Anadolu Selçuklular

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Anadolu Selçukluları

  Seljuq of Rome (1077-1308)
  • Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu (1037-1194)
  • Anadolu Selçuklu Sultanlığı (1077-1308)


  • 1071’de Alp Arslan Roma İmparatoru IV. Diogenes’i Malazgirt’te yendi.
  • 1077’de I. Süleyman imparatorluktan koparak Anadolu Selçuklu Sultanlığını kurdu.
  • Doğu Romalılardan alınan İznik başkent yapıldı; Kilikya ve Antakya ele geçirildi.
  • 1096 Birinci Haçlı Seferi


  • 1116’da I. Haçlı Seferi sırasındaki yenilgiler nedeniyle başkent Konya’ya çekildi.
  • 1243’te Köse Dağ savaşında Moğollara yenilen Sultanlık aşamalı olarak Moğollara vasal oldu.


  • 1099’da Kudüs’te Latin Krallığı kuruldu.


  • 1307’de yeri Karamanoğulları Beyliği tarafından dolduruldu.

Fatimids, Seljuks and Zangids 1092-c.1170

📹 The History of Anatolia / Every Year 1058-1453 (VİDEO)

The History of Anatolia / Every Year 1058-1453 (LINK)


  Sultanate of Rum / Roma Sultanlığı
(Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate / Anadolu Selçuklu Sultanlığı)

The Roman Empire c. 1263.

🕑 Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (W)


After the battles of Pasinler in 1048 and Malazgirt in 1071 Turks founded a number of states in Anatolia. These were the vassals of Great Seljuk Empire. In fact one of the most powerful of these vassal states had been founded by a member of Seljuk house and the name of this state was the Sultanate of Rum.

The founder of the state was Süleyman I. Paternal grandfathers of the sultan Melik Shah of Great Seljuk Empire and Suleyman I were brothers. But soon, the Seljuks of Rûm began to act independently of the Great Seljuk Empire and annexed the territories of other Turkish states in Anatolia. Their history is notable for:

  • They were adversaries of the first three Crusades.
  • Ottoman principality, the future Ottoman Empire emerged within their realm.



11th century

Year Event
1071 Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuk Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenis of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Eastern Anatolia.
1077 Suleyman I is appointed as a governor in Seljuk possessions in Anatolia. But he acts independently and founds a state. Capital İznik (Nicea), Bursa Province, Northwest Anatolia.
1081 Tzachas an independent Turkish seaman, (not a member of Seljuk house, but the father in law of the future sultan) founds a principality in İzmir, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea.
1084 Conquest of Antakya (Antioch), South Anatolia.
1086 Süleyman I tries to add Syria to his realm. But he commits suicide after being defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the battle of Aynu Seylem, Syria.
1092 Kılıç Arslan I (1092-1207)
1096 Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Battle of Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia.
1097 Bohemund of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital İznik is lost to Crusades. A few years later Konya, becomes the new capital.
1100 Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya)

12th century

Year Event
1101 Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.)
1107 Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle.
1110 Şahinşah (1107-1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state.
1116 Mesut I (1116-1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia.
1142 Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum becomes the leading power of Anatolia for the second time.
1147 Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir)
1147 Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia).
1156 Kılıç Arslan II (1156-1192)
1176 Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon (probably near Çivril, Denizli Province, West Anatolia).
1178 Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.)
1186 Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons
1190 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya.
1190 Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin province in South Anatolia.
1192 Keyhüsrev I (1192-1196)
1194 After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks.
1196 Süleyman II (1196-1204)

13th century

Year Event
1202 Süleyman II annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.)
1202 Kingdom of Georgia defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd
1204 Kılıç Arslan III (1204-1205)
1205 Keyhüsrev I (1205-1211) (second time)
1207 Conquest of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea
1211 Keykavus I (1211-1220)
1214 Conquest of Sinop, Black sea coast
1220 Alaaddin Keykubat I (1220-1237)
1221 Conquest of Alanya, Antalya province, Mediterranean coast
1223 Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade
1224 Alladdin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory, .)
1227 Sudak in Crimea is annexed. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuks.
1228 Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana
1228 Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrounding territory), Eastern Anatolia .
1230 Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan
1237 Keyhüsrev II (1237-1246)
1238 Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed.
1239 Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.
1240 Conquest of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia.
1243 Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids.
1246 Keykavus II (1246-1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun.
1256 Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhan, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia.
1258 Mongols partition the country . Double sultanate
1262 Kılıç Arslan IV 1260-1266
1266 Keyhüsrev III 1266-1284
1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.
1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm).
1284 Mesut II 1284-1297
1289 Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids
1297 Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297-1302
1302 Mesut II 1302-1307 (second time)


