BCE (Before Common Era)

CKM 2018-19


BCE (Before Common Era)



İÖ 1’inci binyıl
Yeni-Asur İmparatorluğu Yakın Doğuya egemen
6’ncı yüzyılda yeri Akhamenid İmparatorluğu tarafından alındı
Mısır düşüşte ve İÖ 525’te Akhamenidlerin eline geçti
Büyük İskender Akhamenid İmparatorluğunu ortadan kaldırdı ve Helenistik Dönem başladı
Roma Cumhuriyeti büyüyor
Dünya nüfusu
170-300 milyon
Eski Dünyada Demir Çağı uygarlıkları (%90)

İÖ 2’inci binyıl

Egede Minoan Yunan egemenliği
Hitit İmparatorluğu doğdu
Bronz Çağı Çöküşü ve Demir Çağına geçiş
Dünyanın başka bölgeleri henüz tarih-öncesi dönemde
Dünya nüfusu ilk kez 100 milyona ulaştı

İÖ 3’üncü binyıl

Yakın Doğuda ilk imparatorluklar
Dünya nüfusu 60 milyon
Bronz Çağı (İÖ 3000-2500)
İleri kent uygarlıkları
Yazı gelişiyor
Kent-devletleri arasında savaşlar yaygın
Akadlı Sargon
Mısır Piramidleri yapıldı
Megalitler yaygınlaştı

İÖ 4’üncü binyıl

Bronz Çağının başlangıcı
Yazının icadı
Sümer kent-devletleri
Dünya nüfusu 50 milyon

İÖ 5’inci binyıl

Mezopotamya ve Anadoluda kent kültürleri
Bakır süslemeler yaygınlaşıyor
Dünya nüfusu 40 milyon

İÖ 6’ıncı binyıl

Neolithik Mezopotamya çömlek yapıyor
Dünya nüfusu 40 milyon


İÖ 7’inci binyıl

Tarım Anadoludan Balkanlara geçiyor
İnek, çömlek ve metal (altın ve bakır)
Dünya nüfusu 10 milyon
Çatalhöyük (İÖ 6500)

İÖ 8’inci binyıl

Tarım (Mezopotamya ve Anadolu’da)
Hayvan yetiştirme

İÖ 9’uncu binyıl

Neolithik dönemin başlangıcı
Dünya nüfusu 5 milyon

İÖ 10’uncu binyıl

Mezolithik dönemin başlangıcı


Son buzul dönemi — yklş. 115.000-11.700 BÖ
Ortalama sıcaklık 9,0 °C (normalden 6,0 °C düşük)


1st millennium BC

1st millennium BC (W)

Overview map of the world in the mid 1st millennium BC, color-coded by cultural stage:
Palaeolithic or Mesolithic hunter-gatherers
nomadic pastoralists
simple farming societies
complex farming societies/chiefdoms
state societies


The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC (10th to 1st centuries BC; in astronomy: JD 1356182.5 – 1721425.5). It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to Classical Antiquity.

World population roughly doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million.

The Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, and falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC.

In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization (4th to 2nd centuries).

The Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and then the Carthaginians (5th to 3rd centuries). The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. The early Celts dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise.

In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The Scythians dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period. The Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica.

The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism, Zoroastrianism in the Near East, and Vedic religion and Vedanta, Jainism and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese.

The term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history.

World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170-300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World (Roman Empire, Parthian Empire, Graeco-Indo-Scythian and Hindu kingdoms, Han China). The population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica (Epi-Olmec culture); that of Sub-Saharan Africa was likely below 10 million. The population of Oceania was likely less than one million people.


2nd millennium BC

2nd millennium BC (W)

Overview map of the world at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, color-coded by cultural stage:
Palaeolithic or Mesolithic hunter-gatherers
nomadic pastoralists
simple farming societies
complex farming societies (Old World Bronze Age, Olmecs, Andes)
state societies (Fertile Crescent, China)


The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. The Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Minoan Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the Bronze Age collapse and the transition to the Iron Age.

Other regions of the world are still in the prehistoric period. In Europe, the Beaker culture introduces the Bronze Age, presumably associated with Indo-European expansion. The Indo-Iranian expansion reaches the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent (Vedic India), propagating the use of the chariot. Mesoamerica enters the Pre-Classic (Olmec) period. North America is in the late Archaic stage. In Maritime Southeast Asia, the Austronesian expansion reaches Micronesia. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion begins.

