Timur İmparatorluğu

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


 
 

Timur İmparatorluğu


Etnik karakter etik değildir.

Etnik karakter moral nitelikten de yoksundur. Moğolların kitle kıyımlarının da eşliğinde şiddet yoluyla kurdukları imparatorluğun başlıca güdülerinden biri yağma hırsı idi.

 

  • Etnik gruplar istençsizliklerinden ötürü önder gereksinimi içindedir.
  • Etnik dünya bir kültürel türlülük dünyasıdır.
  • Etnik gruplar tikellikleri ya da görelilikleri zemininde başka etnik gruplar ile ya hoşgörü ya da iç-savaş ilişkisi içindedir. Birinci durumdaki etnik görecilik kendinde ikinci durumdaki etnik özekcilik ile bir ve aynı şeydir.
  • Etnik görecilik etik kavramını tanımaz ve her kültürü kendinde özek sayar. Etnik özekcilik de evrensel etik kavramını tanımaz ve kendi göreliliğini algılamaz.

 

Etnik küme henüz bir kümedir, henüz tüzel, moral ve etik bir yapı değildir. Bu kümeler toplumsal, ulusal, dinsel belirlenimleri olmayan türsel insanların soyut bilinçlerine ortak mitsel (gök, yer olarak doğal), soysal (ata olarak doğal), yerel (bölge olarak doğal) belirlenimler yüklemeleri yoluyla oluşur. Etnik kültürlerde insan doğasına özünlü hak, ahlak ve etik kavramları etkin değildir.

 

İstençsiz etnik kalabalıklar bir önderin istenci altında kolayca etnik imparatorluklar oluşturur. Ve bunlar kuruldukları gibi kolayca dağılır.

 

  • Etnik grup dinsel bir topluluk değildir. Şamanizm, şintoizm, budizm, "büyü dinleri" denilen şeyler ve fetişizm genel olarak din için zorunlu olan Tanrı kavramından yoksundur.
  • Etnik grup bir gereksinimler dizgesi olarak birarada duran toplum değildir.
  • Etnik grup özgürlük tarafından belirlenen ulus değildir.
 

  Timur İmparatorluğu


Timur's empire upon his death in 1405. Tamerlane was not a Mongol. He was only indirectly connected with the Mongol ruling house (through a princess).  

Timur

Timur (W)


Timur facial reconstruction from skull.

Reign 9 April 1370 – 14 February 1405
Coronation 9 April 1370, Balkh
Predecessor Amir Hussain
Successor Khalil Sultan
Born 9 April 133, 6 Kesh, Chagatai Khanate
Died 19 February 1405 (aged 68), Otrar, Farab, near Shymkent, Syr Darya
Burial Gur-e-Amir, Samarkand
Consort Saray Mulk Khanum
Wives
Chulpan Mulk Agha
Aljaz Turkhan Agha
Tukal Khanum
Dil Shad Agha
Touman Agha
Other wives
Full name Shuja-ud-din Timur
House Barlas Timurid
Father Amir Taraghai
Mother Tekina Khatun
Religion Islam

 

Timur ( 9 April 1336-18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane ("Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was “the product of an islamized and iranized society,” and not steppe nomadic.

Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana (in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, and the declining Delhi Sultanate. From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death.

Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (died 1227). According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He justified his Iranian, Mamluk, and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers." To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", and patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde, and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China.

Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe, sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.

He was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur (1483-1530), founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857. Timur is considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru.

 



Timur’s legacy

Timur’s legacy (W)


The Timurid Empire at Timur's death in 1405

📹 Rise and fall of the Timurid Empire (VİDEO)

Rise and fall of the Timurid Empire (LINK)

 

 




Timur's legacy is a mixed one. While Central Asia blossomed under his reign, other places, such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi and other Arab, Georgian, Persian, and Indian cities were sacked and destroyed and their populations massacred. He was responsible for the effective destruction of the Nestorian Christian Church of the East in much of Asia. Thus, while Timur still retains a positive image in Muslim Central Asia, he is vilified by many in Arabia, Iraq, Persia, and India, where some of his greatest atrocities were carried out. However, Ibn Khaldun praises Timur for having unified much of the Muslim world when other conquerors of the time could not. The next great conqueror of the Middle East, Nader Shah, was greatly influenced by Timur and almost re-enacted Timur's conquests and battle strategies in his own campaigns. Like Timur, Nader Shah conquered most of Caucasia, Persia, and Central Asia along with also sacking Delhi.