📜 Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia)

Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia) (W)


As regards the names of the sultans, there are variants in form and spelling depending on the preferences displayed by one source or the other, either for fidelity in transliterating the Persian variant of the Arabic script which the sultans used, or for a rendering corresponding to the modern Turkish phonology and orthography. Some sultans had two names that they chose to use alternatively in reference to their legacy. While the two palaces built by Alaeddin Keykubad I carry the names Kubadabad Palace and Keykubadiye Palace, he named his mosque in Konya as Alâeddin Mosque and the port city of Alanya he had captured as "Alaiye". Similarly, the medrese built by Kaykhusraw I in Kayseri, within the complex (külliye) dedicated to his sister Gevher Nesibe, was named Gıyasiye Medrese, and the one built by Kaykaus I in Sivas as Izzediye Medrese.


Sultan Reign Notes
1. Qutalmish 1060-1064 Contended with Alp Arslan for succession to the Imperial Seljuq throne.
2. Suleiman ibn Qutulmish 1075-1077 de facto rules Turkmen around İznik and İzmit; 1077-1086 recognised Rum Sultan by Malik I Founder of Anatolian Seljuq Sultanate with capital in İznik
3. Kilij Arslan I 1092-1107 First sultan in Konya
4. Malik Shah 1107-1116
5. Masud I 1116-1156
6. 'Izz al-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156-1192
7. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192-1196 First reign
8. Rukn al-Din Suleiman II 1196-1204
9. Kilij Arslan III 1204-1205
Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205-1211 Second reign
10. 'Izz al-Din Kayka'us I 1211-1220
11. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad I 1220-1237
12. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237-1246 After his death, sultanate split until 1260 when Kilij Arslan IV remained the sole ruler
13. 'Izz al-Din Kayka'us II 1246-1260
14. Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248-1265
15. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad II 1249-1257
16. Giyath al-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265-1284
17. Giyath al-Din Masud II 1284-1296 First reign
18. 'Ala al-Din Kayqubad III 1298-1302
Giyath al-Din Masud II 1303-1308 Second reign


📜 Anatolian Seljuks family tree

Anatolian Seljuks family tree (W)

Family Tree

Anatolian Seljuks (also called Seljuks of Rum and Seljuks of Turkey) was a former dynasty in Turkey. Süleyman, the founder of the dynasty, was a member of the Seljuk dynasty. His father was Tuğrul Bey's cousin. In 1077, after capturing Nicaea (modern İznik), Süleyman founded his state as a vassal of the main Seljuk Empire. However, the Seljuks of Anatolia soon became independent of the main empire, and their state survived till the beginning of the 14th century.

Arslan Yabgu
Suleyman I
Kilij Arslan I
Mesut I
Kilij Arslan II
Suleyman II
Keyhusrev I
Kilij Arslan III
Keykaus I
Keykubat I
Keyhusrev II
Kilij Arslan IV [Note 1]
Keykaus II
Keykubat II
Keyhusrev III
Mesut II
Keykubat III

Note 1. After 1249 triple reign of three brothers


  Sultanate of Rum

Sultanate of Rum

Sultanate of Rum (W)

The Sultanate of Rûm and surrounding states, c. 1200.
Status Sultanate
Capital Nicaea (İznik), Iconium (Konya), Sivas
Common languages Persian (official, court, literature), Old Anatolian Turkish, Greek (court/chancery)
Religion Sunni Islam (official)
• 1077-1086 Suleiman ibn Qutulmish
• 1303-1308 Mesud II
• Division from the Seljuq Empire 1077
• Battle of Köse Dağ 1243
• death of Mesud II 1308
• Karamanid conquest 1328
Area 1243 400,000 km2
Preceded by
Seljuk Empire
Succeeded by
Anatolian beyliks
Ottoman Empire
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (Persian: سلجوقیان روم‎, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Turkish: Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Turkish: Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, "Romans"; ie. citizens superordinately to Latin-speakers.

The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai. Especially strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period. The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states that had been established in eastern Anatolia(Danishmends, Mengujekids, Saltukids, Artuqids).

