by converting to Islam.

 








  Seljuk Dynasty

Seljuk Beg

Seljuk Beg (?-1038) (W)



Seljuk Beg (W)

Seljuk Beig (romanized Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; modern Turkish: Selçuk; died c. 1038) was an Oghuz Turkic warlord, eponymous founder of the Seljuk dynasty.

Seljuk was the son of a certain Toqaq surnamed Temür Yalığ (meaning "of the iron bow") and either the chief or an eminent member of the Oghuz Kınık tribe.

In 985, the Seljuq clan split off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz, a confederacy of nine clans long settled between the Aral and Caspian Seas. They set up camp on the right bank of the lower Syr Darya (Jaxartes), in the direction of Jend, near Kzyl Orda in present-day south-central Kazakhstan. There, in 985, Seljuk converted to Islam.

The names of his four sons — Mikâîl (Michael), Isrâîl (Israel), Mûsâ (Moses), and Yûnus (Jonah) — suggest previous acquaintance with either Khazar Judaism or Nestorian Christianity. According to some sources, Seljuk began his career as an officer in the Khazar army.

Under Mikâîl's sons Tuğrul and Çağrı, the Seljuqs migrated into Khurasan. Ghaznavid attempts to stop Seljuqs raiding the local Muslim populace led to the Battle of Dandanaqan on 23 May 1040. Victorious Seljuqs became masters of Khurasan, expanding their power into Transoxiana and across Iran. By 1055, Tuğrul had expanded his control all the way to Baghdad, setting himself up as the champion of the Abbasid caliph, who honored him with the title sultan. Earlier rulers may have used this title but the Seljuqs seem to have been the first to inscribe it on their coins.

 



 

Tughril Beg

Tughril Beg (990-1063) (W)

Tughril
Born: 990 Died: 4 September 1063
Regnal titles
New title
Sultan of the Seljuq Empire
1037 - 4 September 1063
Succeeded by
Alp Arslan Begh

Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (990 - September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063. Tughril united the Turkic warriors of the Great Eurasian Steppes into a confederacy of tribes, who traced their ancestry to a single ancestor named Seljuq, and led them in conquest of eastern Iran. He would later establish the Seljuq Sultanate after conquering Persia and retaking the Abbasid capital of Baghdad from the Buyid dynasty in 1055. Tughril relegated the Abbasid Caliphs to state figureheads and took command of the caliphate's armies in military offensives against the Byzantine Empire and the Fatimid Caliphate in an effort to expand his empire's borders and unite the Islamic world.

Early life

Tughril was the son of Mikail ibn Seljuq; on the death of his father, Tughril and his brother Chaghri were raised by their grandfather Seljuk, who had other sons named Musa Yabghu and Arslan Isra'il, whom Tughril would later accompany into the Iranian plateau during his later life. Tughril ascended to power ca. 1016.

In the 1020s, Tughril and his other relatives were serving the Kara-Khanids of Bukhara. In 1026, the Kara-Khanids were driven out of Bukhara by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. This defeat made Arslan Isra'il flee to a place near Sarakhs, where he asked Mahmud for permission to settle in the area in return for military aid. Mahmud, however, had Arslan Isra'il put in prison, where the latter soon died. Meanwhile, Tughril and Chaghri remained loyal to their Kara-Khanid overlords. Although in 1029 they had some disputes with the Kara-Khanids, they continued to support them, and still continued to participate in the Kara-Khanid wars against the Ghaznavids; in 1032, they were present at the Battle of Dabusiyya.

After the Kara-Khanid ruler Ali-Tegin's death, however, the Seljuqs changed their allegiance to the ruler of Khwarazm, Harun, but were in 1035 repelled by the Oghuz ruler Shah Malik. The Seljuqs then went to the same place which Arslan Isra'il had gone to, and asked the son of Mahmud, Mas'ud I, for asylum. Mas'ud, however, considered the nomadic Turks a dangerous threat and sent an army under commander-in-chief Begtoghdi. The army was shortly defeated by the Seljuqs, who forced Mas'ud to cede Nasa, Farava and Dihistan in return for Seljuq recognition of Ghaznavid authority and protection of the region from other Turkic tribes.

In 1037, the Seljuqs managed to force the Ghaznavids to cede them Sarakhs, Abivard and Marw. The Seljuqs then slowly began subdue the cities of Khorasan, and when they captured Nishapur, Tughril proclaimed himself as the Sultan of Khorasan.