World population rises steadily, possibly surpassing the 100 million mark for the first time.



Old World Bronze Age

Middle Bronze Age

Spending much of their energies in trying to recuperate from the chaotic situation that existed at the turn of the millennium, the most powerful civilizations of the time, Egypt and Mesopotamia, turned their attention to more modest goals. The Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and their contemporary Kings of Babylon, of Amorite origin, brought good governance without much tyranny, and favoured elegant art and architecture. Farther east, the Indus Valley civilization was in a period of decline, possibly as a result of intense, ruinous flooding.

Egypt and Babylonia's military tactics were still based on foot soldiers transporting their equipment on donkeys. Combined with a weak economy and difficulty in maintaining order, this was a fragile situation that crumbled under the pressure of external forces they could not oppose.

Unrest of the 16th century

About a century before the middle of the millennium, bands of Indo-European invaders came from the Central Asian plains and swept through Western Asia and Northeast Africa. They were riding fast two-wheeled chariots powered by horses, a system of weaponry developed earlier in the context of plains warfare. This tool of war was unknown among the classical civilizations. Egypt and Babylonia's foot soldiers were unable to defend against the invaders: in 1630 BC, the Hyksos swept into the Nile Delta, and in 1595 BC, the Hittites swept into Mesopotamia.

Late Bronze Age

The people in place were quick to adapt to the new tactics, and a new international situation resulted from the change. Though during most of the second half of the 2nd millennium BC several regional powers competed relentlessly for hegemony, many developments occurred: there was new emphasis on grandiose architecture, new clothing fashions, vivid diplomatic correspondence on clay tablets, renewed economic exchanges, and the New Kingdom of Egypt played the role of the main superpower. Among the great states of the time, only Babylon refrained from taking part in battles, mainly due to its new position as the world's religious and intellectual capital.

The Bronze Age civilization at its final period of time, displayed all its characteristic social traits: low level of urbanization, small cities centered on temples or royal palaces, strict separation of classes between an illiterate mass of peasants and craftsmen, and a powerful military elite, knowledge of writing and education reserved to a tiny minority of scribes, and pronounced aristocratic life.

Near the end of the 2nd millennium BC, new waves of barbarians, this time riding on horseback, wholly destroyed the Bronze Age world, and were to be followed by waves of social changes that marked the beginning of different times. Also contributing to the changes were the Sea Peoples, ship-faring raiders of the Mediterranean.


3rd millennium BC

3rd millennium BC (W)

Overview map of the world at the end of the 3rd millennium BC, color coded by cultural stage.
nomadic pastoralists
simple farming societies
complex farming societies (Near East, Europe, China, Andes
state societies (Fertile Crescent, Crete, Indus, Norte Chico)

The red outline indicates the extent of the Bronze Age at the time.


The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age, characterized by the early empires in the Ancient Near East. In Ancient Egypt, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Old Kingdom. In Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Akkadian Empire.

World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is largely stable, at roughly 60 million, with a slow overall growth rate at roughly 0.03% p.a.

The Bronze Age occurred roughly between 3000 BC and 2500 BC. The previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, and highly developed ways of communication in the form of writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, and rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, imperialism, organized absolutism and internal revolution.

The civilizations of Sumer and Akkad in Mesopotamia became a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources, energies and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, and conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkad pushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond. It would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1,500 years later.

In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Egyptian pyramids were constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. Also in Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living gods made of an essence different from that of other human beings. Even in Europe, which was still largely neolithic during the same period, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near East and the Occident during the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers.

Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history. After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a relatively peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was later to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries.

Cultures — Events — Significant people — Inventions, discoveries, introductions — Cultural landmarks


Near East
Further information: Early Bronze Age

Further information: Neolithic Europe

South Asia

East and Southeast Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa


Certain 4th millennium BC events were precursors to the 3rd millennium BC:


The 3rd millennium BC included the following key events:


Significant people

Inventions, discoveries, introductions


Cultural landmarks


4th millennium BC

4th millennium BC (4000-3001 BC) (W)

The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia.

World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is largely stable, at roughly 50 million, with a slow overall growth rate at roughly 0.03% p.a.

Near East

Main article: Ancient Near East
    • The Maykop culture of the Caucasus (c. 3700 BC to 3000 BC), contemporary to the Kurgan culture, is a candidate for the origin of Bronze production and thus the Bronze Age.
    • Kura-Araxes 3400–2000 BC—earliest evidence found on the Ararat plain.