The Seljuq sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades and eventually succumbed to the Mongol invasion in 1243 (Battle of Köse Dağ). For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate. Their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassal sultans of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308. The dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind many small Anatolian beyliks (Turkish principalities), among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which eventually conquered the rest and reunited Anatolia to become the Ottoman Empire.


In the 1070s, after the battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk commander Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, a distant cousin of Malik-Shah I and a former contender for the throne of the Seljuk Empire, came to power in western Anatolia. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicaea (İznik) and Nicomedia (İzmit). Two years later, he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik.

Suleiman was killed in Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syria, and Suleiman's son Kilij Arslan I was imprisoned. When Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and immediately established himself in his father's territories.


1) Crusades

Crusades (W)

Kilij Arslan was defeated by soldiers of the First Crusade and driven back into south-central Anatolia, where he set up his state with capital in Konya. In 1107, he ventured east and captured Mosul but died the same year fighting Malik Shah's son, Mehmed Tapar.

Meanwhile, another Rum Seljuq, Malik Shah (not to be confused with the Seljuq sultan of the same name), captured Konya. In 1116 Kilij Arslan's son, Mesud I, took the city with the help of the Danishmends.

Upon Mesud's death in 1156, the sultanate controlled nearly all of central Anatolia. Mesud's son, Kilij Arslan II, captured the remaining territories around Sivas and Malatya from the last of the Danishmends. At the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1176, Kilij Arslan II also defeated a Byzantine army led by Manuel I Komnenos, dealing a major blow to Byzantine power in the region. Despite a temporary occupation of Konya in 1190 by the Holy Roman Empire's forces of the Third Crusade, the sultanate was quick to recover and consolidate its power. During the last years of Kilij Arslan II's reign, the sultanate experienced a civil war with Kaykhusraw I fighting to retain control and losing to his brother Suleiman II in 1196.

Süleymanshah II rallied his vassal emirs and marched against Georgia, with an army of 150,000-400,000 and encamped in the Basiani valley. Tamar of Georgia quickly marshaled an army throughout her possessions and put it under command of her consort, David Soslan. Georgian troops under David Soslan made a sudden advance into Basiani and assailed the enemy’s camp in 1203 or 1204. In a pitched battle, the Seljuqid forces managed to roll back several attacks of the Georgians but were eventually overwhelmed and defeated. Loss of the sultan's banner to the Georgians resulted in a panic within the Seljuq ranks. Süleymanshah himself was wounded and withdrew to Erzurum. Both the Rum Seljuk and Georgian armies suffered heavy casualties, but coordinated flanking attacks won the battle for the Georgians.

The Sultanate of Rûm and surrounding states, c. 1200.

Suleiman II (1196-1204) was routed by the Kingdom of Georgia in the Battle of Basian (1203) and died in 1204. He was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III, whose reign was unpopular. Kaykhusraw I seized Konya in 1205 reestablishing his reign. Under his rule and those of his two successors, Kaykaus I and Kayqubad I, Seljuq power in Anatolia reached its apogee. Kaykhusraw's most important achievement was the capture of the harbour of Attalia (Antalya) on the Mediterranean coast in 1207. His son Kaykaus captured Sinop and made the Empire of Trebizond his vassal in 1214. He also subjugated Cilician Armenia but in 1218 was forced to surrender the city of Aleppo, acquired from al-Kamil. Kayqubad continued to acquire lands along the Mediterranean coast from 1221 to 1225.

In the 1220s, he sent an expeditionary force across the Black Sea to Crimea. In the east he defeated the Mengujekids and began to put pressure on the Artuqids.


2) Mongol conquest

Mongol conquest (W)

Kaykhusraw II (1237-1246) began his reign by capturing the region around Diyarbakır, but in 1239 he had to face an uprising led by a popular preacher named Baba Ishak. After three years, when he had finally quelled the revolt, the Crimean foothold was lost and the state and the sultanate’s army had weakened. It is in these conditions that he had to face a far more dangerous threat, that of the expanding Mongols. The forces of the Mongol Empire took Erzurum in 1242 and in 1243, the sultan was crushed by Baiju in the Battle of Köse Dağ (a mountain between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan), and the Seljuq Turks were forced to swear allegiance to the Mongols and became their vassals. The sultan himself had fled to Antalya after the 1243 battle, where he died in 1246, his death starting a period of tripartite, and then dual, rule that lasted until 1260.

