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REFORMASYON; Almanya, 15 yy

Almanya, 15 yy (LINK)

 

Almanya, 15 yy sonu

Almanya, 15 yy

Almanya 1483 — bir kasvet ve hastalık zamanı. O günlerde veba birkaç gün içinde bütün bir kasabayı silip süpürebiliyordu ve o günlerde tüm çocukların dörtte biri beş yaşına gelmeden ölüyordu.

Bu dünyada tek bir büyük avunç vardı — kilise ve onun cennet için verdiği söz.

Bu söz kiliseyi yeryüzündeki en güçlü kurum yaptı. Ona Kralların servetinden daha büyük bir servet kazandırdı. Ama onu yozlaştırdı ve bir tiranlığa çevirdi.

Bu imparatorluk tek bir insan tarafından devrilecekti — Martin Luther tarafından (ama bu gerçekçi değildir).

REFORMASYON; Martin Lutler, 95 Tez; Bağışlama Belgeleri

REFORMASYON; Martin Lutler, 95 Tez; Bağışlama Belgeleri (Indulgences) (LINK)

 



 

Luther ve 95 Tez

Luther ve 95 Tez

Bağışlama belgeleri Roma Katolik Kilisesine göre "kişinin günahlarından ötürü çekeceği cezanın miktarını azaltmanın bir yolu"dur. Para karşılığında satın alınan belgelerin Purgatori denilen arınma işleminde çekilecek zamansal cezanın süresini azalttığına inanılıyordu. Katolik Kilisenin topladığı paranın bir bölümünün Roma'da St. Peter Katedralinin yapım giderlerini karşılamada kullanıldı. Luther bu kağıt parçalarının gerçek pişmanlığı önlediğini ileri sürdü.

Luther'in 95 Tezi gerçekte günün en büyük gücü olan Kiliseye karşı sert bir saldırı idi. Tanrının kayrası Papanın anahtarları olmaksızın da herkese sınırsızca açıktı. Bağışlama belgeleri zararlı idi, çünkü kayıtsızlık yaratıyor ve esenliği engelliyorlardı. Papa Kroseus'tan daha varsıl olduğuna göre, elindekilerden birazını satarak parayı yoksullara vermesi yerinde olurdu. Tanrının bağışlaması belgelere değil, pişmanlığa bağılıydı.

Metinleri akademik tartışma için kilise kapısına tutturmak o günlerde yaygın bir uygulama idi ve Luther onları yayımlamayı düşünmüyordu. Latince yazılmış olmaları okunmalarını ve anlaşılmalarını zorlaştırdı. Ama Luther eyleminin önemini kavramasa da, Almanya'da daha şimdiden güçlenmiş olan protesto onları çok iyi anladı, yazılar iki hafta içinde Almanca'ya çevrildi, basıldı ve bütün Almanya üzerinde okunmaya başladı.

Bağışlama belgelerini sorgulayan yalnızca Luther değildi. Bütün Avrupa'da bunlarla ilgili yakınmalar vardı. Bu nedenle de tezler çok hızlı yayıldı ve güçlü bir destek buldu.

Papanın kendisi bağışlama belgelerinin satışının destekleyicilerinden biri idi ve satışlar onun onayı ile yapılıyordu. Luther Tezlerin Kilisenin en yüksek katmanlarında yol açacağı karışıklığı önceden görmedi ve Roma Katolik Kilisesi ile çatışma gibi bir niyeti yoktu. Tezler bir heretik olarak kabul edilmesine neden oldu. Heretikliğin cezasının ölüm olmasına karşın, süreçte Luther Protestan prenslerin koruması altında çabalarını sürdürdü ve başka yazılar yayımlamanın yanısıra İncil'i Almanca'ya çevirdi.

 



 

Jericho: Epik Etnik Temizlik, Ya Da İsrail Ulusunun Doğuşu

Jericho: Epik Etnik Temizlik, Ya Da İsrail Ulusunun Doğuşu (LINK)

Yahweh İsrail oğullarına kendisini tanrı olarak tanımaları karşılığında toprak vaadetti. Ama bu topraklarda daha şimdiden kentler ve kasabalar ve köyler vardı. Sorun değil. İsrailliler, Aski Ahit'in anlattığı mite göre, tüm nüfusu kılıçtan geçirdiler.Yahweh bir kabile ile pazarlık eden enteresan bir "tanrı"dır. İsrail oğullarına başkalarının toprağını verecek ve karşılık olarak ele geçirilecek kentlerdeki tüm nüfus kesilerek ona adak olarak sunulacak ve bir bonus olarak insanların altın, gümüş, demir ve bronzları da kendisine bırakılacaktır. Bu mitin sapıklığın düzeyi onu okuyanların moral yargılarını bloke eder.

Musa'nın ölümünden sonra Tanrı (Jahweh) Joshua'yı İsrail halkının önderi olarak seçer. Mısır'dan çıktıktan sonraki adım İsrail halkının Tanrının kılavuzluğu altında Kenan ülkesini (Filistin) fethetmesidir. Tanrı Joshua'ya şunları söyler: "Korkma, cesaretini yitirme, çünkü Tanrın Efendi nereye gidersen seninle olacak" (Joshua 1:9).

 

 

Jericho Kitle Kıyımı
Jericho Yahweh'in en ünlü kitle cinayetlerinden biridir. İnananlar buna bayılıyor görünürler. Hakkında şarkılar söyler ve çocuklarına onu anlatırlar.

Yahweh Joshua'ya Jericho kentini ona verdiğini ve adamlarının altı gün boyunca her gün kent çevresinde yedi kez yürüyüş yapmalarını söyler. Bu yapılırken arkın (sandık) önünde yürüyen yedi rahip koç boynuzlarından yapılmış yedi borazanı çalacaktır. Yedinci gün yedi rahip yedi borazanı çalarak kent çevresinde yedi kez yürüyüş yapacaktır. Uzun bir güçlü üfleme yapacaklar, herkes haykıracak, ve duvarlar devrilecektir. Borazanlar çalar, insanlar haykırır ve duvarlar devrilir. Sonra Joshua askerlere Tanrıya bir sunu olarak kentteki herkesi öldürmelerini söyler. Ve tüm gümüş, altın, bronz ve demir yalnızca Tanrıya bırakılacaktır.

6:23 And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.

6:24 And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.

Bu metin herhangi bir eleştiriye, herhangi bir heyecanlı ateistin çözümlemesine gereksinmez. Belki de gözden kaçırılmaması gereken biricik nokta inananların ve onların Katolik ve Protestan rahiplerinin bütün bu yabanıllığı tanrısal türe olarak ve böyle metinleri "Kutsal Yazılar" olarak görmeyi sürdürmeleridir. Eski Ahit yazarlarının imgelemlerinde yer alan bu tür sadistik ve sapık olaylara edimsel tarihin kendisi bile izin vermez. Jericho Savaşının yer aldığını gösteren herhangi bir arkeolojik kanıt ya da Eski Ahit metninden başka herhangi bir belge yoktur.

 

Çocukları moral olarak geliştirme ve onlara yüksek karakter kazandırma amacıyla yapılmış bir çizgi film. (LINK)

“The Book of Joshua” (Eski Ahit)

“The Book of Joshua”

1:1 Now after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD it came to pass, that the LORD spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' minister, saying,

1:2 Moses my servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel.

1:3 Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, that have I given unto you, as I said unto Moses.

1:4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.

1:5 There shall not any man be able to stand before thee all the days of thy life: as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.

1:6 Be strong and of a good courage: for unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware unto their fathers to give them.

1:7 Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper withersoever thou goest.

1:8 This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success.

1:9 Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of a good courage; be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed: for the LORD thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest.

1:10 Then Joshua commanded the officers of the people, saying,

1:11 Pass through the host, and command the people, saying, Prepare you victuals; for within three days ye shall pass over this Jordan, to go in to possess the land, which the LORD your God giveth you to possess it.

1:12 And to the Reubenites, and to the Gadites, and to half the tribe of Manasseh, spake Joshua, saying,

1:13 Remember the word which Moses the servant of the LORD commanded you, saying, The LORD your God hath given you rest, and hath given you this land.

1:14 Your wives, your little ones, and your cattle, shall remain in the land which Moses gave you on this side Jordan; but ye shall pass before your brethren armed, all the mighty men of valour, and help them;

1:15 Until the LORD have given your brethren rest, as he hath given you, and they also have possessed the land which the LORD your God giveth them: then ye shall return unto the land of your possession, and enjoy it, which Moses the LORD's servant gave you on this side Jordan toward the sunrising.

1:16 And they answered Joshua, saying, All that thou commandest us we will do, and whithersoever thou sendest us, we will go.

1:17 According as we hearkened unto Moses in all things, so will we hearken unto thee: only the LORD thy God be with thee, as he was with Moses.

1:18 Whosoever he be that doth rebel against thy commandment, and will not hearken unto thy words in all that thou commandest him, he shall be put to death: only be strong and of a good courage.


2:1 And Joshua the son of Nun sent out of Shittim two men to spy secretly, saying, Go view the land, even Jericho. And they went, and came into an harlot's house, named Rahab, and lodged there.

2:2 And it was told the king of Jericho, saying, Behold, there came men in hither to night of the children of Israel to search out the country.

2:3 And the king of Jericho sent unto Rahab, saying, Bring forth the men that are come to thee, which are entered into thine house: for they be come to search out all the country.

2:4 And the woman took the two men, and hid them, and said thus, There came men unto me, but I wist not whence they were:

2:5 And it came to pass about the time of shutting of the gate, when it was dark, that the men went out: whither the men went I wot not: pursue after them quickly; for ye shall overtake them.

2:6 But she had brought them up to the roof of the house, and hid them with the stalks of flax, which she had laid in order upon the roof.

2:7 And the men pursued after them the way to Jordan unto the fords: and as soon as they which pursued after them were gone out, they shut the gate.

2:8 And before they were laid down, she came up unto them upon the roof;

2:9 And she said unto the men, I know that the LORD hath given you the land, and that your terror is fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants of the land faint because of you.

2:10 For we have heard how the LORD dried up the water of the Red sea for you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were on the other side Jordan, Sihon and Og, whom ye utterly destroyed.

2:11 And as soon as we had heard these things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you: for the LORD your God, he is God in heaven above, and in earth beneath.

2:12 Now therefore, I pray you, swear unto me by the LORD, since I have shewed you kindness, that ye will also shew kindness unto my father's house, and give me a true token:

2:13 And that ye will save alive my father, and my mother, and my brethren, and my sisters, and all that they have, and deliver our lives from death.

2:14 And the men answered her, Our life for yours, if ye utter not this our business. And it shall be, when the LORD hath given us the land, that we will deal kindly and truly with thee.

2:15 Then she let them down by a cord through the window: for her house was upon the town wall, and she dwelt upon the wall.

2:16 And she said unto them, Get you to the mountain, lest the pursuers meet you; and hide yourselves there three days, until the pursuers be returned: and afterward may ye go your way.

2:17 And the men said unto her, We will be blameless of this thine oath which thou hast made us swear.

2:18 Behold, when we come into the land, thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the window which thou didst let us down by: and thou shalt bring thy father, and thy mother, and thy brethren, and all thy father's household, home unto thee.

2:19 And it shall be, that whosoever shall go out of the doors of thy house into the street, his blood shall be upon his head, and we will be guiltless: and whosoever shall be with thee in the house, his blood shall be on our head, if any hand be upon him.

2:20 And if thou utter this our business, then we will be quit of thine oath which thou hast made us to swear.