Battle of Dandanaqan (W)


Seljuq Empire at its greatest extent in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I

Description

A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.

  • The capital of the Great Seljuk Empire is shown at Ishfahan (Persia/Iran).
    The borders of present-day countries are shown in gray.
    The lighter colour in the top right represents Karakhanids.
  • "In 1089, Malik Shah returned to the charge, occupied Bukhara, captured Sarakand, and imprisoned the Karakhanid Ahmed . . . whom he later reinstated as client-ruler. From that time forward, the Karakhanids who reigned in Bukhara and Samarkand did so as lieutenants of the Seljuk sultans. Transoxiana was now no more than a dependency of the Seljuk Empire." (Grousset p. 147.)
  • Other areas such as the Danishmends are not shown separately.
  • The locations of the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and the Battle of Dandanaqan (1040) are also shown.

 




The Battle of Dandanaqan was fought in 1040 between the Seljuqs and the Ghaznavid Empire. The battle ended with a Seljuq victory and brought down the Ghaznavid domination in the Khorasan.

When the Seljuq leader Tughrul and his brother Chaghri began raising an army, they were seen as a threat to the Ghaznavid territories. Following the looting of border cities by Seljuq raids, Sultan Mas'ud I (son of Mahmud of Ghazni) decided to expel Seljuqs from his territories.

During the march of Sultan Mas'ud's army to Sarakhs the Seljuq raiders harassed the Ghaznavid army with hit-and-run tactics. Seljuq raiders also destroyed the supply lines of Ghaznavids, cutting them off from the nearby water wells. The discipline and morale of the Ghaznavid army dropped seriously. Finally, on May 23, 1040, around 16,000 Seljuk soldiers engaged in battle with an estimated 50,000 Ghaznavid soldiers in Dandanaqan and defeated them, between Merv and Sarakhs.

The Seljuks occupied Khorasan and the cities of the area, encountering little resistance. Tughrul's successful siege of Isfahan in 1050-1051, led to the establishment of the “Great Seljuk Empire.” On Mas'ud's retreat to India, he was overthrown and later murdered in prison.

 



Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan (1030-1072) (W)

Alp Arslan
Born: 20 January 1029 Died: 15 December 1072
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Toghrul-Beg
Sultan of the Seljuq Empire
4 September 1063-15 December 1072
Succeeded by
Malik-Shah I

Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning “Heroic Lion”; in Persian: آلپ ارسلان‎; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty. As Sultan, Alp Arslan greatly expanded Seljuk territory and consolidated power, defeating rivals to his south and northwest. His victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 ushered in the Turkish settlement of Anatolia. For his military prowess and fighting skills he obtained the name Alp Arslan, which means "Heroic Lion" in Turkish.

 



Malik-Shah I

Malik-Shah I (1055-1092) (1072-1092) (W)

Malik-Shah I
Born: 8 August 1055 Died: 19 November 1092
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alp Arslan
Sultan of the Seljuq Empire
15 December 1072 – 19 November 1092
Succeeded by
Mahmud I

Jalāl al-Dawla Mu'izz al-Dunyā Wa'l-Din Abu'l-Fatḥ ibn Alp Arslān (8 August 1055 – 19 November 1092), better known by his regnal name of Malik-Shah I (Persian: ملکشاه‎) (Turkish: Melikşah), was Sultan of the Seljuq Empire from 1072 to 1092.

During his youth, he spent his time participating in the campaigns of his father Alp Arslan, along the latter's vizier Nizam al-Mulk. During one of such campaigns in 1072, Alp Arslan was fatally wounded and died only a few days later. After that, Malik-Shah was crowned as the new sultan of the empire, however, Malik-Shah did not access the throne peacefully, and had to fight his uncle Qavurt, who claimed the throne. Although Malik-Shah was the nominal head of the Seljuq state, the vizier Nizam al-Mulk held near absolute power during his reign. Malik-Shah spent the rest of his reign waging war against the Karakhanids on the eastern side, and establishing order in the Caucasus.

Malik-Shah's death to this day remains under dispute; according to some scholars, he was poisoned by the Caliph, while others say that he was poisoned by the supporters of Nizam al-Mulk.

 



 
   





  Video

📹 Rise of Seljuk Turks / Kenneth Harl (VİDEO)

Rise of Seljuk Turks / Kenneth Harl (LINK)

The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia and the Levant, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia.