The Seljuq realm was divided among Kaykhusraw’s three sons. The eldest, Kaykaus II (1246-1260), assumed the rule in the area west of the river Kızılırmak. His younger brothers, Kilij Arslan IV (1248-1265) and Kayqubad II (1249-1257), were set to rule the regions east of the river under Mongol administration. In October 1256, Bayju defeated Kaykaus II near Aksaray and all of Anatolia became officially subject to Möngke Khan. In 1260 Kaykaus II fled from Konya to Crimea where he died in 1279. Kilij Arslan IV was executed in 1265, and Kaykhusraw III (1265-1284) became the nominal ruler of all of Anatolia, with the tangible power exercised either by the Mongols or the sultan's influential regents.


3) Disintegration

Disintegration (W)

The declining Sultanate of Rûm, vassal of the Mongols, and the emerging beyliks, c. 1300.

The Seljuq state had started to split into small emirates (beyliks) that increasingly distanced themselves from both Mongol and Seljuq control. In 1277, responding to a call from Anatolia, the Mamluk sultan, Baibars, raided Anatolia and defeated the Mongols, temporarily replacing them as the administrator of the Seljuq realm. But since the native forces who had called him to Anatolia did not manifest themselves for the defense of the land, he had to return to his home base in Egypt, and the Mongol administration was re-assumed, officially and severely. Also, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia captured the Mediterranean coast from Selinos to Seleucia, as well as the cities of Marash and Behisni, from the Seljuq in the 1240s.

Near the end of his reign, Kaykhusraw III could claim direct sovereignty only over lands around Konya. Some of the beyliks (including the early Ottoman state) and Seljuq governors of Anatolia continued to recognize, albeit nominally, the supremacy of the sultan in Konya, delivering the khutbah in the name of the sultans in Konya in recognition of their sovereignty, and the sultans continued to call themselves Fahreddin, the Pride of Islam. When Kaykhusraw III was executed in 1284, the Seljuq dynasty suffered another blow from internal struggles which lasted until 1303 when the son of Kaykaus II, Mesud II, established himself as sultan in Kayseri. He was murdered in 1308 and his son Mesud III soon afterwards. A distant relative to the Seljuq dynasty momentarily installed himself as emir of Konya, but he was defeated and his lands conquered by the Karamanids in 1328. The sultanate's monetary sphere of influence lasted slightly longer and coins of Seljuq mint, generally considered to be of reliable value, continued to be used throughout the 14th century, once again, including by the Ottomans.

Dirham of Kaykhusraw II, minted at Sivas 1240-1241 AD.


📜 Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Dynasty

Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Dynasty (W)

  • Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Dynasty (W)

    Suleyman I (1077-1086) •
  • Kilij Arslan I (1092-1107) •
  • Melikshah (1107-1116) •
  • Mesud I (1116-1156) •
  • Kilij Arslan II (1156-1192) •
  • Kaykhusraw I (1192-1196) •
  • Süleymanshah II (1196-1204) •
  • Kilij Arslan III (1204-1205) •
  • Kaykhusraw I (2nd reign) (1205-1211) •
  • Kaykaus I (1211-1220) •
  • Kayqubad I (1220-1237) •
  • Kaykhusraw II (1237-1246) •
  • Kaykaus II (1246-1260) •
  • Kilij Arslan IV (1248-1265) •
  • Kayqubad II (1249-1257) •
  • Kaykhusraw III (1265-1282) •
  • Mesud II (1282-1284) •
  • Kayqubad III (1284) •
  • Mesud II (2nd reign) (1284-1293) •
  • Kayqubad III (2nd reign) (1293-1294) •
  • Mesud II (3rd reign) (1294-1301) •
  • Kayqubad III (3rd reign) (1301-1303) •
  • Mesud II (4th reign) (1303-1307) •
  • Mesud III (1307) •

    📜 List of states in late medieval Anatolia

    List of states in late medieval Anatolia (W)

    Anatolia is a large peninsula in West Asia and forms one of the two passages between Asia and Europe. All through history, many states both completely independent and vassal, were founded. Below is the list of states (including principalities) in Anatolia during the late Middle Ages (11th-15th centuries).