2:21 And she said, According unto your words, so be it. And she sent them away, and they departed: and she bound the scarlet line in the window.

2:22 And they went, and came unto the mountain, and abode there three days, until the pursuers were returned: and the pursuers sought them throughout all the way, but found them not.

2:23 So the two men returned, and descended from the mountain, and passed over, and came to Joshua the son of Nun, and told him all things that befell them:

2:24 And they said unto Joshua, Truly the LORD hath delivered into our hands all the land; for even all the inhabitants of the country do faint because of us.

 

3:1 And Joshua rose early in the morning; and they removed from Shittim, and came to Jordan, he and all the children of Israel, and lodged there before they passed over.

3:2 And it came to pass after three days, that the officers went through the host;

3:3 And they commanded the people, saying, When ye see the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, and the priests the Levites bearing it, then ye shall remove from your place, and go after it.

3:4 Yet there shall be a space between you and it, about two thousand cubits by measure: come not near unto it, that ye may know the way by which ye must go: for ye have not passed this way heretofore.

3:5 And Joshua said unto the people, Sanctify yourselves: for to morrow the LORD will do wonders among you.

3:6 And Joshua spake unto the priests, saying, Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass over before the people. And they took up the ark of the covenant, and went before the people.

3:7 And the LORD said unto Joshua, This day will I begin to magnify thee in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee.

3:8 And thou shalt command the priests that bear the ark of the covenant, saying, When ye are come to the brink of the water of Jordan, ye shall stand still in Jordan.

3:9 And Joshua said unto the children of Israel, Come hither, and hear the words of the LORD your God.

3:10 And Joshua said, Hereby ye shall know that the living God is among you, and that he will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Hivites, and the Perizzites, and the Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Jebusites.

3:11 Behold, the ark of the covenant of the LORD of all the earth passeth over before you into Jordan.

3:12 Now therefore take you twelve men out of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a man.

3:13 And it shall come to pass, as soon as the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of the LORD, the LORD of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of Jordan shall be cut off from the waters that come down from above; and they shall stand upon an heap.

3:14 And it came to pass, when the people removed from their tents, to pass over Jordan, and the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people;

3:15 And as they that bare the ark were come unto Jordan, and the feet of the priests that bare the ark were dipped in the brim of the water, (for Jordan overfloweth all his banks all the time of harvest,)

3:16 That the waters which came down from above stood and rose up upon an heap very far from the city Adam, that is beside Zaretan: and those that came down toward the sea of the plain, even the salt sea, failed, and were cut off: and the people passed over right against Jericho.

3:17 And the priests that bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD stood firm on dry ground in the midst of Jordan, and all the Israelites passed over on dry ground, until all the people were passed clean over Jordan.

...

4:12 And the children of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, passed over armed before the children of Israel, as Moses spake unto them:

4:13 About forty thousand prepared for war passed over before the LORD unto battle, to the plains of Jericho.

4:14 On that day the LORD magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel; and they feared him, as they feared Moses, all the days of his life.

...

5:2 At that time the LORD said unto Joshua, Make thee sharp knives, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.

...

6:3 And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go round
about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days.

6:16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the LORD hath given you the city.

6:20 So the people shouted when the priests blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city.

6:21 And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.


6:24 And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.


 



 

 



 

 

Papalık

Papalık (LINK)

Papalık ve dünyasal egemenlik

Papalık ve dünyasal egemenlik

      
   

Papalık tarihi Peter'den başlatılır ve bugüne dek uzanır (2018 Nisanında sayı kimi sayımlara göre 226'ya ulaşmıştır). İmparator Büyük Konstantin'in (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας, İS 272- İS 337; İmp. 336-337) zamanına dek papaların dünyasal bir güçleri yoktu. Roma'nın düşüşünden (476) sonra papaların dünyasal güçleri arttı ve İtalyan yarımadasında papaların doğrudan yönetimleri altında duran bir dizi Papalık Devleti kuruldu ve bunlar 8'inci yüzyıldan 1870'e dek sürdü.

    

Rönesans sırasında dünyasal egemen olarak papalığın gücü doruğuna yükseldi. Toprakları genişledi ve Kilisenin başı olmanın yanısıra İtalya'nın en güçlü devletlerinden biri oldu. Başka egemen devletler ile anlaşmalar imzalıyor ya da savaşlar yapıyordu.

Saeculum obscurum (Karanlık Çağ, 904-964 yılları) papalığın ahlaksızlık çağı olarak bilinir. On dokuzuncu yüzyıl Alman tanrıbilimcileri dönemi tanımlamak için Pornocracy (German: Pornokratie, Yun. pornokratiā, "fahişeler egemenliği"), Hetaerocracy ("metresler egemenliği") terimlerini türettiler. Pornokrasi döneminde 12 papa öldürüldü, üçü tahttan indirildi ve üçü tahttan vazgeçti.

Papalık bir aile mülkiyeti gibi oldu. Rönesans döneminde aşağı yukarı herşeyin ve herkesin bir ederi vardı ve hiçbir şeye ve hiçbir kimseye güvenmek olanaklı değildi. Leo X'un "Papalığın keyfini sürelim, çünkü onu bize Tanrı verdi" dediği söylenir ("Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us" LINK).

İspanyol kökenli Borgias Ailesi 15 ve 16'ncı yüzyıllarda kilise ve politika sorunlarına nüfuz kazandı ve bu dönemdeki papalardan ikisi ailenin üyeleri idiler.

Bu Rönesans papalarının birçoğunun metresleri vardı ve onlardan çok sayıda çocukları oldu. Entrikalara giriştiler ve bir zina, ensest, simoni, hırsızlık, rüşvetçilik ve cinayet kültürü yarattılar.

A Glass of Wine with Caesar Borgia (1893) by John Collier. From left: Cesare Borgia, Lucrezia Borgia, Pope Alexander VI, and a young man holding an empty glass. The painting represents the popular view of the treacherous nature of the Borgias - the implication being that the young man cannot be sure that the wine is not poisoned.

 

Avrupa'da Duyunç Gecikmesi
Roma Katolik Kilisesinin bir moral niteliğinin olmadığını söylemek bir totoloji olacak, ya da hiç olmazsa saflık olarak görünecektir. Din bütününde ahlaksız papalar, kardinaller ve rahipler için dünyasal bir egemenlik aracı olarak, insanlığı aldatmak için bir araç olarak kullanıldı. İşkence, odun yığını, kitle kıyımı Kilisenin dürüstlük ve düzgünlük isteyenlere karşı başvurduğu en etkili araçlar idi. Haçlı seferleri bu dönemde yapıldı ve bu seferlerde aralarına Kudüs de olmak üzere birçok kentte kitle kıyımlarına da başvuruldu.

Orta Çağlar Avrupası aşağı yukarı baştan sona evrensel bir yalan temeline dayanlı feodal bir gerilik, yoksulluk, hastalık ve pislik kültürü idi. Bu sefillik ile karşıtlık içinde, Katolik Kilise bir gösteriş ve görkem tablosu sergiliyor, kafaları ve yürekleri boş olan kitlelerden toplanan paralar ile Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian gibi Rönesans sanatçılarını kiralıyor, çirkin gücünü güzel sanatın şaşaası ile süslüyordu. Borgia ve Medici aileleri gibi güçlerin nüfuzu altında bütünüyle dünyasal sorunlara gömülen Katolik Kilise din örtüsü altında güçlü bir politika, finans, entrika ve cinayet kurumu idi. Askeri seferler düzenliyor (6 haçlı seferi), devletler kuruyor (Papalık Devletleri), kentleri vergilendiriyor ve savaşlar yapıyordu. Engizisyon bu dönemin bir yaratısı idi. Jesuit düzenleri papalığın fanatik koruyuculuğu uğruna kuruldu. Katolik Kilisenin daha sonraki yüzyıllarda da değişmeyen yozluğu her çağın değişimlerine ve yeniliklerine uyarlanarak ve kesintisiz olarak sürdürüldü. Kilise en karanlık işler ile uğraşmada bir sakınca görmeyen bir banka kurdu, Naziler ve Mafya ile ilişkiler sürdürdü, ve pedofili aşağı yukarı kurumsallaştırıldı.

Martin Luther bağışlama belgelerini kınayan Tezlerini yayımladığı zaman tarih 16'ncı yüzyıl başlarını gösteriyordu ve bu olgu o tarihlere dek yalnızca Katolik Kilisenin ahlaksızlığını değil, henüz Avrupa'nın bütününün ahlak ile tanışık olmadığını gösterir. Karanlık olarak nitelenen yüzyıllarda bir iki cılız ses dışında bütün bir Avrupa Kilisenin ruhları ve keseleri sömürmesine karşı suskundu. Yalnızca Katolik dinadamları değil, bütün bir feodal lordlar ve soylular kalabalığı, genel olarak eğitimli ve eğitimsiz nüfusun bütünü doğruyu ve eğriyi, haklıyı ve haksızı ayırdedemiyordu.

Reformasyon ona önderlik eden insanların beklentilerinden çok ayrı sonuçlara götürdü. Duyunç üzerindeki tüm dışsal yetkeyi kaldırarak Avrupa'nın moral gelişim yoluna girmesini sağladı. Anglikan Kilisesi ile İngiltere Püritanlar dışında bütünüyle bir tür yarı-Katolik yarı-Hıristiyan inanca bağlı kalmayı sürdürse de, Avrupa'da geniş bir Protestan nüfus alanı modern dönemi başlattı ve Tarihin şimdiye dek bilinmeyen yeni yollarına döndü. Reformasyon Katolik Kiliseyi reformdan geçirmeyi başaramasa da, Tarihin kendisini baştan sona reformdan geçirmeye başladı.

Paul ( The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Timothy 2:5)
"For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus". — "Çünkü tek bir Tanrı, ve Tanrı ve insanlar arasında tek bir aracı, insan İsa vardır."

 

 

 

 

Vendée: The Hidden Rebellion
French revolution, matrix of the future genocides: Vendée, 1793 (VİDEO)

Vendée

The Hidden Rebellion

The Hidden Rebellion

An 18th Century popular and Catholic uprising against the French Revolution is brutally suppressed by the Revolutionary armies. Priests and nuns are drowned, hung and thrown to an angry mob. A prayerful, peaceful region of France defends its clergy, resists the higher taxes and refuses to wage war.

Victorious at first, the Vendeans are later defeated in a 150,000 person extermination that includes the slaying of women and children so that "the race does not persist" and the world looks on as a quarter of the population vanishes.

The destruction of the population in the Vendee region was a goal of the French Revolutionary forces and raises a number of important issues related to religious liberty and political tyranny that are even more relevant and timely in light of today's geo-political climate.

The Hidden Revolution (LINK) (LINK 2)

Vendée: The Hidden Rebellion
French revolution, matrix of the future genocides: Vendée, 1793 (VİDEO)

Vendée

French revolution, matrix of the future genocides: Vendée, 1793

French revolution, matrix of the future genocides: Vendée, 1793

Vendée, 1793, peasants first support the Revolution but when French Republic forbids freedom of religious worship and introduce conscription to go fight against Europe, they quickly turn against it.

In Vendée, the revolt is organized into the so-called Catholic and Royal Army but at the end of 1793 it is put down.

Republic trembled and is now going to avenge with no mercy. Under the Committee of Public Safety rules, slaughters will multiply. Dizains of thousands of prisoners are tortured, rapped, shot or drowned... The army hunt down Vendeans, including women, children and elders, to eliminate them metodically.

In 1986, young historian Reynald Secher publishes a thesis where he describes the slaughters from the Republican Army in Vendée and names them as genocide. This is the end of a 200 years taboo.