  • Egypt



Main article: Neolithic Europe


Central Asia

East Asia
  • Neolithic Chinese settlements. They produced silk and pottery (chiefly the Yangshao and the Lungshan cultures), wore hemp clothing, and domesticated pigs and dogs.
  • Vietnamese Bronze Age culture. The Đồng Đậu Culture, 4000–2500 BC, produced many wealthy bronze objects.


South Asia






Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa remains in the Paleolithic period, except for the earliest neolithization of the Sahel following following the desiccation of the Sahara in c. 3500 BC. As the grasslands of the Sahara began drying after 3900 BC, herders spread into the Nile Valley and into eastern Africa (Eburan 5, Elmenteitan). The desiccation of the Sahara and the associated neolithisation of West Africa is also cited as a possible cause for the dispersal of the Niger-Congo linguistic phylum.


Bronze Age

Bronze Age (W)

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage.

Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the 3rd millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas (such as Sub-Saharan Africa), the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.

Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia (cuneiform script) and Egypt (hieroglyphs) developed the earliest viable writing systems.

The overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of extensive use of metals and of developing trade networks (See Tin sources and trade in ancient times). A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik (Serbia), although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age. The dating of the foil has been disputed.


Near East Bronze Age Divisions

Near East Bronze Age Divisions (W)

Near East Bronze Age Divisions

The archetypal Bronze Age divisions of the Near East have a well-established triadic clearness of expression. The period dates and phases below are solely applicable to the Near East and thus not applicable universally.

Early Bronze Age (EBA)

3300–2100 BC

3300–3000: EBA I
3000–2700: EBA II
2700–2200: EBA III
2200–2100: EBA IV

Middle Bronze Age
Also, Intermediate Bronze Age (IBA)

2100–1550 BC

2100–2000: MBA I
2000–1750: MBA II A
1750–1650: MBA II B
1650–1550: MBA II C

Late Bronze Age

1550–1200 BC

1550–1400: LBA I
1400–1300: LBA II A
1300–1200: LBA II B (Bronze Age collapse)


Late Bronze Age collapse

Late Bronze Age collapse (W)

The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive. The palace economy of the Aegean region and Anatolia that characterised the Late Bronze Age disintegrated, transforming into the small isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The half-century between c. 1200 and 1150 BC saw the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, of the Kassite dynasty of Babylonia, of the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and the Levant, and of the Egyptian Empire; the destruction of Ugarit and the Amorite states in the Levant, the fragmentation of the Luwian states of western Asia Minor, and a period of chaos in Canaan. The deterioration of these governments interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy in much of the known world. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and many abandoned, including Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit. According to Robert Drews:

"Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again." (Drews, 1993, p. 4.)



A map of the Bronze Age collapse

A map of the Bronze Age collapse (W)


📹 Bronze Age Miniseries — 1 (VİDEO)

Bronze Age Miniseries (Part 1 of 3) (LINK)

📹 Bronze Age Miniseries — 2 (VİDEO)

Bronze Age Miniseries (Part 2 of 3) (LINK)

📹 Bronze Age Miniseries — 3 (VİDEO)

Bronze Age Miniseries (Part 3 of 3) (LINK)

5th millennium BC

5th millennium BC (W)

The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC. It saw the spread of agriculture from Western Asia throughout Southern and Central Europe.

Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments became more common, marking the beginning of the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China.

World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is largely stable, at roughly 40 million, with a slow overall growth rate at roughly 0.03% p.a.

Near East

Further information: Fertile Crescent and Predynastic Egypt


Neolithic Europe
Ceramic Mesolithic / Eneolithic
Further information: Kurgan hypothesis

In North-Eastern Europe a "ceramic Mesolithic" can be distinguished, found peripheral to the sedentary Neolithic cultures. It created a distinctive type of pottery, with point or knob base and flared rims, manufactured by methods not used by the Neolithic farmers. The earliest manifestation of this type of pottery may be in the region around Lake Baikal in Siberia, from as early as 7000 BC, and from there spread via the Dnieper-Donets culture to the Narva culture of the Eastern Baltic. Spreading westward along the coastline it is found in the Ertebølle culture of Denmark and Ellerbek of Northern Germany, and the related Swifterbant culture of the Low Countries.

