Karahanlılar

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 

 

 

Karahanlılar





  Kara-Khanid Khanate (Karahanlılar) (840-1212)
The Qarakhanids converted to Islam c.950, captured Bukhara in 999 and swiftly took over the former Samanid domains north of the Amu Darya, while the Ghaznavids took the lands to the south.


The map of Kara-Khanid Khanate as of 1006 AD when it reached its greatest extent


Kara-Khanid Khanate

Kara-Khanid Khanate (Karahanlılar) (840-1212) (W)

 


Kara Khanid Khanate, c. 1000.
Capital Balasagun; Kashgar; Samarkand
Common languages
Persian, Turkic, Arabic, Middle Chinese (Administrative)
Religion
Tengrism (840-934); Islam (934-1212)
Government Monarchy
Khagan, Khan
• 840-893 (first) Bilge Kul Qadir Khan
• 1204-1212 (last) Uthman Ulugh-Sultan
History
• Established 840
• Disestablished 1212
Area
1025 est. 3,000,000 km2
Preceded by
Uyghur Khaganate
Samanids
Kingdom of Khotan
Succeeded by
Khwarazmian dynasty
Qara Khitai


The Kara-Khanid Khanate ('House of Afrisyab') was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids. Both the dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.

The Khanate conquered Transoxania in Central Asia and ruled it between 999-1211. Their arrival in Transoxania signaled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia, yet the Kara-khanids gradually assimilated the Perso-Arab Muslim culture, while retaining some of their native Turkish culture.

Their capitals included Kashgar, Balasagun, Uzgen and Samarkand.

The Khanate eventually split into two – the Eastern and Western Khanates. They then came under the suzerainty of the Seljuks, followed by the Kara-Khitans, before the dynasty was extinguished by the Khwarezmians. Their history is reconstructed from fragmentary and often contradictory written sources, as well as studies on their coinage.


Tomb of Sultan Satuk Bughra Khan, the first Muslim khan, in Artush, Xinjiang
Names

The name of the royal clan is not actually known and the term Karakhanid in English is artificial — it was derived from Qara Khan or Qara Khaqan (Persian: قراخان‎, translit. Qarākhān, the word "Kara" means "black" and also "courageous" from Old Turkic 𐰴𐰺𐰀), which was the foremost title of the rulers of the dynasty, and was devised by European Orientalists in the 19th century to describe both the dynasty and the Turks ruled by it. Arabic Muslim sources called this dynasty al-Khaqaniya ("That of the Khaqans") or al Muluk al-Khaniyya al-Atrak (The Khanal kings of the Turks), while Persian sources often preferred the term Al-i Afrasiyab (Persian: آل افراسیاب‎, translit. Āl-i Afrāsiyāb, lit. 'House of Afrisyab') on the basis of the legendary kings of pre-Islamic Transoxania, although they are also referred to as Ilek Khanids or Ilak Khanids ( (Persian: ایلک خانیان‎, translit. Ilak-Khānīyān) in Persian. Chinese sources refer to them as Halahan or Heihan (Chinese: 黑汗, literally "Black Khan") or Dashi (Chinese: 大食, a term for Arabs that extends to Muslims in general).

Origin

The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a confederation formed some time in the 9th century by Karluks, Yagmas, Chigils, and other peoples living in Zhetysu, Western Tian Shan (modern Kyrgyzstan), and Western Xinjiang around Kashgar.

History

The Karluks were a nomadic people from the western Altai Mountains who moved to Zhetysu. In 742, the Karluks were part of an alliance led by the Basmyl and Uyghurs that rebelled against the Göktürks. In the realignment of power that followed, the Karluks were elevated from a tribe led by an el teber to one led by a yabghu, which was one of the highest Turkic dignitaries and also implies membership in the Ashina clan in whom the "heaven-mandated" right to rule resided. The Karluks and Uyghurs later allied themselves against the Basmyl, and within two years they toppled the Basmyl khagan. The Uyghur yabghu became khagan and the Karluk leader yabghu. This arrangement lasted less than a year. Hostilities between the Uyghur and Karluk forced the Karluk to migrate westward into the western Turgesh lands.

 





Qarakhanid Dynasty (B)

Qarakhanid Dynasty (999-1211) (B)


The map of Kara-Khanid Khanate as of 1006 AD when it reached its greatest extent
 

11th-12th-century Karakhanid mausolea in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan.


Qarakhanid Dynasty
, also spelled Karakhanid, also called Ilek Khanid, Turkic dynasty (999-1211) that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia.

The Qarakhanids, who belonged to the Qarluq tribal confederation, became prominent during the 9th century. With the disintegration of the Iranian Sāmānid dynasty, the Qarakhanids took over the Sāmānid territories in Transoxania. In 999 Hārūn (or Ḥasan) Bughra Khān, grandson of the paramount tribal chief of the Qarluq confederation, occupied Bukhara, the Sāmānid capital. The Sāmānid domains were split up between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorāsān and Afghanistan, and the Qarakhanids, who received Transoxania; the Oxus River thus became the boundary between the two rival empires. During this period the Qarakhanids were converted to Islām.