In this documentary broadcasted on France 3 on march 7th 2012, Franck Ferrand comes back on this silenced part from French national history.

Bibliography:

  • La Vendée-Vengé, Le génocide franco-français - Reynald Secher
  • La désinformation autour des guerres de Vendée et du génocide vendéen - Reynald Secher
  • Le livre noir de la Révolution Française - Renaud Escande et collectif d'historiens

To see the same video in french with english captions : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjW4IE... To see the complete original documentary (in french) : Partie 1 http://rutube.ru/tracks/5413459.html Partie 2 http://rutube.ru/tracks/5413515.html Stéphane Courtois http://tinyurl.com/d8q4mkp

French revolution, matrix of the future genocides: Vendée, 1793 (LINK)

 

Mayflower; Pilgrimler

Mayflower; Pilgrimler

The Story of the Mayflower and the First Thanksgiving

The Story of the Mayflower and the First Thanksgiving

1620'de Mayflower İngiltere'den Kuzey Amerika'ya geçti. 100'ün üzerinde yolcusu ile zorlu bir seferin sonunda Yeni Dünyanın kıyılarına ulaştı. Ama hedefin yüzlerce kilometre kuzeinye sürüklenmişti. Virginia yerine bugün Massachusetts olarak bilinen yere ulaştı. Pilgrimleri önceden düşündükleri herşeyi aşan güçlükler bekliyordu ve kış sona erdiği zaman aralarında birçoğu sağ kalmayı başaramadı. Pilgrimler ancak bölgedeki Amerikan yerlilerinin yardımı ile bir yerleşim kurabildiler..

 

 

KUZEY AMERİKA'NIN KOLONİLEŞTİRİLMESİ

Kuzey Amerika’nın Kolonileştirilmesi (LINK)


1) Kuzey Amerika'da İlk Koloniler


2) Hollanda ve İsveç Yerleşimleri

İlk Yerleşimler

İlk yerleşimler

Kuzey Amerika'da ilk Avrupa yerleşimi Florida'da İspanyollar tarafından kurulan St. Augustine idi. İlk sürekli İngiliz yerleşimi Jamestown ve ikincisi 1620'de Plymouth kolonisi idi. Plymouth kolonisi Birleşik Devletler'in kültürel modelini saptayan yerleşim olarak kabul edilir.

Püritanlar Yeni Dünyaya Avrupa’nın arkaik kültürlerinden arınmış olarak geldiler ve yanlarında Roma Katolik Kilisesinin boşinançlarını ve Avrupa'nın feodal sınıf ayrımlarını getirmediler. 1607’de Mayflower’dan karaya ayak basan Pilgrimlerin yanlarında yalnızca en gerekli nesne, tümünün imzaladığı bir “hak eşitliği sözleşmesi” vardı. Yeni dünyalarını eski dünyanın kraliyetinden, aristokrasisinden, feodalizminden ya da herhangi bir ulusal tikelciliğinden artıklar ile kirletmediler. Dinlerini, Hıristiyanlığı bile aşağı yukarı bütün bir pozitif içeriğinden ve süslemelerinden arındırılmış olarak getirdiler. Özgürlük ve hak eşitliği, yasa egemenliği kavramlarının bilincini taşıyorlardı — kadınları ve renkli insanları dışlama koşulu ile. Ve Demokratik Devrimlerini yanlarında getirdiler — tamamlamak üzere.

Başlıca İngiliz Püritanların, Protestan Hollandalıların, Almanların ve İsveçlilerin önderliğinde şekillenmeye başlayan yeni Amerikan kültürü daha başından ana toplumdan dışlanan Katolik göçmenlerden etkilenmedi. Bağımsızlık Savaşında İngiltere'yi destekleyen Kraliyetçi göçmenler toplam nüfusun yalnızca %20 kadarını oluşturuyorlardı (ve savaşta sonra aşağı yukarı tümü İngiltere'ye geri dönmek zorunda kaldılar). Kölelik kurumu başlıca tütün üretiminin kârlılığı nedeniyle güney kolonilerde daha güçlü olarak yerleşti.

 



(HARİTA) Pilgrim Kolonileri (Plymouth; Massachusetts; Boston) ve Amerikalı Yerliler

Plymouth; Massachusetts; Boston

 



Pilgrims Thanksgiving (RESİM)

Pilgrims Thanksgiving



 


3) Jamestown'un Kuruluşu


4) Massachusetts Bay Area; Puritan Göçler; John Winthrop; Boston; Amerika Yerlileri

 


5) Plymouth ve Jamestown Arasındaki Ayrımlar


6) İngiltere İle Tecim

 


7) Püritan Boşinançlar; Salem


8) Amerika Yerlileri İle Savaşlar

 


9) Doğu Kıyısı Kolonizasyonu


10) Jamestown; İlk Köleler

Püritan kız (RESİM)

Püritan kız



Köle satışı (RESİM)

Köle satışı



Tüm Afrika bölgelerinden tüm Amerika bölgelerini Transatlantik Köle Teciminin Hacmı ve Yönü (HARİTA, GRAFİK)

Tüm Afrika bölgelerinden tüm Amerika bölgelerine Transatlantik Köle Teciminin Hacmı ve Yönü

 



 



 

FRANSIZ DEVRİMİ

Fransız Devrimi (LINK)


1) Bastille


2) Genel Katmanlar

Bastille Kalesinin Alınması

Bastille’in Alınması (14 Temmuz 1789)

Bastille Paris'te cephanelik ve hapishane olarak kullanılan bir Kale idi. Saldırı sırasında kalede yalnızca 7 mahkum bulunuyordu ve halk kalede bulunan barutu ele geçirmek istiyordu. Bastille'in alınmasının yalnızca simgesel bir değeri vardır ve gelecekte bekleyen şiddet eylemleri içinde en önemsiz olanlardan biri idi.

Kralın Üçüncü Katmandan yana olan maliye bakanı Necker'ı görevden alması halka tutucular tarafından bir darbe girişimin başlangıcı gibi göründü. Ve kraliyet birliklerinin toplanması Versailles'da çalışmakta olan Ulusal Kurucu Meclisin kapatılması için bir hazırlık gibi göründü. 12 Temmuzda Paris'te sayıları on binleri bulan kalabalık toplandı. Camille Desmoulins elinde bir pistol ile masaya çıkarak halka seslendi: "Yurttaşlar, yitirilecek zaman yok. Necker'ın görevden alınması yurtseverlere yönelik bir kitle kıyımının duyurusudur. ... Yapılacak tek şey var: Silahlara sarılmak."

Kentte yer yer kalabalık ve Kraliyet askerleri arasında çatışmalar çıktı. Halk ekmek, tahıl ve silah yağmalama eylemlerine girişti. O günlerde Kraliyet askerleri toplumsal kargaşaların yayılmasını durduracak hiçbirşey yapmadı. 14 Temmuzda Paris bir alarm durumunda idi. İsyancılar ilkin Hôtel des Invalides'i bastılar. Amaçları orada bulunan misket tüfeklerini ele geçirmekti (29.000 ya da 32.000 kadar). 250 fıçı barut bir güvenlik önlemi olarak bir gün önce Bastille'e taşınmıştı. Bastille boştu ve zindanlarında yalnızca yedi mahkum kalıyordu. Kalede 82 emekli askerin olmasına karşın, bu sayı 32 İsviçreli asker ile güçlendirilmişti. Çeşitli büyüklüklerde 30 top vardı. Kalabalığın sayısı 1000'in biraz altında idi ve çoğu bölgenin insanları idi. Kale ile görüşmeler yapılırken kalabalık denetimden çıktı ve kaleye saldırı başladı. Kaleden top atışları yapıldı. Kalabalık daha sonra destek aldı ve kaleye karşı kullanılmak üzere toplar getirildi. Saatlerce süren çarpışmadan sonra kale komutanı kaleyi teslim emeyi kabul etti ve kalenin kapılarını açtırdı. Saldırı sırasında halktan 98 kişi ve kaleden bir asker öldü. Kale komutanı De Launay yakalandı (yukarıdaki tabloda betimlenen olay), sokaklarda sürüklenerek dövüldü, sonunda bıçaklanarak öldürüldü ve başı kesilerek bir mızrağın ucunda dolaştırıldı. Daha sonra garnizondan iki asker daha linç edildi. Kalabalık bunların arkasından belediye başkanını Jacques de Flesselles'i buldu ve ihanet ile suçlayarak onu da öldürdü.

Devrimin bu en ikonik olayı devrimin başlangıcı olarak kabul edilir ve onyıllarca sürecek bir kavganın karakterini sergiler.



Bastille'in Alınması (RESİM)

Bastille



 


3) Lafayette; Devrimin Birinci Yılönümü


4) Marie-Antoinette; Giyotin



 

 

The Winter War of Finland and Russia (1/4)

The Winter War of Finland and Russia (1/4)
(LINK) (LINK / with subs)


 

The Winter War of Finland and Russia (1/4)

The Winter War of Finland and Russia (1/4)

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939 and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty.

What does the past learn us? The finnish people was heroic and the russians were lousy soldiers as always...

Amazing spirit that the Finnish People showed against all odds.

The Great nation of Finland stood against Russia and made the Russians pay for every inch of ground. It doesn't matter that the Finns technically lost. It was an embarrassing and hollow victory for the Red Army.

So many people seem to think Finland was a fascist country, that hated minorities just like Germany, Italy and Japan. Finland only accepted Germany's help because none of the allies would help us, as the Soviet Union was also one of the allies. This made Finland technically an Axis country, but it was the only one of them, that smuggled jews away from the Nazi's grasp and had field synagogues for the fighting jews. Announcing that Finland was an Axis country and Germany's ally in their campaign against the Soviet Union was just a part of the German propaganda, as Finland had no intention to attack them after Winter War was over. However, it triggered the Continuation War as the Soviets started shelling Finnish cities immediately after they had heard Germany's broadcast. Also, I think it's unfair to say that Finland lost the war because we got what we wanted, we got to keep our independence and only lost about one 10th of our land, which is hell of a lot better than losing it all. Finland also put up a fiercer fight than any of the countries that the soviets tried to invade (with the exception of Germany, that had prepared for the war in secret for years), and for those calling Finns backstabbers for attacking the Germans after the Continuation War was "lost", they didn't, again, have any other choice as one of the conditions in the Moscow Armistice (which Finland wanted to honor as well as they could not to provoke the Soviet Union any more) was that the German troops would have to be driven out of Finnish lands.

 



 

MAXIMLIEN ROBESPIERRE

Robespierre (LINK)


1) Robespierre: Terör ve Erdem


2) Terör

Maximillien Robespierre (1758-1794)

Maximillien Robespierre (1758-1794)

Robespierre gençliğinde ölüm cezasına heyecanla karşı çıkan duyarlı bir insandı. Köleliğin kaldırılmasını da savunuyordu. Demokrasi ve eşitlik düşüncelerinin devrimin ele geçirmesi gereken hedefler olduğuna inanıyordu. Girondinlerin devrimi Avrupa'ya yaymak için Fransa'yı devrimci savaşlara sokma planlarına da karşı çıkarak "hiç kimse silahlı kurtarıcıları istemeyecektir" diyordu. Bu yanları ile bir devrim kahramanı olarak görünür.