 



📹 The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (VİDEO)

The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (LINK)

The First Crusade (1095-1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land (the Levant), which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as in the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

 



📹 Tutush, Kerbogha & the fall of the Great Seljuk Empire (VİDEO)

Tutush, Kerbogha & the fall of the Great Seljuk Empire (LINK)

 

 



📹 Roman-Seljuq Wars (VİDEO)

Roman-Seljuq Wars (LINK)

 








  Battle of Manzikert, 1071
1071
🔎

Battle of Manzikert

Battle of Manzikert (1071)


A modern imagination of a captive Romanos in classical Roman garb, led to the victorious Alp Arslan under the large banners with the double eagle symbol of the House of Seljuk.
“Alp Arslan: “What would you do if I were brought before you as a prisoner?” Romanos: “Perhaps I’d kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople.” Alp Arslan: “My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free.” (alleged conversation between the two commanders after the battle)
Persified as he was, Alp Arslan ndecided not to treat his imperial prisoner like the Sassanid Shah Shapur did with the captured Roman emperor Valerian in 260 CE however. He sent him home to Constantinople, knowing what Romanos would be getting into. And indeed, after the political turmoil and short civil war that followed the defeat at Manzikert, Romanos was dethroned, blinded and banished to a small island in the Bosphorus where he died in 1072, allegedly while maggots fell from the infected wounds in his face. And while his eventual successor Alexios had to call to the pope for help against the Seljuk Turks, a plea that caused the First Crusade, more and more Turkish lords with their warriors and settlers swept into Anatolia and the Eastern provinces of the Byzantine empire were gone forever. It was the beginning of the end of Roman rule in Asia Minor. (LINK)

Alp Arslan humiliating Romanus (from an Italian 15th century manuscript)

In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.

In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.


The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey). The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

The fallout from Manzikert was disastrous for the Byzantines, resulting in civil conflicts and an economic crisis that severely weakened the Byzantine Empire's ability to adequately defend its borders. This led to the mass movement of Turks into central Anatolia — by 1080, an area of 78,000 square kilometres (30,000 sq mi) had been gained by the Seljuk Turks. It took three decades of internal strife before Alexius I (1081 to 1118) restored stability to Byzantium.

Date 26 August 1071
Location near Manzikert, Theme of Iberia/Byzantine Armenia (present-day Malazgirt)
Result Decisive Seljuk victory

Byzantine Empire
  • Frankish, English, Norman, Georgian, Armenian, Bulgarian,Turkic Pecheneg and Cumanmercenaries
Seljuk Empire
Commanders and leaders
Romanos IV (POW), Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan, Afshin Bey, Artuk Bey, Kutalmışoğlu Suleyman
Strength  
20,000 (Orig. 40,000; half deserted before battle) (Turkic mercenaries defected to the Seljuk side) 20,000-30,000
Casualties and losses

Killed: 2,000-8,000
Captured: 4,000
Deserted: 20,000

Unknown
 

 



📹 The Battle of Manzikert / K.W.Harl (VİDEO)

The Battle of Manzikert / K.W.Harl (LINK)

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia . The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

 



📹 Battle of Manzikert 1071 / Roman-Seljuq Wars (VİDEO)

Battle of Manzikert 1071 / Roman-Seljuq Wars (LINK)

The Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt, Manavazkert) of 1071 was fought between the Roman Empire and the new nomadic conquerors from Central Asia — the Seljuk Sultanate. This battle was decisive in changing the ethnic and the religious outlook of Anatolia, and probably was the reason Crusades from Western Europe began.

 








  Persianization — Turkification

  • Mezopotamya kültürünün doruğu olarak Persler komşu halklar için toplumsal, politik ve sanatsal modeller sundular.
  • Persler boyun eğme ve yere kapanma kültürünü de geliştirdiler.
  • İslam insanın insana boyun eğmesine izin vermez (tüm kullar eşittir).
  • Tüm ölümlüleri Tanrı (Ahura Mazda) karşısında eşitleyen Zerdüşt tini ile karşıtlık içinde, Elamitler, Akhamenidler, Parthianlar ve Sasanidler insanın insan karşısında alçalmasında ve küçük düşürülmesinde bir sorun görmediler.
 