Timur's short-lived empire also melded the Turko-Persian tradition in Transoxiana, and in most of the territories that he incorporated into his fiefdom, Persian became the primary language of administration and literary culture (diwan), regardless of ethnicity. In addition, during his reign, some contributions to Turkic literature were penned, with Turkic cultural influence expanding and flourishing as a result. A literary form of Chagatai Turkic came into use alongside Persian as both a cultural and an official language.

Tamerlane virtually exterminated the Church of the East, which had previously been a major branch of Christianity but afterwards became largely confined to a small area now known as the Assyrian Triangle.

Timur became a relatively popular figure in Europe for centuries after his death, mainly because of his victory over the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid. The Ottoman armies were at the time invading Eastern Europe and Timur was ironically seen as an ally.

Timur has now been officially recognized as a national hero in Uzbekistan. His monument in Tashkent now occupies the place where Karl Marx's statue once stood.



Genealogical relationship between Timur and Genghis Khan

 




📹 Tamerlane & History of The Timurid Empire (VİDEO)

Tamerlane & History of The Timurid Empire (LINK)

Tamerlane, History of the Timurid Empire.

Sources
The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane by By Beatrice Forbes Manz
A brief history of eastern Asia by Ian C. Hannah
Larousse Encyclopedia of Ancient and Medieval History by Marcel Dunan

 



📹 600-1450 Regional and interregional interactions — Khan Academy (VİDEO)

600-1450 Regional and interregional interactions — Khan Academy (LINK)

The Black Death ravages the Ilkhanate. Timur (Timurlane) establishes the Timurid Empire.

 




Timurid Empire


Timur's empire upon his death in 1405. Tamerlane was not a Mongol. He was only indirectly connected with the Mongol ruling house (through a princess).  

   

Timurid Empire

Timurid Empire (W)



Timurid Empire at its greatest extent. Dark green is territories and light green is areas subjugated to Timur's raids.

The Timurid Empire, self-designated as Gurkani, was a Persianate Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Uzbekistan, Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey.

The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin.

The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.

Timur conquered large parts of Central Asia, primarily Transoxiana and Khorasan, from 1363 onwards with various alliances (Samarkand in 1366, and Balkh in 1369), and was recognized as ruler over them in 1370. Acting officially in the name of Suurgatmish, the Chagatai khan, he subjugated Transoxania and Khwarazm in the years that followed. Already in the 1360s he had gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate and while as emir he was nominally subordinate to the khan, in reality it was now Timur that picked the khans who became mere puppet rulers. The western Chagatai khans were continually dominated by Timurid princes in the 15th and 16th centuries and their figurehead importance was eventually reduced into total insignificance.

 



History — Rise

History — Rise (W)

Timur began a campaign westwards in 1380, invading the various successor states of the Ilkhanate. By 1389, he had removed the Kartids from Herat and advanced into mainland Persia where he enjoyed many successes. This included the capture of Isfahan in 1387, the removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and the expulsion of the Jalayirids from Baghdad. In 1394-95, he triumphed over the Golden Horde, following his successful campaign in Georgia, after which he enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus. Tokhtamysh, the khan of the Golden Horde, was a major rival to Timur in the region. He also subjugated Multan and Dipalpur in modern-day Pakistan in 1398. Timur gave the north Indian territories to a non-family member, Khizr Khan, whose Sayyid dynasty replaced the defeated Tughlaq dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi.[citation needed] Delhi became a vassal of the Timurids but obtained independence in the years following the death of Timur.[citation needed][dubiousdiscuss] In 1400–1401 he conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 he destroyed Baghdad and in 1402 defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara. This made Timur the most preeminent Muslim ruler of the time, as the Ottoman Empire plunged into civil war. Meanwhile, he transformed Samarkand into a major capital and seat of his realm.