    Name of the state Duration of rule Notes
    Ahis 1290-1362 Religious fraternity
    Aq Qoyunlu 1378-1508
    Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1198-1375 Issued from Byzantine Empire
    Artuqids 1102-1233
    Alaiye 1293-1471 Vassal of Karaman
    Aydinids 1300-1425
    Jandarids (later: Isfendiyarids) 1292-1461
    Tzachas 1081-1098
    Chobanids 1211-1309
    Beylik of Çubukoğulları 1085-1112 Vassal of Great Seljuk Empire
    Beylik of Demleç 1085-1410
    Dulkadirids 1348-1515
    Eretnids 1335-1390 Issued from Ilkhanids
    Beylik of Erzincan 1378-1410 Issued from Eretnids
    Eshrefids 1285-1326
    Germiyanids 1300-1429
    Hamidids 1300-1391
    Beylik of İnal 1095-1183 Mostly vassal of its neighbours
    Beylik of Kadi Burhan al-Din 1381-1398 Continuation of Eretnids
    Karamanids 1277-1487
    Karasids 1296-1357
    Beylik of Lâdik 1262-1391
    Menteshe 1261-1424
    Beylik of Pervane 1277-1322
    Ramadanids 1352-1522 Mostly vassal of Memluks
    Beylik of Sahip Ata 1275-1341
    Sarukhanids 1300-1410
    Ahlatshahs 1100-1207
    Beylik of Tanrıbermiş 1074-1098
    Beylik of Teke 1321-1423 Issued from Hamidids
    Beyliks of Canik
    " Beylik of Tacettin"
    " Beylik of Hacıemir"

    Actually 6 beyliks
    Byzantine Empire 0395-1453 During 1204-1261 Empire of Nicea
    County of Edessa 1098-1149 Crusader state
    Danishmends 1071-1178
    Emirate of Armenia 0654-0884 Vassal of Arabic Empire
    Empire of Nicaea 1204-1261 Byzantine Empire after the loss of capital
    Empire of Trebizond 1204-1461 Issued from Byzantine Empire
    Karakoyunlu Turkmens (Black sheep Turkmens) 1375-1468
    Latin Empire 1204-1261 Crusader state
    Mengujekids 1072-1277
    Ottoman Empire 1299-1922 Called beylik in the early years
    Principality of Antioch 1098-1268 Crusader state
    Saltukids 1072-1202
    Sultanate of Rum 1077-1307 Issued from the Great Seljuk Empire


    📜 List of Beyliks

    List of Beyliks (W)

    Beyliks founded after Manzikert (1071)


    In the list below, only the beyliks that were founded immediately after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia, and who were vassals (or sometimes at war) to the centralized power of Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm based in Konya are listed.
    Beylik's name Capital city Duration of rule
    Chaka of Smyrna İzmir 1081-1098
    Shah-Armens (also called Ahlatshahs) Ahlat 1110-1207
    Artuqids (three branches) Hasankeyf, Mardin, Harput 1102-1409
    Danishmend Sivas 1071-1178
    Dilmaçoğlu Bitlis 1085-1398
    İnaloğlu Diyarbekir 1095-1183
    Mengujekids Erzincan, later Divriği 1072-1277
    Saltukids Erzurum 1072-1202
    Çubukoğulları Harput 1085-1112

    Beyliks founded after Köse Dağ (1243)


    A second group beyliks that emerged as a result of the weakening of this central state under the Mongol blow with the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243 which had the indirect consequence of extending the Turkic territory in Western Anatolia toward the end of the 13th century.
    Beylik's name Capital city Duration of rule
    Afshar Erzurum 1480-1534
    Ahiler Ankara c. 1290-1362
    Alaiye Alanya 1293-1471 as vassals to Karamanids
    Aydinids Birgi, later Ayasluğ (Selçuk) 1300-1425
    Canik Samsun- Amasya and the vicinity ?-1460
    Jandarids (later called Isfendiyarids) Eflani, later Kastamonu, last Sinop 1291-1461
    Chobanids Kastamonu (preceding the Jandarids) 1211-1309
    Dulkadirids Elbistan, later Maraş 1348-1522
    Eretnids Sivas, later Kayseri 1335-1390
    Erzincan Erzincan 1379-1410
    Eshrefids Beyşehir 1285-1326
    Germiyanids Kütahya 1300-1429
    Hamidids Eğirdir 1300-1391
    Kadi Burhan al-Din Sivas (replacing the Eretnids) 1381-1398
    Karamanids Larende (Karaman) 1250-1487
    Karasids/Karası Balıkesir, later Bergama and Çanakkale 1296-1357
    Ladik (also called İnançoğlu, dependent to Sahib Ataids and Germiyanids) Denizli 1262-1391
    Menteşe Milas 1261-1424
    Beylik of Osmanoğulları (later the Ottoman Empire) Söğüt, later Bursa, Dimetoka, Edirne and Istanbul 1299-1922
    Pervâneoğlu Sinop 1277-1322
    Ramadanids Adana 1352-1608
    Sahib Ataids Afyonkarahisar 1275-1341
    Sarukhanids Manisa 1300-1410
    Teke (issued from the Hamidids) Antalya, later Korkuteli 1321-1423
    Beylik of Dobruja Babadag 1281-1299