        

Different degrees of proskynesis, from a slight bow of the head to full prostration. (W)

Persianization

Persianization (W)


Different degrees of proskynesis, from a slight bow of the head to full prostration.
To the Greeks, giving proskynesis to a mortal seemed to be a barbaric and ludicrous practice.

Persianization is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate". It is a specific form of cultural assimilation that often includes language assimilation. The term applies not only to cultures but also to individuals, as they acclimate to Persian culture and become "persianized" or "persified".

Historically, the term was commonly applied to changes in the culture of non-Iranian peoples living within the Iranian cultural sphere, especially during the early and the middle Islamic periods such as Arabs, and various Caucasian (such as Georgian, Armenian, and Dagestani) and Turkic peoples including the Seljuqs, Ottomans and Ghaznavids. The term has also been applied to the transmission of aspects of Persian culture, including language, to the non-Persian peoples in area surrounding Persia (modern-day Iran), such as Anatolia and South Asia.


Pre-Islamic Period

Arguably, the first recorded episode of persianization dates back to Alexander the Great, who, after conquering the Persian Empire in the 4th century BCE, adopted Persian dress, customs and court mannerisms; married a Persian princess, Stateira II and made subjects cast themselves on their faces when approaching him, in Persian-style, known to Greeks as the custom of proskynesis, a symbolic kissing of the hand that Persians paid to their social superiors.

 

Laur Chandâ, Woman bowing to touch a man's feet as a mark of respect (as painted by a west-Indian artist, circa 1530).
 

Foot touching is not done despite feet being considered unclean — it’s done because feet are generally considered unclean. It means that the person has walked this earth longer than you and gained such wisdom that you can benefit even from the dust their feet have picked up along the way.


Early Islamic Period to 15th century

After the fall of the Sasanian dynasty in 651, the Umayyad Arabs adopted many of the Persian customs, especially the administrative and the court mannerisms. Arab provincial governors were either persianized Arameans or ethnic Persians; certainly, Persian remained the language of official business of the caliphate until the adoption of Arabic toward the end of the 7th century.



16th to 18th centuries

The Safavids reasserted Persian culture and hegemony over Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia and other regions. Many khans, begs and other rulers adopted Persian customs and clothing and patronized Persian culture.

At the same time, the Ottomans and their predecessors, the various Beylerbergs and the Sultanate of Rum, patronized so heavily of Persian culture that they became fully [?] Persianate. The Ottomans, for example, adopted Persian names; made Persian an official and prestigious language; adopted Persian titles; adopted Persian cuisine, dances, and literature and added many Persian words to their own language.


Proskynesiss (L)

The first to describe proskynesis ("kissing towards") was the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus, who lived in the fifth century BCE. He writes:

“When the Persians meet one another in the roads, you can see whether those who meet are of equal rank. For instead of greeting by words, they kiss each other on the mouth; but if one of them is inferior to the other, they kiss one another on the cheeks, and if one is of much less noble rank than the other, he falls down before him and worships him.”

What Herodotus describes as a gesture he has seen in the streets, was ritualized at the oriental courts. Depending on his rank, a visitor would have to prostrate himself, kneel in front of, bow for or blow a kiss to the king.

To the Greeks prostrating, bowing or kneeling were unacceptable. In their view, these acts were only allowed in front of a god. Therefore, they thought that the Persians - the only oriental court they knew - venerated their kings as god.

,,,

In the summer of 327, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great provoked great unrest among his courtiers when he introduced proskynesis.

 



Turkification

Turkification (W)

Turkification, or Turkicization (Turkish: Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire. As the Turkic states developed and grew, there were many instances of this cultural shift.

Diverse peoples were effected by Turkification including Anatolian, Balkan, Caucasian and Middle Eastern peoples with different ethnic origins, such as Albanians, Armenians, Assyrians, Circassians, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Romani, Slavs, Kurds living in Anatolia, as well as Lazs from all the regions of the Ottoman Empire.

An early form of Turkification occurred in the time of the Seljuk Empire among the local population of Anatolia, involving intermarriages, religious conversion, linguistic shift and interethnic relationships, which today is reflected in the genetic makeup of the modern Turkish people.