Early in the 11th century the unity of the Qarakhanid dynasty was fractured by constant internal warfare. In 1041 Muḥammad ʿAyn ad-Dawlah (reigned 1041-52) took over the administration of the western branch of the family, centred at Bukhara. At the end of the 11th century, the Qarakhanids were forced to accept Seljuq suzerainty. With a decline in Seljuq power, the Qarakhanids in 1140 fell under domination of the rival Turkic Karakitai confederation, centred in northern China. ʿUthmān (reigned 1204-11) briefly reestablished the independence of the dynasty, but in 1211 the Qarakhanids were defeated by the Khwārezm-Shāh ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Muḥammad and the dynasty was extinguished.

 








  Kara Khitai (1124-1218)


Qara Khitai Empire (Western Liao) as of 1160 AD when it was at the greatest extent.

Qara Khitai

Qara Khitai (1124-1218) (W)


Qara Khitai circa 1200.

The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Mongolian: Хар Хятан; 1124-1218), or Western Liao (traditional Chinese: 西遼; simplified Chinese: 西辽; pinyin: Xī Liáo), officially the Great Liao (traditional Chinese: 大遼; simplified Chinese: 大辽; pinyin: Dà Liáo), was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.

The dynasty was founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in the north and northeast of modern-day China. The empire was usurped by the Naimans under Kuchlug in 1211; traditional Chinese, Persian, and Arab sources considered the usurpation to be the end of the Qara Khitai rule.

The empire was later conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1218.


Names

Kara Khitan (Hala Qidan) was the name used by the Khitans to refer to themselves. The phrase is often translated as the Black Khitans in Turkish, but its original meaning is unclear today. In Mongolian, "Kara-Khitan" is rendered "Хар Хятан" (Khar Kidan).

Since no direct records from the empire survive today, the only surviving historical records about the empire come from outside sources. The empire took on trappings of a Chinese state, so Chinese historians generally refer to the empire as the Western Liao dynasty, emphasizing its continuation from the Liao dynasty in north and northeast China.

Black Khitans (黑契丹) has also been seen used in Chinese. "Qara," which literally means "black," corresponds with the Liao's dynastic color black and its dynastic element Metal, according to the theory of Five Elements (wuxing). The Jurchens referred to the empire as Dashi or Dashi Linya (after its founder), to reduce any claims the empire may have had to the old territories of the Liao Dynasty.

Muslim historians initially referred to the state simply as Khitay or Khitai; they may have adopted this form of "Khitan" via the Uyghurs of Kocho in whose language the final -n or -ń became -y. Only after the Mongol conquest did the state begin to be referred to in the Muslim world as the Kara-Khitai or Qara-Khitai. Qara Khitai or Khitan is the origin of "Cathay", an old name for China.

Khitan people (W)


Depiction of Khitans by Hugui (胡瓌, 9th/10th century), hunting with eagles. The Khitans in the 10th century, forebears of the Kara-Khitans.


The Khitan people (Chinese: 契丹; pinyin: Qìdān) were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

They spoke the Khitan language, which appears to be related to the Mongolic languages. As the Liao dynasty, they dominated a vast area north of and including parts of China. After the fall of the Liao dynasty in 1125 following the Jurchen invasion, many Khitans followed Yelü Dashi's group westward to establish the Qara Khitai, or Western Liao dynasty, in Central Asia, which lasted several decades before falling to the Mongol Empire in 1218.

History of the Khitans (W)

The history of the Khitans dates back to the 4th century. The Khitan people dominated much of Mongolia and modern Manchuria (Northeast China) by the 10th century, under the Liao dynasty, and eventually collapsed by 1125 (or 1211).

Originally from Xianbei origins they were part of the Kumo Xi tribe until 388 when the Kumo Xi-Khitan tribal grouping was defeated by the newly established Northern Wei. This allowed the Khitan to organize and consolidate their own tribe and entity which led to the beginning of Khitan written history.

From the 5th to the 8th centuries the Khitan were dominated by the steppe powers to their West the Turks and then the Uyghurs. The Chinese also came from the south (Northern dynasties or Tang). In some cases they were under Korean domination (from the East, mainly Goguryeo) according to the balance of power at any given time. Under this triple domination the Khitan started to show growing power and independence. Their rise was slow compared to others because they were frequently crushed by neighbouring powers—each using the Khitan warriors when needed but ready to crush them when the Khitans became too powerful.

Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai (1216-1218) (W)


Mongol conquest of Qara Khitai (Western Liao) and Chinese regimes.


The Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in the years 1216-1218 AD. Prior to the invasion, war with the Khwarazmian dynasty and the usurpation of power by the Naiman prince Kuchlug had weakened the Qara Khitai. When Kuchlug besieged Almaliq, a city belonging to the Karluks, vassals of the Mongol Empire, Genghis Khan dispatched a force under command of Jebe to pursue Kuchlug. After his force of 30,000 was defeated by Jebe at the Khitan capital Balasagun, Kuchlug faced rebellions over his unpopular rule, forcing him to flee to modern Afghanistan, where he was captured by hunters in 1218. The hunters turned Kuchlug over to the Mongols, who beheaded him. Upon defeating the Qara Khitai, the Mongols now had a direct border with the Khwarazmian Empire, which they would soon invade in 1219.

 










 

 

 

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