İnsan yaşamına böylesine önem ve değer verdiğini ve şiddetin özgürlük getirmeyeceğini düşünen bu insan gerçekte yalnızca kendini aldatıyordu. Robespierre'in insan yaşamına hiçbir değer vermemesi ve şiddetin kendisinin yerine giderek çıplak terörü savunmaya başlaması tüm insancıl karakterinin bir yalan olduğunu gösterir. İnsan yaşamı Robespierre için en değersiz şeydi, idam cezasına karşı çıkışı içten değildi, ve şiddete karşı çıkışı yalnızca göstermelik idi.

Böyle görünürde bütünüyle "normal" bir insan zamanla bir çılgına dönmesini engelleyecek moral bir özden yoksundu. Devrimde acımasız, amansız ve insanlık dışı olan herşeyin en önde gelen temsilcisi oldu.



Terör ve Erdem

Terör ve Erdem

Terör Robespierre’in bir icadı değildi ve onu “demokrasinin genel ilkesinin bir sonucu” (“une conséquence du principe général de la démocratie”) olarak gördü. Böyle bir çıkarsamayı yapmak insan duyuncunun gücünün ötesindedir. Robespierre Terörü bütünüyle olağan birşey olarak gördü, tıpka o çağlarda işkencenin de öyle görülmesi gibi.

Robespierre’in dilinden düşürmediği sözcük ‘erdem’ idi. Ama erdem ile anladığı şey yalnızca dürüstlük idi ve seçtiği sözcüğün yaptıkları ile ilgisiz olduğunu, aslında tam tersi olduğunu anlamayacak kadar güçlü bir entellektüel idi. Terörün kendisi bir aşırılık iken, Robespierre teröristler arasında en aşırısı idi. Tüm dostlarını giyotine gönderdi. Dünyaya heyecanla, neredeyse yeni bir peygamber tonuyla erdemin terörsüz olamayacağını duyurdu — bir görüş ki, erdemi yürekliliğe değil, tam tersine korkuya dayandırır.



 


4) Robespierre: Konvansiyonda Tutuklanıyor


4) Robespierre: Giyotin



 

 

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

Napoleon Bonaparte (LINK)


1) Napoleon İmparatorluk Tacını Takıyor


2) Ordunun Toparlanması; Avusturya Bağlaşığıı Piedmont İle Savaş

 


4) Avusturya İle Savaş; Lodi Köprüsünün "Alınması"; Saltık Yüreklilik


4) Josephine

 


5) La Grande Armée


6) Avusturya; Viyana; Beethoven

 


7) Trafalgar; Nelson; Austerlitz Savaşı; Avustur; Rusya

 



 

 

The Destruction of Jerusalem

The Destruction of Jerusalem (LINK)



Number of prisoners taken in the entire war: 97,000. Died during siege: 1,100,000. This large number during the siege was due to the Passover celebration, as Jews from many countries had been in the city for the festival when the siege began. Josephus tells skeptical readers this number is consistent with Cestius' population estimate under Nero.

The Destruction of Jerusalem

The Destruction of Jerusalem / (LINK)

      
   

Disaster was looming for Jerusalem. Radical groups were growing, and the occupying powers grew increasingly uneasy. As far back as A.D. 39, the Roman emperor Caligula had uncovered a plot to overthrow Roman rule. Furious, he responded by reorganizing the territory and rewarding the leaders most loyal to Rome. When Jews in Egypt rioted against local authorities, Caligula reacted with the most outrageously offensive order imaginable. He commanded that a statue of himself be raised in the Jerusalem Temple. His aides knew that this would be an act of war, but Caligula — who was known for his violent temper and whom many suspected to be insane — would not back down. But bureaucrats dragged their feet, and the project was delayed long enough for even Caligula to see its madness. He reversed his order.

But the damage was done. The Jews and the Romans, always suspicious of one another, were now further estranged. Other incidents followed — attacks on Roman citizens became more frequent. Gentiles, for their part, began to taunt their Jewish neighbors. In the year 66, some Greeks sacrificed birds in front of a synagogue, while the Romans looked on and did nothing. Outraged, the Temple priests put a stop to all sacrifices offered for the good of Caesar. The Roman procurator reacted by sending troops to the Temple to make a huge withdrawal of gold from the treasury — a gift for the emperor.

Now came war. From the Roman perspective, it seemed to come from many directions. There were countless cells of disaffected men — and sects of warriors inspired by prophecy. All closed in on the imperial troops and government. So began the bloodshed that came to be known as the first Roman-Jewish War.

The war raged from A.D. 66 to 73, but its climax was a seven-month siege of Jerusalem in the year 70. The Romans sealed off all the city’s supply routes and stopped up its water supply. By midsummer that year, the Romans had breached the walls, and at the end of July the city was in flames. On July 29, the Temple — Herod’s grand reconstruction, which had only recently been completed — was destroyed. The Christians had long since left the city, warned by a prophecy given to the Church.

Both Christians and Jews came to see the destruction of Jerusalem as God’s judgment on a sinful generation. At that point, however, their interpretations parted ways. For the Jews, sacrifice ceased with the utter destruction and profanation of the Temple. For Christians, however, the age of pure sacrifice was just beginning. They recalled that, at Jesus’ death, “the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom” (Mt. 27:51). The Temple thus had been decommissioned, made obsolete by Jesus’ sacrifice.

Now the Temple was Christ. Now the Temple was His Church. So close was the communion of Christ with His Church.

That was the Gospel of Jesus Christ as it was proclaimed in the apostolic age, by the Church through its ministers and martyrs.

 

 

 

 



 

The Babylonian Conquest and the Destruction of the First Temple

The Babylonian Conquest and the Destruction of the First Temple (LINK)



 

The Babylonian Conqest and the Destruction of the First Temple

The Babylonian Conqest and the Destruction of the First Temple

 

 

 

 



 

HAVARİ PAUL (SAUL)

Havari Paul (Saul) (İS 5 Antakya-67 Roma) (Link: Quest for the Real Paul)


1) Havari Paul ve Hıristiyanlığın Kurulması

Hıristiyanlık ve Yahudilik; St. Paul'ün Yolculukları

Paul (Saul); Yolculuklar

      
   

Havari Paul (Lat. Paulus; Yun.: Παῦλος; yklş. İS 5-67), genellikle Aziz Paul olarak ya da İbranice adı ile Tarsuslu Saul (İbr. שאול התרסי‎; Yun. Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς) olarak da bilinir. Bir havari olarak kabul edilir (ama ilk on iki havariden biri değildir). Birinci yüzyıl dünyasına İsa'nın gospelini öğretti. Hem bir Yahudi hem de bir Roma uyruğu idi. Farisi geleneğine bağlı bir aileye ait olmasına karşın, erken yaşta klasik felsefe ve etik konusunda eğitim gördü ve yazılarında ağırlıklı olarak Yahudi tikelciliği ile bağdaşmayan evrenselci stoacı terimler kullandı (Tarsus üniversitesi Yunan felsefesi öğretiminde Atina ve İskenderiye okulları ile yarışıyordu.) İbranice konuşabilmesine karşın, anadilinin Koine Yunancası olmuş olması olasıdır. Hıristiyanlığa dönmeden önce İsa'nın Kudüs bölgesindeki ilk izleyicilerine yaptığı zulümler "ölçünün ötesinde" idi. Şam'dan Kudüs'e giderken yolda İsa'nın kendisine görünerek ona "Saul, Saul, niçin bana zulüm ediyorsun?" diye seslenmesinden sonra görüşlerini değiştirdi ve İsa'nın Yahudi Mesih ve Tanrının Oğlu olduğunu öğretmeye başladı. Yeni Ahit'in yirmi yedi kitabından on üçü Paul'e yüklenir.

Paul İS 30-50 yılları arasında Anadolu ve Avrupa'da birçok kilise kurdu. Paul'ün esenliğin hayır işleri üzerine değil ama yalnızca inanç üzerine dayandığı düşüncesi daha sonra Hippolu Augustine ve Martin Luther tarafından kabul edildi (sola fide).

Paul'ün Yahudilikten Hıristiyanlığa dönmesi Yahudiliğin Hıristiyanlığa dönüşmesi ile aynı şey değildir. Yunanca konuşan Tarsus' doğumlu Paul hiçbir zaman Yahudiliği reddetmiş görünmez ve kendini "Yahudilerin Yahudisi" olarak ve bir "Farisi" olarak niteler.

"Hıristiyan" nitelemesi ilk kez Antakya'daki İsa izleyicileri için kullanıldı. Birinci yüzyılda henüz Hıristiyanlık olarak ayrı bir din yoktur. Paul hiçbir yazısında "Hıristiyan" terimini kullanmaz ve kendini yalnızca İsa'nın bir izleyicisi olarak görür. İsa'nın izleyicileri için "Yol" terimi kullanılır. "Yol" olarak adlandırılan ilk kilisede okunan yazılar Eski Ahit'tendir ve henüz Yahudilik ve Hıristiyanlık ayrımı yoktur.



      
   

İlk Yolculuk. Paul ve Barnabas şekillenmekte olan yeni inancı öğretmek üzere Antakya'dan Kıbrıs'a ve oradan Anadolu'ya geçtiler ve sonunda yine Antakya'ya geri döndüler. Birçok kent ve kasabada sinagogları ziyaret ederek Yahudi ve Gentil karışımı topluluklara seslendiler. Yahudiler ve Gentiller arasında bir ayrım yapmamaları Yahudilerin bir bölümünü gücendirdi. Antakya'ya geri döndükleri zaman orada Judea'dan gelen Farisiler, özellikle Peter Gentillere karşı Yahudi yasasının (sünnet) uygulanması konusunda direttiler. Bu gelenek olmaksızın "kurtuluş" söz konusu değildi. Katolik Ansiklopedisine göre Paul'ün görüşüne uygun olarak Gentillerden Yahudi geleneğine ve Musa yasalarına uymalarının beklenmemesi kabul edildi.

İkinci Yolculuk. 49 yılının sonbaharında Paul ve Silas İsa'nın öğretisini anlatmak üzere Antakya'dan Tarsus'a gittiler. Sonra oradan Makedonya ve Yunan kentlerine doğru yola çıktılar. Selanik'te başarılı olamadılar ve sinagogdaki kimi Yahudilerin Paul'ün Sezar'ın egemenliğinin yerine İsa'nın krallığını geçirmek istediğini ileri sürmeleri üzerine yetkililer tarafından kenti terk etmek zorunda bırakıldılar. Atina'da Paul tapınakların çokluğundan ve putların kalabalığından şaşkına döndü. Atinalılar Paul'ün sözlerini dinlediler, anlamadılar, ve daha fazla açıklama istediler. Paul onlara putperestliğin yanlış olduğunu anlattı, ama pek inandırıcı olamadı. Orada ayrıca Stoacılar ve Epikürcüler ile tartıştı. Onlara yeni inancın birincil karakteristiğinin İsa'nın yeniden dirilişi olduğunu söylediği zaman, herşeyi, giderek en kutsal olanları bile sorgulayan bu insanlar onu daha fazla dinlemeyeceklerini bildirdiler.

      
   

Paul Korint'te daha başarılı oldu. Orada 18 ay kalarak Yahudiler ve Gentiller ile konuştu. Yahudiler ona inanmadılar ve yasadışı bir din öğrettiğini ileri sürerek Romalı yetkililer tarafından yargılanmasını istediler. Romalı yönetim sorunu Yahudilerin bir iç sorunu olarak gördü ve Paul'ün etkinliklerini yasaklamadı. Paul ve Silas Atina'dan Efes'e geçtiler. Paul orada üç ay boyunca bir sinagogda konuşmalar yaptı, ama etkili olamadı. Yunanistan'da dolaşmalardan sonra Miletus'a geçtiler. Sonra aynı yolculuklar sürdü, aynı olaylar yineledi, iki kez hapse atıldı.