Arrival of Turks in Anatolia

Anatolia was home to many different peoples in ancient times who were either natives or settlers and invaders. These different people included the Armenians, Anatolian peoples, Persians, Hurrians, Greeks, Cimmerians, Galatians, Colchians, Iberians, Arameans, Assyrians, Corduenes, and scores of others. The presence of many Greeks, and the process of Hellenization, gradually caused many of these peoples to abandon their own languages in favor of Greek, especially in cities and along the western and southern coasts, a process reinforced by Romanization.

Nevertheless, in the north and east, especially in rural areas, many of the native languages continued to survive, including both many extinct and a few extant languages such as Armenian and Assyrian Aramaic. Byzantine authorities routinely conducted large-scale population transfers in an effort to impose religious uniformity and the Greek language. After the subordination of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018, for instance, much of its army was resettled in Eastern Anatolia. The Byzantines were particularly keen to assimilate the large Armenian population. To that end, in the eleventh century, the Armenian nobility were removed from their lands and resettled throughout western Anatolia. An unintended consequence of this resettlement was the loss of local military leadership along the eastern frontier, opening the path for the inroads of Turkish invaders. Beginning in the eleventh century, war with Turks led to the deaths of many in the native population, while others were enslaved and removed. As areas became depopulated, Turkic nomads moved in with their herds.


Number of Pastoralists of Turkic origin in Anatolia

The number of nomads of Turkic origin that migrated to Anatolia is a matter of discussion. According to Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi, there were 200,000 Turkmen tents in Denizli and its surrounding areas, 30,000 in Bolu and its environment, and about 100,000 in Kastamonu and its environment. According to a Latin source at the end of the 12th century there were 100,000 nomadic tents in the regions of Denizli and Isparta.

According to Ottoman tax archives, in modern-day Anatolia, in Anatolia Eyalet, Karaman Eyalet, Dulkadir Eyalet and Rûm Eyalet provinces there were about 872,610 households in 1520s and 1530s; 160,564 of those households were nomadic, and the remainder were sedentary. Of four provinces, province of Anatolia had the largest nomadic population with 77,268 households. (note: province of Anatolia does not include entire Anatolia, it includes Western Anatolia and some parts of Northwestern Anatolia only) Between 1570 and 1580, 220,217 households of the total 1,360,474 households in the four provinces were nomadic which means, at least 20% of Anatolia was still nomadic in the 16th century. The province of Anatolia, which had the largest nomadic population with 77,268, saw an increase in its nomadic population. 116,219 households in those years in province of Anatolia were nomadic.


Imprecise meaning of Türk

During the 19th century, the word Türk was a derogatory term used to refer to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as European ideas of nationalism were adopted by the Ottoman elite, and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.

During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue remains today in that Turkish villagers will commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and they consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks.

The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt, which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish. On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are often considered to be Turks.

Thus, the category Türk, like other ethnic categories popularly used in Turkey, does not have a uniform usage. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multicultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey. Now, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is “bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship.”

 



📜 “Iranian Turks”

“Iranian Turks” (W)

The term "Iranian Turks" typically applies to the Iranian Azerbaijanis, the largest Turkic group found in Iran. It can technically apply to any other Turkic group in Iran (or to these groups considered together), including:

Turkic peoples of Iran Language Religion and Sub-ethnic groups
Iranian Azerbaijanis Azerbaijani language (and its dialects) Muslim (Shia)
Khorasani Turks Khorasani Turkic language Muslim (Shia)
Iranian Turkmen Turkmen language Muslim (Sunni)
Afshar people Afshar language Muslim (Shia)
Khalaj people Khalaj language Muslim (Shia)
Qashqai people Qashqai language Muslim (Shia)
  • Aghajari tribe
Turks in Iran Turkish language Muslim (Sunni)

 








  Nizam al-Mulk

Nizam al-Mulk

Nizam al-Mulk (1018-1092) (W)

Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk (Persian: نظام‌الملک‎, "Order of the Realm") was a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire. Rising from a lowly position, he was the de facto ruler of the empire for 20 years after the assassination of Alp Arslan in 1072, with a apotheosis as the Islamic history's archetypal good vizier.

One of his most important legacies was founding schools in cities throughout the Seljuk Empire. These were called “nezamiyehs” after him. He wrote Siyasatnama ("Book of Government"), a political treatise that uses historical examples to discuss justice, effective rule, and the role of government in Islamic society.