East Asia

Further information: Neolithic China


Sub-Saharan Africa
Prior to the 5.9 kiloyear event (3900 BC) and the desiccation of the Green Sahara, Sub-Saharan Africa remains in the Paleolithic. The beginning of the Pastoral Neolithic falls still into the late phase of the Green Sahara, in the 6th or 5th millennium BC. As the grasslands of the Sahara began drying after 3900 BC, herders would spread into the Nile Valley and by the mid 3rd millennium BC into eastern Africa.


6th millennium BC

6th millennium BC (W)

The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC. It falls into the Holocene climatic optimum, with rising sea levels. Culturally, Mesopotamia is in the Pottery Neolithic (Halaf culture), and agriculture spreads to Europe and to Egypt.

World population grows dramatically as a result of the Neolithic Revolution, perhaps quadrupling, from about 10 to 40 million, over the course of the millennium.

Near East



Main article: Neolithic Europe


South Asia




New World


7th millennium BC

7th millennium BC (W)

The 7th millennium BC spanned the years 7000 through 6001 BC. During this time, agriculture spread from Anatolia to the Balkans.

World population begins to grow at an exponential pace due to the Neolithic Revolution, reaching perhaps 10 million.

In the agricultural communities of the Middle East, the cow was domesticated and use of pottery became common, spreading to Europe and South Asia, and the first metal (gold and copper) ornaments were made.





Inventions, discoveries, introductions



8th millennium BC

8th millennium BC (W)

The 8th millennium BC spanned the years 8000 through 7001 BC. During this time, agriculture became widely practised in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia.

Pottery became widespread (with independent development in Central America) and animal husbandry (pastoralism) spread to Africa and Eurasia.

World population at this time was more or less stable, at Mesolithic level reached during the Last Glacial Maximum, at roughly 5 million.



Inventions, discoveries, introductions

  • Rise of agriculture
  • The earliest evidence of lentil cropping is in association with wheat and barley at Mureybet in Syria 8500–7500 BC, Hacilar and Çayönü in Turkey 7500–6500 BC
  • Bladed tools found in southwest Iran date from around 8000 BC; they were made from obsidian that had been transported from Anatolia
  • Potatoes and beans are cultivated in South America
  • Beginning of millet and rice cultivation in East Asia
  • Domestication of the cat and Bos aegyptiacus ox in Ancient Egypt
  • Domestication of sheep in Southwest Asia
  • Huts, hearths, granaries, and nonportable stone tools for grinding grains Africa
  • Catal Huyuk, men wear animals skins, plus hats of the same material Asia
  • Houses, kilns, pottery, turquoise carvings, tools made from stone and bone, and bone flutes China
  • Clay and plaster are molded to form statues at Jericho and Ain Ghazal Mediterranean
  • First evidence of incised "counting tokens" about 9,000 years ago in the Neolithic fertile crescent, Asia
  • Japanese potters begin to decorate pottery cooking vessels
  • Simple pottery traditions sometimes with cord impressions or other decorative markings Korea
  • Evidence of wheat, barley, sheep, goats, and pigs suggests that a food-producing economy is adopted in Aegean Greece
  • Franchthi Cave in the Argolid, Greece, attests to the earliest deliberate burials in Greece
  • North Sea: large areas of sea floor exposed in Doggerland Europe
  • Pottery making, burial mound construction, and garden technology Mexico
  • In the valley of Mexico, chili peppers and "grain" (amaranth and maize) are grown
  • World—Between 12,000 BC and 5000 BC it appears that massive inland flooding was taking place in several regions of the world, making for subsequent sea level rises, which could be relatively abrupt for many worldwide


Cultural landmarks



9th millennium BC

9th millennium BC (W)

The 9th millennium BC spanned the years 9000 through 8001 BC. This marks the beginning of the Neolithic period.

Agriculture spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery became more widespread. Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population at this time was more or less stable, at Mesolithic level reached during the Last Glacial Maximum, at roughly 5 million.