      
   

Üçüncü Yolculukta Paul Galatia ve Frigia kentlerine uğradıktan sonra Efes'e gitti ve orada üç yıl kaldı. Orada çeşitli "tansıklar" yaptı, insanları iyileştirdi ve cinleri kovdu. Artemis'e tapınanların saldırısına uğradı. Bir kez daha Yunanistan'a doğru yola çıktı ve orada üç ay kaldıktan sonra yanındakiler ile birlikte Kudüs'e geri döndü.

Paul 60 yılı sırasında Roma'ya geldi. Orada iki yıl ev hapsinde kalarak mahkemesini bekledi. Oraya geldiğinde kentte daha şimdiden Hıristiyanlar vardı. Yeni Ahit Paul'ün ne zaman ve nasıl öldürüldüğünü söylemez. Ama ölümün 64 yılındaki Büyük Roma Yangınından sonra ve Nero'nun hükümranlığının son yılı olan 68'den önce yer aldığı kabul edilir.

Paul'ün konuşmalarında vurguladığı başlıca temalar çarmıha gerilme, yeniden diriliş ve İsa'nın ikinci gelişi idi. Bu gelişin kendi yaşamı sırasında yer alacağına inanıyordu ve bu olunca İsa'ya insanlığın kurtarıcısı olarak inananlar yeniden yaşama dönecekler ve henüz sağ olanlar "onlarla birlikte İsa'yı havada karşılamak için bulutlarda yakalanacaklardı" (1 Thes. 4:14-18).

İlk yüzyıllar sırasında doğmaya başlayan Hıristiyanlığın Yahudi geleneklerine bağlılığı zamanla azaldı. Ama dışsal geleneklerin kabul edilmesindeki bu sürekliliğe karşın yeni din gerçek evrensel din karakterini kazanmaya doğru evrimlendi. Ve Paul'ün orta yolculuğuna ya da karışımcılığına karşın Yahudilik ve Hıristiyanlık arasındaki ayrım belirginleşti. İnancını hiçbir zaman boşinançlardan ve dışsallıklardan ayırmayan Paul Hıristiyanlığın şekillenmesinde önemli bir rol oynadı. Başlangıçta Hıristiyanlık onu kuşatan putperest inançlar okyanusunda başkalarından çok ayrı olmayan bir inanç biçimi olarak görünüyordu. Daha sonra bu gizem dinlerinden ve putperest tapınma biçimlerinden pek çoğu çok az değişiklikler ile halkları döndürebilmek için Hıristiyan inancın içerisine alındı.

Paul'ün Hıristiyanlığın gerçek kurucusu olduğu görüşünün yanında Paul'ün Hıristiyanlığı bozduğu görüşü de vardır ve her iki görüş de (aslında daha başka sayısız "görüş") din kavramı ile ilgisiz olarak Paul mitolojisinden diledikleri öğeleri seçerek kolayca tezlerini desteklerler. Bu anlak tartışmalarının sonunun gelmesi olanaksızdır, çünkü her yeni kuşak boşinançlara yatkın yeni üyelerini üretir. Bu kültürel-çoğulculuk kültürü yaşamı kirletmenin ve çirkinleştirmenin yanısıra sık sık cinayetlere, kitle-kıyımlarına, mezhep savaşlarına da yol açar.

      
   

Din açısından tarih bir yalancı değerler tarihi olarak görünür, çünkü tinin en bilgisiz kesiminde en değersiz nesnelere tanrısalın değeri yüklenir. İnsan ne olursa olsun değer yaratmalı, varoluşa anlam yüklemeli, onu yükseltmelidir. Bu bir bakıma tinin anlam için dürtüsüdür. Ama yükleyeceği değerler ve anlamlar tinin kendisinin gelişmişliği ile orantılı olarak değerli ve anlamlıdır. Henüz tarihinin başında olan, henüz gelişiminin en alt basamaklarında olan tin kendi düşünsel, duygusal ve duyusal gizilliğini ancak yetersiz olarak geliştirebilmiştir ve gerçek güzellik, düşünsel yükseklik, moral değer ile karşılaşsa bile kendisi onlara denk değildir ve onlara karşı duyarsız ve küttür. Bu nedenle güzel sanatlarda, felsefede ve bilimde de bu geri bilinç biçimleri hiçbir zaman gerçekten değerli, yüksek ve önemli olanı duyumsayamaz ya da anlayamazlar.

Sınırlı bir monoteizm kavramı Yahudiliği önceler ve kökenleri Mısır dinine dek gider. İÖ on dördüncü yüzyıl Mısırında Aten "Yanında başka hiçbir Tanrının bulunmadığı biricik Tanrı" idi. İÖ altıncı yüzyılda Zerdüştler Ahura Mazda'nın herşeyin üzerindeki tek Tanrı olduğuna inanıyorlardı. Musa tam olarak monoteistik bir inanç biçimi önermez, çünkü İsrail oğullarının tek Tanrısının yanısıra "başka" tanrıların da olduğunu, ama İsrail oğullarının onlara tapmamaları gerektiğini bildirir.

Putperestlik Katolik ve Ortodoks Hıristiyanlıkta bugün de sürdürülür ve arınma tamamlanmış değildir. Üçlülük kavramının ya da en azından İsa'nın Tanrının Oğlu olduğu tezinin İznik Konseyi tarafından kabul edilmesi Paul'ün evrensel din yöneliminin sonuçlarını güçlendirdi.

 

  • Problem Hıristiyanlık ve Yahudilik arasındaki ayrım değil, ama din kavramına uygunluk problemidir. Üçlülük olarak din kavramı Tanrıyı, yaratısı olarak Oğulu ve evrensel insanlık Tinini kapsar.
  • Paul Yahudi İsa'yı evrensel kurtarıcıya dönüştürdü (σωτήρ / sōtēr).

 




2) Hıristiyanlık ve Anti-Semitizm: Marcion (85-160), Konstantin, Luther

Hıristiyanlık ve Anti-Semitizm

Hıristiyanlık ve Anti-Semitizm

      
   

Yahudiler İsa'yı tanımadılar ve çarmıha gerilmesine neden oldular. Belgeler ve yazılar tarafından başka herhangi bir tarihsel olgu kadar doğrulandığı kabul edilen çarmıha gerilme büyük olasılıkla İS 30-33 yılları arasında yer aldı. Olaydan Tacitus da söz eder (Annals 15.44).

Hıristiyanlık için İsa Tanrının Oğludur ve onunla Birdir. Bütün bir Hıristiyanlık tarihine yayılan anti-semitizmin kaynağı Hıristiyan inancın terimlerinde Yahudilerin Hıristiyanlığın "Tanrı"sını öldürerek saltık suçu işlemiş olmalarıdır.

Anti-semitizm İsa'nın Tanrı olarak görülmesini öncülü olarak alır. Tanrının Oğlunun ölümüne neden olan etmen yalnızca kişi ya da kişiler olarak değil, ama bir inanç biçimi olarak görülür. Buna göre yalnızca fanatik Farisiler değil, genel olarak Yahudilik İsa'nın öldürülmesinden sorumlu tutulur. Dolayısıyla anti-semitizm soykırım tanımına uygun düşen biricik bakış açısıdır, çünkü bütün bir Yahudi soyunu yok etmeyi amaçlayan a priori suçlu bir niyet kapsar. Bu durumda anti-semitizm özgür istenci de tanımaz çünkü herhangi bir yok edici eylemde bulunmayan insanları da suçlu sayar, yalnızca eylemde bulunanların değil, ama gelecek kuşakların da cezalandırılmasını gerektirir. Öte yandan, bütün bir Yahudi inancı, Eski Ahit olarak, aynı Hıristiyan İncil'de kapsanır ve buna göre anti-semitizm Yahudi dininin öğretilerinin reddedilmesi ile ilgili değildir.

Sinoplu Marcion (85-160) savaşçı Yahudi tanrısını Yehuva'nın İsa'nın şefkat ve sevgi Tanrısı ile bağdaşmaz olduğunu ileri sürdü. Yahudilik ve Hıristiyanlık arasında tam bir kopuş olduğunu ve İsa'nın öğretisi ve Eski Ahit arasında tam bir karşıtlık bulunduğunu savundu. Kendisi bir piskopos olan Marcion piskoposlar tarafından afaroz edildi.

Büyük Konstantin (imp. 306-337) Hıristiyanlığa dönen (312) ilk Roma imparatoru idi. 325'te İznik Konseyini topladı ve Arianizm sorununun bir çözüme bağlanmasını sağladı. Konsey ayrıca Kiliseyi İbrani takviminden kopardı ve Paskalyayı (İsa'nın yeniden dirilişinin kutlaması) ve Passoverden (Yahudilerin Mısır'dan çıkışının kutlaması) ayırdı. Kiliselere yazdığı bir mektupta Konseyin kararlarını özetleyerek şunları söyledi: "Bu çok kutsal bayramın kutlanmasında saygısızca ellerini muazzam bir günah ile kirleten Yahudilerin uygulamasını izlememiz değersiz birşey gibi göründü. Öyleyse iğrenç Yahudi kalabalığı ile ortak hiçbirşeyimiz olmasın; çünkü biz Kurtarıcımızdan ayrı bir yol yordam kazandık." (Eusebius, Life of Constantine Vol. III Ch. XVIII Life of Constantine (Book III) (Catholic Encyclopedia)). Sonraki imparatorlar da aynı tutumu izleyince Yahudiler zamanla imparatorluğun ikinci sınıf uyrukları durumuna düştüler.

Konstantin'in Mektubu (İngilizce)

Konstantin'in Mektubu (Link-Wikipedia)

"... it appeared an unworthy thing that in the celebration of this most holy feast we should follow the practice of the Jews, who have impiously defiled their hands with enormous sin, and are, therefore, deservedly afflicted with blindness of soul ... Let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd; for we have received from our Saviour a different way."[2]

Theodoret's Ecclesiastical History records The Epistle of the Emperor Constantine, concerning the matters transacted at the Council, addressed to those Bishops who were not present:

"It was, in the first place, declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded. ... Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries. ... Let us ... studiously avoiding all contact with that evil way. ... For how can they entertain right views on any point who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, are guided not by sound reason, but by an unrestrained passion, wherever their innate madness carries them. ... lest your pure minds should appear to share in the customs of a people so utterly depraved. ... Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have any thing in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord. ... no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews."[3]

 

 

 

Luther'in anti-semitizmi yalnızca inanca değil, insana da yöneliktir. Bu Protestanlığın birincil önderinin usdışı püskürmelerinden yalnızca biridir. Luther kendisinin özgür eylemi ile bütünüyle tutarsız bir tarzda özgür istence de karşı çıkıyordu.

 



İsa'nın Tarihselliği

İsa’nın tarihselliği

Olgular
Yeni Ahit İbranice değil, Yunanca yazıldı ve yeni dinin özeği Roma idi.

Kanıtlar?
Yeni Ahit'te betimlenen imgesel İsa karakternin dışında fiziksel bir insan olarak İsa'nın varlığı, her tarihsel karakter durumunda olduğu gibi, geçerli sayılabilecek kanıtların varlığına bağlıdır. İsa karakteri bir tür kurgu ve olgu karışımıdır ve varoluşu yalnızca "genellikle" kabul edilir.

İsa (Yun. Ἰησοῦς/Iesous; İbranice ישוע‎, /Yeşua) yaklaşık olarak İÖ 4 ve yaklaşık olarak İS 30-33 ve belki de 36 yılları arasında yaşadı. Eski Ahit'te bildirilen beklenen Mesih olduğuna inanılır.