 



Policies of Niẓām al-Mulk

Policies of Niẓām al-Mulk

The Seljuqs derived their legitimacy from investiture by the caliph, and from “helping” him reunite the ummah; yet their governing style prefigured the emergence of true alternatives to the caliphate. Some of their Iranian advisers urged them to restore centralized absolutism as it had existed in pre-Islamic times and in the period of Marwānid-ʿAbbāsid strength. The best-known proponent was Niẓām al-Mulk, chief minister to the second and third Seljuq sultans, Alp-Arslan and Malik-Shāh. Niẓām al-Mulk explained his plans in his Seyāsat-nāmeh (The Book of Government), one of the best-known manuals of Islamicate political theory and administration. He was unable, however, to persuade the Seljuq sultans to assert enough power over other tribal leaders. Eventually the Seljuq sultans, like so many rulers before them, alienated their tribal supporters and resorted to the costly alternative of a Turkic slave core, whose leading members were appointed to tutor and train young princes of the Seljuq family to compete for rule on the death of the reigning sultan. The tutors were known as atabegs; more often than not, they became the actual rulers of the domains assigned to their young charges, cooperating with urban notables (aʿyān) in day-to-day administration.

Although Niẓām al-Mulk was not immediately successful, he did contribute to long-term change. He encouraged the establishment of state-supported schools (madrasas); those he personally patronized were called Niẓāmiyyahs. The most important Niẓāmiyyah was founded in Baghdad in 1067; there Niẓām al-Mulk gave government stipends to teachers and students whom he hoped he could subsequently not only appoint to the position of qāḍī but also recruit for the bureaucracy.

Systematic and broad instruction in Jamāʿī-Sunni learning would counteract the disruptive influences of non-Sunni or anti-Sunni thought and activity, particularly the continuing agitation of Ismāʿīlī Muslims. In 1090 a group of Ismāʿīlīs established themselves in a mountain fortress at Alamūt in the mountains of Daylam. From there they began to coordinate revolts all over Seljuq domains. Nominally loyal to the Fāṭimid caliph in Cairo, the eastern Ismāʿīlīs confirmed their growing independence and radicalism by supporting a failed contender for the Fāṭimid caliphate, Nizār. For that act they were known as the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs. They were led by Ḥasan-e Ṣabbāḥ and were dubbed by their detractors the ḥashīshiyyīn ( assassins) because they practiced political murder while they were allegedly under the influence of hashish.

Niẓām al-Mulk’s madrasa system enhanced the prestige and solidarity of the Jamāʿī-Sunni ulama without actually drawing them into the bureaucracy or combating anti-Sunni agitation, but it also undermined their autonomy. It established the connection between state-supported education and office holding, and it subordinated the spiritual power and prestige of the ulama to the indispensable physical force of the military emirs. Niẓām al-Mulk unintentionally encouraged the independence of these emirs by extending the iqṭāʿ system beyond Būyid practice; he regularly assigned land revenues to individual military officers, assuming that he could keep them under bureaucratic control. When that failed, his system increased the emirs’ independence and drained the central treasury.

The madrasa system had other unpredictable results that can be illustrated by al-Ghazālī, who was born in 1058 at Ṭūs and in 1091 was made head of the Baghdad Niẓāmiyyah. For four years, to great admiration, he taught both fiqh and kalām and delivered critiques of falsafah and Ismāʿīlī thought. According to his autobiographical work Al-Munqidh min al-ḍalāl (The Deliverer from Error), the more he taught, the more he doubted, until his will and voice became paralyzed. In 1095 he retreated from public life, attempting to arrive at a more satisfying faith. He undertook a radically skeptical reexamination of all of the paths available to the pious Muslim, culminating in an incorporation of the active, immediate, and inspired experience of the Sufis into the Sharīʿah-ordered piety of the public cult. For his accomplishments, al-Ghazālī was viewed as a renewer (mujaddid), a role expected by many Muslims to be filled by at least one figure at the turn of every Muslim century.

Ṭarīqah fellowships


In the 12th century Muslims began to group themselves into ṭarīqah, fellowships organized around and named for the ṭarīqah (“way” or “path”) of given masters. Al-Ghazālī may have had such a following himself. One of the first large-scale orders, the Qādirīyah, formed around the teachings of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī of Baghdad. Though rarely monastic in the European sense, the activities of a ṭarīqah often centred around assembly halls (called khānqāh, zāwiyah, or tekke) that could serve as places of retreat or accommodate special spiritual exercises. The dhikr, for example, is a ceremony in which devotees meditated on the name of God to the accompaniment of breathing exercises, music, or movement, so as to attain a state of consciousness productive of a sense of union with God. Although shortcuts and excesses have often made Sufism vulnerable to criticism, its most serious practitioners have conceived of it as a disciplined extension of Sharīʿah-minded piety, not an escape. In fact, many Sufis have begun their path through supererogatory fulfillment of standard ritual requirements.