      Seljuq of Rome Sultans

    Suleiman ibn Qutulmish

    Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (W)

    Kutalmışoglu Suleiman (Old Anatolian Turkish: سُلَیمان بن قُتَلمِش, Persian: سلیمان بن قتلمش‎) founded an independent Seljuq Turkish state in Anatolia and ruled as Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1077 until his death in 1086.

    Suleiman was the son of Qutalmish, who had struggled unsuccessfully against his cousin Alp Arslan for the throne of Great Seljuq Empire. When Kutalmish died in 1064, Suleiman fled with his three brothers into the Taurus Mountains and there sought refuge with Turkmen tribes living beyond the borders of the empire. Alp Arslan responded by launching a series of punitive expeditions against them. Of the four brothers, Suleiman alone survived the raids and was able to consolidate his leadership of the Turkmen.

    In 1078, the Byzantine emperor Michael VII sought the help of Suleiman against Nicephorus Botaneiates, the commander of the Anatolic Theme, who had challenged the emperor for the throne. Suleiman intercepted Botaneiates' small force between Cotyaeum and Nicaea, whereupon the usurper persuaded Suleiman to join his rebellion by offering him incentives superior to those of the emperor. Nicephorus' bid for power was successful, and in return for their support Suleiman's Turkmen were allowed to settle on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus, near Constantinople itself. Two years later, Suleiman lent his support to another pretender, Nicephorus Melissenus. It was the latter Nicephorus who opened the gates of Nicaea to the Turkmen, allowing Suleiman to establish a permanent base. All Bithynia was soon under Suleiman's control, a circumstance which allowed him to restrict communication between Constantinople and the former Byzantine subjects in Anatolia.

    In 1084, Suleiman left Nicaea, leaving his kinsman Abu'l Qasim in charge.

    Suleiman expanded his realm, in 1085 he captured Antioch and proceeded to massacre its inhabitants. Moreover, the treasures of the church of St. Cassianus were stolen and the church was converted into a mosque. He was killed near Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuq ruler of Syria. Suleiman's son, Kilij Arslan I, was captured, and Malik Shah transferred him to Isfahan as a hostage. It is uncertain whether Tutush killed Suleiman out of loyalty to Malik-Shah I or simply for personal gain.

    Upon the death of Malik-Shah I, Kilij Arslan I re-established the Sultanate of Rûm.



    Map of the Seljuk Sultanate during the reign of Kayqubad I (1220-1237) showing the military campaigns, battles, captured towns, vassal states and sieges with dates

    Map of the Seljuk Sultanate during the reign of Kayqubad I (1220-1237) showing the military campaigns, battles, captured towns, vassal states and sieges with dates. (LINK)

    Kayqubad I

    Kayqubad I (1188-1237) (W)

    Statue of Kayqubad I in Alanya

    Kayqubad I or Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykāvūs (Turkish: I. Alâeddin Keykûbad, 1188-1237) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237. He expanded the borders of the sultanate at the expense of his neighbors, particularly the Mengujek Beylik and the Ayyubids, and established a Seljuq presence on the Mediterranean with his acquisition of the port of Kalon Oros, later renamed Ala'iyya in his honor. He also brought the southern Crimea under Turkish control for a brief period as a result of a raid against the Black Sea port of Sudak. The sultan, sometimes styled "Kayqubad the Great", is remembered today for his rich architectural legacy and the brilliant court culture that flourished under his reign.

    Kayqubad's reign represented the apogee of Seljuq power and influence in Anatolia, and Kayqubad himself was considered the most illustrious prince of the dynasty. In the period following the mid-13th century Mongol invasion, inhabitants of Anatolia frequently looked back on his reign as a golden age, while the new rulers of the Anatolian beyliks sought to justify their own authority through pedigrees traced to him.



      The First Crusades — VIDEO

    📹 The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (VİDEO)

    The First Crusade / Eamonn Gearon (LINK)

    The First Crusade (1095-1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land (the Levant), which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as in the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.