Paul'ün Mektuplarındaki tanıklığı kesin kanıt değerini taşımaz, çünkü Paul İsa'yı görmüş değildir ve Mektupların kendileri İsa'nın ölümünden 20 ya da 30 yıl sonra yazılmışlardır.

     
John Mill's 1707 Greek New Testament was estimated to contain some 30,000 variants in its accompanying textual apparatus[1] which was based on "nearly 100 [Greek] manuscripts."[2] Eberhard Nestle estimated this number in 1897 as 150,000–200,000 variants.[3] Bart D. Ehrman has estimated that there are "between 200,000–400,000 variants [in] several million pages of manuscripts,"[4] and in 2014 Eldon J. Epp raised the estimate as high as 750,000.[5] The most recent estimate puts the number of non-spelling variants among New Testament manuscripts around 500,000.[6]

(LINK)

 

     
İsa hakkında "genellikle" kabul edilen olgular:
  • İsa Galileeli bir Yahudi idi.
  • Etkinlikleri Galilee ve Judea'ya sınırlı idi.
  • Vaftizci John tarafından vaftiz edildi.
  • Öğrenciler topladı.
  • Tapınakta bir olay yarattı.
  • Romalılar tarafından Kudüs yakınlarında çarmıha gerildi.
  • Ölümünden sonra öğrencileri bağlılıklarını sürdürdüler.
  • Öğrencilerinden kimileri zulme uğradı.

 

Eğer tansıklar yapmayan, kendini Tanrının oğlu olarak görmeyen ve normal bir insan olarak yaşayan "reel" İsa varolmuş olsaydı, açıktır ki ne dinsel olarak ne de tarihsel olarak herhangi bir önemi ve anlamı olurdu. Dinsel bilinç için bir İsa mitolojisinin yaratılması kaçınılmaz idi. İsa imgesi gospeller ile başlayarak Üçlülük Din Kavramının Oğul momenti olarak idealize edildi. Ve evrensel Tanrı kavramına uygunluk gereği, yeni dinin Roma İmparatorluğunun kozmopolitan ortamına yayılması zorunlu idi.

 



 

Paul’ün Yolculukları

Paul’ün Yolculukları



2018_04_06 Etik ve Küreselleşme / (CKM Ses Kaydı) / Hıristiyanlığın Başlangıcı; İlk Kilise; St. Peter; St. Paul; Yahudilik; Gentiller

Paul's Mission and Letters

Paul’s Mission and Letters

Carrying the 'good news' of Jesus Christ to non-Jews, Paul's letters to his fledgling congregations reveal their internal tension and conflict.

Wayne A. Meeks:

Woolsey Professor of Biblical Studies Yale University

WHO WAS PAUL?

The Apostle Paul is, next to Jesus, clearly the most intriguing figure of the 1st century of Christianity, and far better known than Jesus because he wrote all of those letters that we have [as] primary sources.... There are many astonishing things about him. For example, in modern scholarship, we have tended to divide various categories. There are gentiles, and there are Jews. There are Greek speaking people and there are Hebrew speaking people. There's Palestinian Judaism, which includes apocalypticism. There's Rabbinic Judaism and there's Hellenistic Judaism, which has derived deeply from the Greek world. Paul seems to fall into several of these categories, therefore confounding our modern divisions. So he's an intriguing and puzzling character in some respects.

The primary impact he has left on Christianity after him is through his letters, but in his own time, he sees himself primarily as a prophet to the non-Jews, to bring to them the message of the crucified Messiah, and he does this in an extraordinary way. He is a person who is somehow a city person, and he sees that the cities are the key to the rapid spread of this new message. ...At one point he can write to the Roman Christians, I have filled up the gospel in the East, I have no more room to work here. What could he possibly mean? There are only a handful of Christians in each of several major cities in the Eastern Empire. What does he mean, that he has filled up all of the Eastern Empire with the gospel? But we look at those places and we see [that] each of them is on a major Roman road or it is at a major seaport. They are the great trading centers of the world. They are the center of migrations of people and he sees this world, from a Roman point of view, which is an urban point of view, that the surrounding country is centered in that city and the spread of Christianity depends upon getting it to those major centers....

L. Michael White:

Professor of Classics and Director of the Religious Studies Program University of Texas at Austin

PAUL IN CORINTH

Mike, take us back in time to Corinth early fifties and describe the scene. What's happening? What's going on that's new?

The city of Corinth in about the year 50 would have been the burgeoning capital of a Roman province in the Greek East. ... A great center. It had two ports. One on the Aegean side and one on the Adriatic side so that it served as one of the major crossroads for Roman shipping throughout the Mediterranean. So when Paul arrived in Corinth in the year 50, he would have come up the slopes to the center of the city and seen the rise of a great Roman splendor. A kind of monumental city built around the remains of the older Greek city, the center of which was the temple of Apollo with its great monolithic Ionic columns standing up above the rest of the city.

And what does [Paul] do [when he arrives in Corinth?]

So when Paul gets there he must have gone among the merchants and the artisans who would have been the key figures in the economic growth of the city, precisely because Corinth was an important trade center spanning the Eastern and the Western half of the Mediterranean. ...The city of Corinth is a bustling cosmopolitan place with people from all over the Mediterranean world there, and so when we see Paul in Corinth he's really another one of these travelers and tradesman. Traditionally at least Paul is a tent maker. He's somehow involved in the tent making or leather working industry. We've often viewed Paul as some sort of handworker. He may be actually from the upper artisan class. His family may have owned the business back in Tarsus. We're not absolutely sure but it's quite reasonable to think of Paul then moving very comfortably among the artisans who frequent and inhabit the marketplaces of a city like Corinth ....

... Let's imagine Paul going up the main street of Corinth through the monumental Roman archway into the forum, the center of city life, the place where all the business and most of the political activities are done in the public life of this Roman city. Here are the shops. Here are the offices of the city magistrates, and we're standing literally in the shadow of the great temple of Apollo. It's among these artisans, among the shopkeepers, among the bustle of activity of a Greek city that we must imagine Paul beginning to talk about his message of Jesus and so when we hear Paul say "I've determined to know nothing among you but Jesus Christ, Jesus the Messiah and him crucified," that must have struck an interesting chord among these cosmopolitan Greeks who would have inhabited Corinth at that time.

How would they have reacted?

They must have reacted as if this is some sort of strange message at certain levels. What does it mean to call someone the Christ or the Messiah? It must not have been intelligible to a lot of them until some sort of explanation could be given. From other references within Paul['s writings] we can determine some of the rudiments of his preaching message. He talks about how they turn from idols to serve a living God so he brings a message of the one Jewish God as part of his preaching. He's a Jewish preacher. Secondly, he talks about the wrath to come, a kind of apocalyptic image of a coming judgment on all who worship idols and don't serve that living God, and thirdly he talks about Jesus the Messiah as the one who will deliver from that wrath. So in Paul's view it is the messianic identity of Jesus that is an important new element in this very traditional Jewish message and now there's one other element. He's taking it to a non-Jewish audience. He's preaching to gentiles.

So why is he preaching to gentiles?

Paul had decided to preach to gentiles apparently out of his own revelatory experience that this was the mission that had been given him by God when God called him to function as a prophet for this new Jesus movement.

But Paul was Jewish, wasn't he?

Paul was Jewish. Paul was a Jewish prophet but when Paul talks about himself he describes himself as having been called from the womb to serve and fulfill this mission. But that language of being called from the womb is prophetic language drawn directly from the prophet Isaiah and the prophet Jeremiah, so Paul sees himself in direct continuity with this Jewish legacy of the prophetic tradition as someone called to have a special purpose. A special function on behalf of God.

Do we know anything about Paul's upbringing, his background?

Traditionally Paul grew up as a Diaspora Jew. That is from a Jewish family, [with a] very traditional Jewish upbringing but living not in the homeland but rather in Tarsus, a city in Eastern Turkey. So he lives in a Greek city, itself, in fact, an interesting kind of crossroads on the frontier of the Middle East, and yet he also had a very traditional Jewish education. He was himself a Pharisee and trained as a Pharisee so he would have been conversant with the tradition of interpretation of the scriptures and indeed of the prophets themselves. When we hear Paul using prophetic language both as a way of framing his preaching message and also as a way of describing his own self-understanding, it is because he was steeped in that prophetic language from his own studies in the Jewish tradition.

PAUL IN ANTIOCH

Why does Paul go to Antioch?

We ha[ve] the story of Paul's life in a complete narrative fashion given to us in the Book of Acts, which details his activities from the time that he was in Jerusalem to the time that he goes to Damascus. There [he] has a conversion experience and afterwards comes back to Jerusalem. He then moves on to Antioch, one of the other important cities of the Greek East under Roman rule. In fact it's the capital of Roman Syria. We also know that there was a very large Jewish community in Antioch, and apparently when Paul went there it was because he understood it to offer a very important opportunity for him to preach this new message that he had come to understand as a result of his own revelatory experience about Jesus.

...Alongside of our account of Paul's life that we get from the Book of Acts we also have an account that Paul himself gives us and it's very important to notice that in some ways these two accounts contradict one another. They're not completely parallel in the way they describe certain events in Paul's career. For example in Galatians, when Paul tells us about his early career, he explicitly says he has little or nothing to do with Jerusalem early on. Only later does he come back to Jerusalem to become more familiar with the leaders of the Jerusalem Christian community. Paul himself spends more of his time away from Jerusalem. Initially in the area of Arabia. Probably around the city of Damascus, and then he moves back to Antioch. Paul describes much of his activity in the early stages of his career as a Christian. That is after his conversion around the areas of Antioch and Tarsus, his hometown.

Now when Paul describes his return to Antioch it's clear that's he working in this mixed Jewish and non-Jewish or gentile population of a major cosmopolitan center. Antioch itself has one of the largest Jewish communities outside of the Jewish homeland in the Roman period. It's been suggested that maybe something like forty thousand people in this Jewish community. So we must imagine a number of different Jewish congregations and sub-sections of the city in and through which Paul could have moved and still felt very much at home within the Jewish community. Some of these Jewish congregations probably like Paul, probably like other people in the homeland, also knew this apocalyptic message of a messianic expectation and maybe more than one kind of Messiah. Just like we see back in the homeland at this same period. So expect Paul to be preaching about a Messiah. To be talking about a messianic identity isn't really all that unique in and of itself, rather, it's more important to recognize that Paul and other followers of the Jesus movement of this time would have been given a special new meaning or a special new kind of information about their understanding of who and what that Messiah was to be.

A NEW VIEW OF THE MESSIAH

Which was?

In the Jesus movement it's clear that a new understanding has come to the fore. In fact it's slightly odd from certain perspectives. One doesn't normally expect that a Messiah should die and yet we have this ironic message in Paul that in fact the Messiah is the one who has been crucified. Now it's true that one could within a standard Jewish tradition think of the Messiah dying. The difference is that even when a Messiah should go through some sort of death or suffering that the event precipitated by that death should be the coming of the new kingdom.... What we find in Paul, and indeed among most of the early Christians, is a slightly ironic twist of fate that the death of the Messiah doesn't immediately inaugurate the new kingdom, and yet that doesn't seem to diminish their sense of apocalyptic expectation. Paul still thinks it's coming soon. He will go through his entire life thinking the kingdom will come soon but the Messiah had already died.

How does Paul refer to Jesus?

