CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı





  Kara-Khanid Khanate (Karahanlılar) (840-1212)

🗺️ The map of Kara-Khanid Khanate as of 1006 AD when it reached its greatest extent

The map of Kara-Khanid Khanate as of 1006 AD when it reached its greatest extent


Kara-Khanid Khanate

Kara-Khanid Khanate (Karahanlılar) (840-1212) (W)

Kara Khanid Khanate, c. 1000.

Common languages Persian, Turkic, Arabic, Middle Chinese (Administrative)
Religion Tengrism (840-934). Islam (934-1212)
Government Monarchy
Khagan, Khan
• 840–893 (first) Bilge Kul Qadir Khan
• 1204–1212 (last) Uthman Ulugh-Sultan
• Established 840
• Disestablished 1212
Area 1025 est. 3,000,000 km2
Preceded by
Uyghur Khaganate
Kingdom of Khotan
Succeeded by
Khwarazmian dynasty
Qara Khitai

The Kara-Khanid Khanate ('House of Afrisyab') was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids. Both the dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.

The Khanate conquered Transoxania in Central Asia and ruled it between 999-1211. Their arrival in Transoxania signaled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia, yet the Kara-khanids gradually assimilated the Perso-Arab Muslim culture, while retaining some of their native Turkish culture.

Their capitals included Kashgar, Balasagun, Uzgen and Samarkand. The Khanate eventually split into two – the Eastern and Western Khanates. They then came under the suzerainty of the Seljuks, followed by the Kara-Khitans, before the dynasty was extinguished by the Khwarezmians. Their history is reconstructed from fragmentary and often contradictory written sources, as well as studies on their coinage.


The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a confederation formed some time in the 9th century by Karluks, Yagmas, Chigils, and other peoples living in Zhetysu, Western Tian Shan (modern Kyrgyzstan), and Western Xinjiang around Kashgar.


The Karluks were a nomadic people from the western Altai Mountains who moved to Zhetysu. In 742, the Karluks were part of an alliance led by the Basmyl and Uyghurs that rebelled against the Göktürks. In the realignment of power that followed, the Karluks were elevated from a tribe led by an el teber to one led by a yabghu, which was one of the highest Turkic dignitaries and also implies membership in the Ashina clan in whom the "heaven-mandated" right to rule resided. The Karluks and Uyghurs later allied themselves against the Basmyl, and within two years they toppled the Basmyl khagan. The Uyghur yabghu became khagan and the Karluk leader yabghu. This arrangement lasted less than a year. Hostilities between the Uyghur and Karluk forced the Karluk to migrate westward into the western Turgesh lands.

Tomb of Sultan Satuk Bughra Khan, the first Muslim khan, in Artush, Xinjiang



Karluks (W)

The Karluks were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia. They were also known as the Gelolu. They were closely related to the Uyghurs. Karluks gave their name to the distinct Karluk group of the Turkic languages, which also includes the Uyghur, Uzbek, and Ili Turki languages.

Karluks were known as a coherent ethnic group with autonomous status within the Göktürk kaganate and the independent states of the Karluk Yabgu, Karakhanids, and Qarlughids before being absorbed in the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol empire.







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