    📹 First Crusade — Part 1 of 2 / EpicHistory (VİDEO)

    First Crusade — Part 1 of 2 / EpicHistory (LINK)

    The First Crusade was one of the most extraordinary, bloody and significant episodes in medieval history.

    It began with an appeal for aid from the Christian Byzantine Empire, threatened by the rising power of the Muslim Seljuk Turks. But when Pope Urban II preached a sermon at Clermont in 1095, the result was unlike anything ever seen before.

    The Pope offered spiritual salvation to those willing to go east to aid their fellow Christians in a holy war, and help liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule.

    Knights and peasants alike signed up in their thousands, leading to the disastrous People's, or Peasants', Crusade, then to a much more organised and powerful Princes' Crusade. Their forces gathered at Constantinople, where they made an uneasy alliance with Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. Entering Anatolia, they helped to win back the city of Nicaea, then won a decisive but hard-fought victory at Dorlyaeum, before marching on the great city of Antioch...


    📹 First Crusade — Part 2 of 2 / EpicHistory (VİDEO)

    First Crusade — Part 2 of 2 / EpicHistory (LINK)

    Part 2 of Epic History TV's story of the First Crusade continues with the Siege of Antioch.

    The Crusaders endure immense hardships outside the city walls, but finally take Antioch thanks to a ruse by Bohemond of Taranto.

    Against the odds, and inspired by their recent discovery of a relic believed to be the 'Holy Lance', the Crusaders then defeat the Seljuk army of Kur Burgha. After disagreements within the Crusader camp, the army finally moves on to Jerusalem in the spring of 1099. During a full-scale assault of the city walls, Godfrey of Bouillon's troops gain a foothold in the defences, and Crusader troops pour into the city. A bloodbath follows. Victory results in the creation of four Crusader states, but their existence is precarious, surrounded by hostile Muslim powers, who will one day return with a vengeance.


      Battle of Köse Dağ (1243)

    Battle of Köse Dağ

    Battle of Köse Dağ (W)

    The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Sultanate of Rum ruled by the Seljuq dynasty and the Mongol Empire on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey; the Mongols achieved a decisive victory.


    During the reign of Ögedei Khan, the Sultanate of Rum offered friendship and a modest tribute to Chormaqan, a kheshig and one of the Mongols' greatest generals. Under Kaykhusraw II, however, the Mongols began to pressure the sultan to go to Mongolia in person, give hostages and accept a Mongol darughachi [governors].


    Under the leadership of Baiju, the Mongol commander, the Mongols attacked Rum in the winter of 1242-1243 and seized the city of Erzurum. Sultan Kaykhusraw II immediately called on his neighbours to contribute troops to resist the invasion. The Empire of Trebizond sent a detachment and the sultan engaged a group of “Frankish” mercenaries. A few Georgian nobles such as Pharadavla of Akhaltsikhe and Dardin Shervashidze also joined him, but most Georgians were compelled to fight alongside their Mongol overlords.

    The decisive battle was fought at Köse Dağ on June 26, 1243. The primary sources do not record the size of the opposing armies but suggest that the Mongols faced a numerically superior force. Baiju brushed aside an apprehensive notice from his Georgian officer regarding the size of the Seljuq army by stating that they counted as nothing the numbers of their enemies: "the more they are, the more glorious it is to win, and the more plunder we shall secure".

    Kaykhusraw II rejected the proposal of his experienced commanders to wait for the Mongol attack. Instead, he sent a force of 20,000 men, led by inexperienced commanders, against the Mongol army. The Mongol army, pretending a retreat, turned back, encircled the Seljuq army and defeated it.

    When the rest of the Seljuq army witnessed their defeat, many Seljuq commanders and their soldiers, including Kaykhusraw II, started to abandon the battlefield. Eventually, the Seljuq army was left without leaders and most of their soldiers had deserted, without seeing any combat.

    After their victory, the Mongols took control of the cities of Sivas and Kayseri. The sultan fled to Antalya but was subsequently forced to make peace with Baiju and pay a substantial tribute to the Mongol Empire.


    The defeat resulted in a period of turmoil in Anatolia and led directly to the decline and disintegration of the Seljuq state. The Empire of Trebizond became a vassal state of the Mongol empire. Furthermore, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia became a vassal state of the Mongols. Real power over Anatolia was exercised by the Mongols.




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