So when we hear Paul talking about the message of Jesus Christ and him crucified, we're beginning to get for the first time in the New Testament the language that will become the hallmark of all the later Christian tradition. Indeed it's where we get much of the vocabulary that makes Christianity distinctive. The term "Christ" is a title. It's the Greek translation of the Hebrew word Messioc and they mean exactly the same thing. They both refer to someone who is anointed. ... It's identifying him as a religious figure in a new way.

...[However] for Paul to use the term "Christ" does not automatically signal that we're dealing within a Christian frame of reference that everyone would have recognized. The term Christ, Messiah, could have been used by any number of different Jewish people and still meant different things. So just to hear that term even in the Greek city like Antioch probably wasn't all that unique, and yet it had to have sparked some interest. It's significant therefore that the Book of Acts tells us that the term "Christian" is a follower of the Messiah or a proponant of some Messiah.

THE TERM "CHRISTIAN"

The term "Christian" was first coined in Antioch probably some ten maybe even fifteen years after the death of Jesus. Now while this term Christian of course becomes the standard terminology for all later Christian traditions, and we think of it in much more lofty and positive terms, at the time that it was coined it was probably a slur. It was probably thrown at these early followers of Jesus as some derogatory designation of them. This is what we often see happening with new religious movements.... We often find in the sociology of sectarian groups that the group may have one self designation. They may call themselves "the way" or "the true light" or something like that because that's their religious self conception, but outsiders will often label them by the name of the leader or the name of some catchy element in their message that sparks their interest. So when we hear at Antioch that they're called "Christians" we have to think of that in more in the vein of them being called "Messianists" or "Christies." People who follow a Messiah or just talk about the Messiah an awful lot and we're not actually sure who coined the term. Whether it's other Jews who didn't believe in the Messiah or pagans who heard these Jewish groups talking about messianic ideas. It's not entirely clear.

CONTROVERSY: DO YOU HAVE TO BECOME A JEW TO FOLLOW JESUS?

Were there practical issues that arose during the time that Paul was in Antioch? Can you describe to me the difference in the tension between Jerusalem and Antioch? The tensions that arose over time.

It's during the time that Paul is Antioch that a major new development starts to take place in the Christian movement. Because it's there that we first hear of the expansion of the movement more to gentiles, to non-Jews. Even though it's coming out of this predominantly Jewish social context of the synagogue communities of Antioch. Now the situation seems to be that initially when people were attracted to the Jesus movement, they first became Jews and they had to go through all the rituals and rites of conversion to Judaism. But apparently it's among Paul and some of his close supporters that they began to think that it was okay to become a member of the Christian movement without having to go through all of those rites of conversion to Judaism, and that would, in the case of Paul's career, spark one of the most important controversies of the first generation of the Christian movement. Do you have to become a Jew in order to be a follower of Jesus as the Messiah?

The major issues in converting to Judaism for a gentile, for a non-Jew, is that one must, if a male, become circumcised, and of course this was a an obvious distinction if one is working out in a Greek gymnasium where everyone was nude to begin with so the physical fact of circumcision was the noticeably distinctive quality to Jewish self-identity in the Greco-Roman world. So the ritual of circumcision as a process of conversion to Judaism is one of those major hurdles that people would have thought about from the Greek world background in which Paul was living.

Now the other things that one must do in order to convert to Judaism, in addition to circumcision if a male, would be to observe the Torah. That is, the Jewish law and the dietary and other kinds of purity regulations that would have come from the Torah.

The one other thing to say, though, is that conversion to Judaism was actually much easier for women, and it may actually be the simple fact that more women could easily be attracted to Judaism...we know that later on when we see Paul's churches in the Greek world... in those Greek cities there are far more women in them, and it may be that this is where he had an early following precisely because it was already a hurdle that was easier to jump.

So how did Paul get this idea that it was okay not to do all this stuff? What was his logic?

Paul's notion that it was possible for gentiles to enter the congregation of God without some of the rules of Judaism interestingly enough seems to be a conviction on his part that comes from his own interpretation of the Jewish scriptures. In fact he gets it mostly from the prophet Isaiah. Paul's message of the conversion of gentiles seems to be predicated on the Isaiah language of what will happen when the kingdom comes when the Messiah has arrived and there will be a light to the nations, "a light to the gentiles." And in that sense Paul views the messianic age having arrived with Jesus as being a window of opportunity for bringing in the gentiles into the elect status alongside the people of Israel. So what Paul is really doing is creating this apocalyptic message of what the kingdom is about to be, and the arrival of the gentiles, the engrafting or integrating of the gentiles who will come to believe in the true God of Israel into the community of Israel as the elect nation, then is one of the hallmarks of the messianic age.

TENSION OVER DINING FELLOWSHIP

Do these views that Paul had, did they cause conflict or tension with the group in Jerusalem?

Apparently Paul's attitude toward gentile converts stimulated controversy both at Antioch among the Jewish communities there and also among the older Christian communities back in Jerusalem. There are several issues involved here. One is the notion of the dietary laws, the eating restrictions that would have obtained for eating certain kinds of food if one was an observant Jew. Also with whom one could eat, and so we see some indication during Paul's time in Antioch that this becomes a source of some tension. Precisely because in Paul's view it's now possible to integrate these gentiles, people who don't keep the proper food laws, into a dining fellowship with Jews, all of whom are followers of Jesus. And it's in that mixed community where fellowship around a common meal and the celebration of the story of Jesus is the center where Paul brings everyone together, but because it's at a meal it also runs headlong into some Jewish sensitivities about what kind of foods you can eat and with whom you can eat.

Now where we see this tension coming to a head most clearly is after Paul returns from a conference in Jerusalem. When he went to Jerusalem he took with him a young gentile convert by the name of Titus who was Paul's test case and Paul says explicitly that he went down to Jerusalem to meet with the leaders of the church there. ... Peter, one of the leading Apostles from all the gospel stories, and James the brother of Jesus himself.... When Paul goes to see them he takes with him Titus and some of others of the Antioch community who are his supporters in the beginning..., and they go down to ask the question of "how do we deal with these gentile converts?" and they manage to get some sort of rough agreement with the Jerusalem leadership. They agree that it's okay for Paul to convert these gentiles and yet not to force them to be circumcised.

So when Paul goes back to Antioch he seems to think that he's won a major victory in the understanding of what the Christian will be. Shortly after his return to Antioch, however, Peter arrives from Jerusalem. Initially Peter seems to have been willing to [keep] fellowship with Paul and these gentile converts. He eats with them, but then not too long thereafter some other people from Jerusalem arrive and Peter backs off. He refuses to eat with them, and Paul blows his stack because he feels that Peter has backed out on a fundamental agreement on what it means for gentiles to convert to followers of Jesus. Paul says he confronts Peter to his face and challenges him with hypocrisy.

What was the flip side of the [agreement with Peter and James in Jerusalem]? Did Paul agree to do anything in return ...?

The other thing that emerged out of the Jerusalem conference was that Paul would go predominantly to a gentile audience and from this point on in Paul's career he is a preacher predominantly to gentiles. He doesn't really work mostly in Jewish communities any longer. In fact he even says that Peter is the one charged to be the missionary to the Jewish communities. Now as part of this agreement that was reached in Jerusalem, Paul also decides that it would be important to raise funds in support of the poor in Jerusalem. That is, the followers of the Jesus movement who live there and who seem to be beset with some problems as a result of the famine or other kind of economic distress. So part of Paul's missionary activity for the rest of his career is raising funds to bring back to Jerusalem.

So what happens after he and Peter have this blow up? What does Paul do?

The blow up in Antioch over eating with gentiles probably is the turning point in Paul's career. Up until that point Paul has worked predominantly within Diaspora Jewish communities, where he moves out of the Jewish context to deal with gentiles, but after the blow up with Peter, Paul leaves Antioch and probably never returned again. And from that point on, Paul works almost exclusively within gentile communities. Now we know he does encounter other Jews in these major Greek cities and there presumably are Jewish communities in all of them, but Paul doesn't view himself as working any longer within a predominantly Jewish matrix.

Read Paul's account of the altercation at Antioch in his letter to Galatians.

PAUL IN THE AEGEAN BASIN

After the blow up with Peter at Antioch, Paul left and went to Western Turkey or Asia Minor and Greece, and that would be the new center of his missionary activity for the next ten years of his life. The dates are hard to decipher here in precise detail but if we think of the Jerusalem conference in about the year 48 by the year 49 or 50, we know that Paul is up in Northern Greece, Macedonia, in the cities of Phillipi and Thessalonica. By the year 50 he arrives in Corinth and it's at that juncture that we think of him then beginning to preach this message of Jesus Christ.... For the next ten years... from 50 to roughly 60, Paul will concentrate all of his efforts in this region of the Aegean basin. That is the region bounded by the Eastern coast of Greece and the Western coast of Turkey and the island in-between. That will be his mission center for the next ten years.

...Now within this circuit of the Aegean basin Paul basically has two or three major cities that serve as his mission bases. We know of the two cities up in \Macedonia, Phillipi and Thessalonica, that he frequents. He travels to them on several different occasions. Corinth is his base in Southern Greece. On the Eastern side of the Aegean in Turkey his base is the major city of Ephesus which precisely at the time that Paul is arriving there is about to become the most important metropolis of all Asia.

...[I]n about the year 50 to 55 when Paul is traveling back and forth from Corinth to Ephesus, this is a period when the whole Aegean is going through the beginnings of a massive growth under Roman expansion... Roman development. We should think of it as Roman urbanization programs. Now Ephesus up until this time had really not been the major city of Asia. Only under the Emperor Nero and a little later on would it really take off and grow to become the most important Greek city in the East. Paul was there just at the beginning of that process, and so we have to imagine Paul coming in to Ephesus from the harbor, down the main street to the Greek theater and encountering what was at that stage still a smallish city but one that was just about ready to take off. Like Corinth, Ephesus was a cosmopolitan environment. We have to imagine traders there from Egypt, from the Turkish hinterlands, from Greece, from Italy. In fact the inscriptions and the statues and the art work and the buildings all tell us that this is really a crossroads of culture and religious life throughout the Mediterranean world.

THE PAULINE MISSION -- LETTERS FROM EPHESUS

So what does Paul do when he gets to Ephesus?

While all of the cities to which Paul travels in this period are very important to his work, it's probably Ephesus and the areas immediately around Ephesus that will be his most important base of operations. For several years we will see Paul living in and around Ephesus and writing letters back and forth to these other congregations. We have to think of it this way; Paul mostly travels around in a kind of circuit of these congregations around the Aegean rim, or he sends out his helpers and his co-workers, people like Timothy and Titus, to take information or check out what's happening over in Phillipi or some place like that. Sometimes perhaps even to go and help start a new congregation. Some place over in, say, Colossae or maybe up toward the interior in Galatia. So we have to imagine the Pauline mission as a kind of beehive of activity... as Paul, his co-workers, other Christians from various cities are all traveling back and forth across the Aegean, but most importantly, we discover Paul doing something new. He writes letters as a mechanism for further instructing them in his understanding of the Christian message. You see it's Paul who starts the writing of the New Testament by writing letters to these fledgling congregations in the cities of the Greek East.

What kinds of letters is he writing? Is he writing scripture?

Now when we say that Paul writes letters we have to realize that Paul really doesn't think of himself as writing scripture. He hasn't yet thought of a New Testament. It didn't exist yet. For Paul the Bible means the Hebrew Scriptures, or more precisely, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures that we call the Septuagint. So when Paul quotes scripture he's quoting from the Hebrew Bible in its Greek form. When Paul writes letters he's writing everyday, ordinary letters to real people in real cities trying to deal with the circumstances in which they're living. ...[H]e does want to deal with theological issues, but Paul isn't writing theological treatises as much as he's giving advice and instruction and encouragement for living.