Thousands of ṭarīqahs sprang up over the centuries, some associated with particular occupations, locales, or classes. It is possible that by the 18th century most adult Muslim males had some connection with one or more ṭarīqahs. The structure of the ṭarīqah ensued from the charismatic authority of the master, who, though not a prophet, replicated the direct intimacy that the prophets had shared with God. This quality he passed on to his disciples through a hierarchically ordered network that could extend over thousands of miles. The ṭarīqahs thus became powerful centripetal forces among societies in which formal organizations were rare; but the role of the master became controversial because followers often made saints or intercessors of especially powerful Sufi leaders and made shrines or pilgrimage sites of their tombs or birthplaces. Long before these developments could combine to produce stable alternatives to the caliphal system, Seljuq power had begun to decline, only to be replaced for a century and a half with a plethora of small military states. When the Frankish Crusaders arrived in the Holy Land in 1099, no one could prevent them from quickly establishing themselves along the eastern Mediterranean coast.

 

Siyasatnama

Siyasatnama (W)

Link: The book of government; or, Rules for kings / Niẓām al-Mulk, 1018-1092. (Original from University of Michigan)

Siyāsatnāmeh
(Persian: سياست نامه, "Book of Government"), also known as Siyar al-mulûk (Arabic:سیرالملوك, i.e.: The Lives of Kings), is the most famous work by Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of Nizamiyyah schools in medieval Persia and vazier to the Seljuq sultans Alp Arslan and Malik Shah. Al-Mulk possessed "immense power" as the head administration for the Seljuq empire over a period of 30 years and was responsible for establishing distinctly Persian forms of government and administration which would last for centuries. A great deal of his approach to governing is contained within the Siyasatnameh which is in a tradition of Persian-Islamic writing known as the "Mirrors for Princes".

Written in Persian and composed in the eleventh century, the Siyasatnameh was created following the request by Malik Shah that his ministers produce books on government, administration and the troubles facing the nation. However, the treatise compiled by al-Mulk was the only one to receive approval and was consequently accepted as forming “the law of the constitution of the nation.” In all it consists of 50 chapters concerning religion, politics, and various other issues of the day with the final 11 chapters — written shortly prior to Nizam's assassination — dealing mostly with dangers facing the empire and particularly the ascendant threat of the Ismailis. The treatise is concerned with guiding the ruler with regard to the realities of government and how it should be run. It covers "the proper role of soldiers, police, spies, and finance officials" and provides ethical advice emphasizing the need for justice and religious piety in the ruler. Al-Mulk defines in detail what he views as justice; that all classes be “given their dueand that the weak be protected. Where possible justice is defined by both custom and Muslim law and the ruler is held responsible to God.

Anecdotes rooted in Islamic, and occasionally pre-Islamic Persian, culture and history with popular heroes — for example, Mahmud of Ghazna and the pre-Islamic Shah Khosrow Anushirvan — who were considered as exemplars of good and virtue frequently appearing. The Siyasatnameh is considered to provide insight into the attitude of the Persian elite of the 12th century towards the past of their civilization as well as evidence for methods of the bureaucracy and the extent it was influenced by the pre-Islamic traditions.

The earliest remaining copy is located in the National Library of Tabriz, in Iran. It was first translated into French in 1891.


 



 








Notlar


Notlar, Veriler

Notlar, Veriler

  • OĞUZ. Some scholars tend to identify these Ghuzz with the Hiungnu, who as far back as 1200 B.C. had plundered China's western provinces; or with their successors the Hunnu, who were routed by the Chinese in the year A.D. 215, when they fled westward and overran Europe as the Huns. ... At the time of the Arab invasion, that is to say early in the 8th century, they became known as Turks. — (The Seljuks in Asia Minor, s. 25)

 



 




 

İdea Yayınevi Site Haritası | İdea Yayınevi Tüm Yayınlar
© Aziz Yardımlı 2018-2019 | aziz@ideayayinevi.com