Timur appointed his sons and grandsons to the main governorships of the different parts of his empire, and outsiders to some others. After his death in 1405, the family quickly fell into disputes and civil wars, and many of the governorships became effectively independent. However, Timurid rulers continued to dominate Persia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, large parts of Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,[citation needed] minor parts of India,[citation needed]and much of Central Asia, though the Anatolian and Caucasian territories were lost by the 1430s. Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat, cities that became the center of the Timurid renaissance.[7] The cost of Timur's conquests amount to the deaths of possibly 17 million people.[8]

Shahrukh Mirza, fourth ruler of the Timurids, dealt with Kara Koyunlu, who aimed to expand into Iran. But, Jahan Shah (bey of the Kara Koyunlu) drove the Timurids to eastern Iran after 1447 and also briefly occupied Herat in 1458. After the death of Jahan Shah, Uzun Hasan, bey of the Ak Koyunlu, conquered the holdings of the Kara Koyunlu in Iran between 1469 and 1471.

 



History — Fall

History — Fall (W)

The power of Timurids declined rapidly during the second half of the 15th century, largely due to the timurid tradition of partitioning the empire and by 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire had lost control of most of its territory, and in the following years was effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and Eastern Anatolia fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid dynasty, secured by Shah Ismail I in the following decade. Much of the Central Asian lands was overrun by the Uzbeks of Muhammad Shaybani who conquered the key cities of Samarkand and Herat in 1505 and 1507, and who founded the Khanate of Bukhara. From Kabul, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty though it was directly inherited from the Timurids. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India but eventually declined during the following century. The Timurid dynasty finally came to an end as the remaining nominal rule of the Mughals was abolished by the British Empire following the 1857 rebellion.

 



Culture

Culture (W)

Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas tribe, which was of Turkicized Mongol origin, they had embraced Persian culture, converted to Islam, and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Thus, the Timurid era had a dual character, reflecting both its Turco-Mongol origins and the Persian literary, artistic, and courtly high culture of the dynasty.

Language

During the Timurid era, Central Asian society was bifurcated, with the responsibilities of government and rule divided into military and civilian spheres along ethnic lines. At least in the early stages, the military was almost exclusively Turko-Mongolian, while the civilian and administrative element was almost exclusively Persian. The spoken language shared by all the Turko-Mongolians throughout the area was Chaghatay. The political organization hearkened back to the steppe-nomadic system of patronage introduced by Genghis Khan. The major language of the period, however, was Persian, the native language of the Tājīk (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban people. Timur was already steeped in Persian culture and in most of the territories he incorporated, Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin. Persian became the official state language of the Timurid Empire and served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry. The Chaghatay language was the native and "home language" of the Timurid family, while Arabic served as the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences.

 



📹 The Rise and Fall of the Timurid Empire (VİDEO)

The Rise and Fall of the Timurid Empire (LINK)

 

 



 

 



Battle of Ankara

Battle of Ankara

The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (Bajazet) and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and it led to a period of crisis for the Ottoman Empire (the Ottoman Interregnum). However, the Timurid Empire went into terminal decline following Timur's death just three years after the battle, while the Ottoman Empire made a full recovery, and continued to increase in power for another two to three centuries.

 



 

📹 Battle of Ankara 1402, Ottoman-Timurid War (VİDEO)

Battle of Ankara, 1402 Ottoman-Timurid War (LINK)

Despite heavy casualties during the battle of Kosovo (1389) against a broad alliance of the Balkan peoples led by Serbian lord Lazar and battle of Nicopolis (1396) against European Crusaders led by Jean of Never, Sigismund I of Hungary and Mircea I of Wallachia, Ottoman empire continued to expand under the leadership of sultan Yildirim Bayezid I. To the east new empire under amir Timur (Tamerlane) was on the rise and as the borders of two empires touched, the war was inevitable. The battle of Ankara of 1402 was one of the biggest fought between the Muslim empires. At the same time, results of this massive battle impacted Ottoman, Timurid, Byzantine empires and changed the course of the history of Europe, Asia, Middle East and Balkans.

 







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