Is he meeting any conflicts? Are there practical problems that he has to kind of worry about?

The other thing that Paul's letters show us is that these fledgling congregations are also facing enormous difficulties of social adjustment, and so when Paul writes he very often is trying to mediate disputes or settle the social tensions that crop up precisely because of the mixture of people that come in to these congregations. For example we know that Paul wrote at least four or more letters to Corinth, only two of which seem to be preserved in the New Testament, and there are probably maybe as many as ten different letters that go back and forth between Corinth and Paul during the time that he's living in Ephesus. We also know from the letters that there are at least five or six different congregations of Christians in Corinth, each one located in someone's home in some different suburb of the city. So we hear of people like Chloe and Gaeas and Stephanus and a very prominent woman by the name of Phoebe who lives in the port city of Cenchreae. All of whom have congregations that gather in their homes, and so it's this mixed and varied small cell group kind of organization that probably establishes some of the important social context for Paul's letters, precisely because there are disagreements that crop up. There are differences of opinion on what the message means. There are differences of behavior and ethical patterns that these converts will naturally incline toward in their attempt to live the Christian life. Some of them take the message differently and it's those differences of opinion that prompt some controversy that Paul himself feels compelled to respond to in his letters. First Corinthians is a very good example here. Paul says, "I hear there are disputes among you," and he proceeds then to talk about the difficulties that these disputes create in the life of the Christian communities there.

One of the difficulties is precisely over social differentiation among the members of the community. Rich and poor, Jewish and gentile are living side by side and worshipping side by side, and sometimes the tension seems to want to fragment the entire community. Paul has to say it's really the fellowship of the community, the ability to come together that's the important hallmark of the Christian message, and he has to try to show them the way to get back to that ideal.

What's the tone of Paul's letters? Describe his tone. Does it change?

When we see Paul's letters, we realize that he's writing a very ordinary kind of prose letter writing style because it's very similar to what we see in all the standard letters of the ancient world. Letter writing itself had a very standardized style and tone, and we know from the discovery of many, many letters from Egypt among the papyri that the practice of letter writing and the forms of letter writing had become very commonplace in the Greco-Roman world, and Paul's letters match up with these typical letters from the ancient world very, very well. Paul adapted some of the standard stylistic features of letter writing to the particular needs of his own theological concerns and his needs of instruction for these Christian communities. So Paul kind of develops a standard letter form for his style of writing. But within that standard style Paul is very adaptable. He's able to take the standard elements of a letter and make them fit the peculiar needs of any given situation. If the Corinthian community is suffering from too much division and strife he turns it into a letter of instruction on harmony and unity. In the case of the Thessalonian congregation when they're not sure about what's going to happen to them he turned it into a letter of consolation and comfort. In the case of the Galatian community when they seemed to be ready to turn their back on Paul entirely and become much more Jewish in their orientation he turns into a scolding parent and blisters them with purple prose about how they cannot turn back on the Gospel of Christ that he had given them. So the letters very sharply intone according to the needs of the situation and the circumstances to which he's writing.

THE KINGDOM IS STILL COMING

It's clear that one of the concerns that keep showing up throughout this period of Paul's ministry is when is this kingdom going to arrive. What's going to happen? How soon? From a fairly early stage we know that almost from the moment that Paul began preaching in the Greek world that people assumed that the kingdom would have to arrive soon. Paul's very first letter, the earliest, single writing that we have in the New Testament is First Thessalonians and already in First Thessalonians Paul is having to console them when people are starting to die within the congregation and the kingdom hasn't arrived yet.

Still, by the end of Paul's career when he writes the massive Roman letter, probably the last thing that he wrote, and when he writes it he still is saying the time has grown short. The kingdom is still near. It appears that Paul never expected to die before the kingdom would arrive and so this apocalyptic message that was the hallmark of the earliest stages of the Jesus movement is still one of its central features prophetic preaching of Paul.

So Paul's mediating all this stuff, trying to keep all these people more or less on target but is he also making other plans? Is he envisioning something? Does he have a sense of urgency?

Paul's an interesting case because he is so able to blend a thoroughly Jewish self consciousness and a thoroughly Jewish interpretation of scripture with a great deal of knowledge of Greek rhetoric and philosophy of standard letter writing and other aspects of Greek culture. Paul really is a blend of all of those things and it's precisely that blending that seems to provide a lot of the dynamic quality of his understanding of early Christianity. Now when Paul gets to the end of his Aegean phase of ministry he seems also to be facing some problems. We know that later on... by the middle fifties... around 55 to 58, other Christians are starting to move in to Paul's territories and starting to argue with his congregations over proper forms of Christian practice and belief.

THE END OF PAUL'S AEGEAN CAREER

Paul's a controversial figure throughout his life. It started when he was back in Antioch. It continues throughout his Aegean ministry, and... the conflicts and controversies that Paul precipitates by virtue of his personality and his preaching really will follow him throughout his career.

By around the year 58 or 60, though, Paul seems to have felt that he had done as much as he could do in the Greek East and was preparing to move on. When Paul wrote the Roman letter, it's the longest of all of his letters and the last one that he wrote, he was preparing to go to Rome. He was writing to Rome but he himself had never been there. We know who was carrying the letter. It's his house church patroness Phoebe who has gone ahead to Rome to prepare the way.... Paul is going to Rome to get the Christian communities at Rome to support him in a new endeavor to go to Spain...to start a new gentile mission in an area that had never before heard the preaching of Jesus. But before he does that he wants to fulfill the promise that he had made to Peter and James back in the Jerusalem conference. For these ten years that he's been in the Aegean he's had his congregations collecting monies together to take back to Jerusalem. Now we find him gathering all that up, each congregation sending an emissary with their part of the contribution, and they're all going as a entourage to lay it at the feet of James in Jerusalem. James is the brother of Jesus, now the leader of the Jerusalem congregation, and it is the direct legacy to Jesus himself through the family members that seems to be very important in this first generation of the Jerusalem congregation.

Does he make it and what happens?

Paul apparently never got to Spain, although we don't know for sure. What seems to have happened is when he went back to Jerusalem with the contribution, he was arrested as some sort of rabble rouser.... This sets the stage for his eventual trials and... tradition holds he eventually died a martyr's death....

THE PASSING OF THE FIRST GENERATION

We don't know precisely what happened to either Peter or Paul. Tradition holds that they were both martyred in Rome in around the year 64. This was after the great fire, and the emperor Nero seemed to have wanted to blame the fire on a variety of groups in Rome such as Jews and Christians. Now what really happened to Peter and Paul, we can never say for sure but by the mid sixties, say between 62 and 64, it does appear that both Peter and Paul have died. About the same time Josephus tells us that James, the brother of Jesus at Jerusalem, has also been killed. All in about the same two or three year period, so by the mid sixties the original first generation of leadership of the Christian movement has passed away and this is going to set the stage for an important shift that will occur within the next few years.

We also shouldn't minimize the level of expectation that was going through their minds at that time because ... with the passing of this first generation, the expectation that all of those coming events must be closer to hand probably was a concern for a lot of people. At the same time the situation in Jerusalem itself was becoming a good bit more tense...

Holland Lee Hendrix:

President of the Faculty Union Theological Seminary

PAUL'S THREATENING MESSAGE

Paul alludes in a number of his letters to the message that he would have communicated verbally probably in the settings of the forum... and the homes of private individuals in these cities. And in talking about what he preached to them, he emphasizes two things; on the one hand, very clearly, the importance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, on the other hand he also emphasizes the importance of understanding the end time, and the immediacy of the end time, and that one must be prepared for it, and the way one prepares for it is to be good. We find a lot of ethics in Paul. And it's around this issue of how one lives in anticipation of the end time that's just around the corner for Paul. This is tied very importantly to Paul's message about the saving significance the dead, now risen, Jesus.

Clearly the message about the coming end time was the part that would have been threatening to a Roman official and would have been threatening to any native population that had vested some authority in Roman officialdom. And it's very important to keep that in mind. Paul would not just have upset potentially Roman officials, Paul would have upset local populations dependent on Roman rule for their livelihood and continued peace and security.

 





 

Pope: The Most Powerful Man in History

Pope: The Most Powerful Man in History (LINK)

 


1) The Most Powerful Man in History
Bağışlama belgeleri; Borgias; Michelangelo


2) The Pope who sold the papacy

 

 

3) The outlaw origins of the Catholic Church

4) Can the pope ever be wrong?

 


5) The Pope who founded modern diplomacy

 


6) The First Pope St.

St. Peter (Havari)

St. Peter (Havari)

      
   

Peter (Yun. petra/kaya; ö. İS 64); 12 havarinin önderi olarak kabul edildi; asıl adı Simon; İsa çarmıha gerildikten sonra geçici olarak İsa'yı tanıdığını reddetti; ilk Kilisenin (apostolik kilise) önderi ve böylece ilk papa idi; erken Hıristiyan geleneğe göre Roma'ya geldi ve orada çarmıha gerildi; Yeni Ahit'te Roma ile bağlantısı belirsiz;



 

HAVARİ PAUL 1

Havari Paul 1 (LINK)


Documentary portraying Apostle Paul's life and ministry. Narrated by Ben Kingsley. Part 1.



HAVARİ PAUL 3

Havari Paul 3 (LINK)


Documentary portraying Apostle Paul's life and ministry. Narrated by Ben Kingsley. Part 3.



HAVARİ PAUL 2

Havari Paul 2 (LINK)


Documentary portraying Apostle Paul's life and ministry. Narrated by Ben Kingsley. Part 2



HAVARİ PAUL 4

Havari Paul 4 (LINK)


Documentary portraying Apostle Paul's life and ministry. Narrated by Ben Kingsley. Part 4.



 

(1) Opium Wars / (2) British and Opium

Opium Wars | The Story of China (LINK)



Opium Wars | The Story of China

The events leading to conflict between Britain and China.
Imports into China rose from 200 chests in 1729 to 40,000 chests in 1838. China was aware, not only of the damaging effects on its people, but also of the drain on its silver reserves, and tried to ban opium. But the highly profitable trade continued. In 1839, Chinese official Commissioner Lin Zexu demanded the foreigners hand over their opium stocks, and destroyed them. British commercial interests pushed for war with China, and the British sent in gunboats. In what became known as the First Opium War, the British easily defeated the Chinese, who were forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.

 

British and Opium | The Story of China (LINK)


British and Opium | The Story of China

The development of trade between Britain and China.
In the 1800s, the British faced a massive trade deficit with China. The huge western demand for Chinese products had not been matched by Chinese demand for British products such as wool and cotton. To counter this deficit, the British traders turned to opium. They scaled up opium production in India and sold the addictive drug to the Chinese.

 



 

Orta Çağlarda Yaşam ve Hayvan Hakları

Orta Çağlarda Yaşam ve Hayvan Hakları (15’inci yüzyıl) (LINK)


Ortaçağlarda Yaşam ve Hayvan Hakları
"Her bölgenin kendi yasaları vardı, ama tüm bölgelere ortak tek bir olağandışı koşul vardı ...

"Hayvanlar insanlar ile aynı yasalar altında duruyordu. Suçlar için kovuşturmaya uğrayabiliyor ve bir mahkemede yargılanabiliyorlardı.

"İnanılmaz görünebilseler de, bu filmde ("The Advocete") gösterilen tüm davalar tarihsel olgular üzerine dayanır."

 



 


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