Inventions and discoveries

  • c. 9000 BC—The first evidence of the keeping of sheep, in northern Iraq
  • c. 9000 BC—Discovery of copper in Middle East
  • c. 8500 BCNatufian culture of Western Mesopotamia is harvesting wild wheat with flint-edged sickles (1967 McEvedy) About this time, boats are invented, and dogs domesticated in Europe (1967 McEvedy)
  • c. 8500 BCAndean peoples domesticate chili peppers and two kinds of bean
  • c. 8000 BC—Mesopotamia—Agriculture in Mesopotamia
  • c. 8000 BCAsiaDomestication of the pig in China and Anatolia
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Domestication of goats
  • c. 8000 BC—Asia—Evidence of domestication of dogs from wolves
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Ancient flint tools from north and central Arabia belong to hunter-gatherer societies
  • c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines are produced at Ganj Dareh in western Iran
  • c. 8000 BC—People of Jericho were making bricks out of clay, then hardened them in the sun; the settlement had grown to 8–10 acres of houses and had substantial walls


Environmental changes

  • c. 9000 BC: Temporary global chilling, as the Gulf Stream pulls southward, and Europe ices over (1990 Rand McNally Atlas)



10th millennium BC

10th millennium BC (W)

The 10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC. It marks the beginning of the Mesolithic and Epipaleolithic periods, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. Agriculture, based on the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in Southwest Asia. Although agriculture was being developed in the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practiced for another 2,000 years.

World population at this time was more or less stable, at Mesolithic level reached during the Last Glacial Maximum, estimated at roughly five million, most of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents except Antarctica and Zealandia. The Würm glaciation ended, and the beginning interglacial, which endures to this day, allowed the re-settlement of northern regions.



Old World

  • Asia: Cave sites near the Caspian Sea are inhabited by humans.
  • Africa: Wall paintings found in Ethiopia and Eritrea depict human activity; some of the older paintings are thought to date back to around 10,000 BC.
  • Europe: Azilian (Painted Pebble Culture) people occupy northern Spain and Southern France.
  • Europe: Magdalenian culture flourishes and creates cave paintings in France.
  • Europe: Solutrean culture begins horse hunting.
  • Egypt: Early sickle blades and grain grinding stones appear.
  • Jordan: Wadi Faynan (WF16): large, oval-shaped building. Early farmers lived here between 9,600 and 8,200 BC, cultivating wild plants such as wild barley, pistachio, and fig trees, and hunting or herding wild goats, cattle, and gazelle.
  • Kurdistan region in Iran: Zagros mountains near Kermanshah: very early agriculture (wheat, barley).
  • Syria: Jerf el-Ahmar, occupied between 9200 and 8700 BC.
  • Japan: The Jōmon people use pottery, fish, hunt and gather acorns, nuts and edible seeds. There are 10,000 known sites.
  • Mesopotamia: People begin to collect wild wheat and barley probably to make malt then beer.
  • Norway: First traces of population in Randaberg.
  • Persia: The goat is domesticated.
  • Sahara: Bubalus Period.



North America






  Quaternary = Pleistocene + Holocene (2,588,000 to the present)

Pleistocene + Holocene

Pleistocene + Holocene

  • "Pleistocene" ("Most New" or "Newest") from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, "most", and καινός, kainós (latinized as cænus), "new"
  • Pliocene ("More New" or "Newer", from πλείων, pleíōn, "more", and kainós; usual spelling: Pliocene),
  • Holocene ("wholly new" or "entirely new", from ὅλος, hólos, "whole", and kainós) epoch, which extends to the present time.

  Pleistocene (= Ice Age) — 2,58 million to 11,700


Pleistocene adlandırmasının gerekçesi dönemin yineleyen "buzul çağları" ile karakterize olmasıdır.

  • yaklaşık 2.588.000'den 11.700 yıl öncesine dek
  • yineleyen buzullanma dönemleri
  • bitişi son buzul döneminin bitişi ile ve Paleolithik çağın bitişi ile çakışır
Holocene — 11.700 to the present


Yaklaşık 12.000 önce sona eren buzul dönemini izleyen dönem. Sıcaklıklar yükselmeye başlamıştır ve homo sapiens hiç zaman yitirmeden taş devrini başlatarak tarım ve hayvancılk yapmaya girişir.
Pliocene — 5.333 million to 2.58 Quaternary — 2,58 million to the present

Son buzul dönemi — yklş. 115.000-11.700 BÖ (W)
  • the average global temperature around 19,000 BC (about 21,000 years ago) was 9.0 °C (48.2 °F). This is about 6.0 °C (10.8°F) colder than the 2013-2017 average.

📹 Blue Marble 3000 (VİDEO)

Blue Marble 3000 (LINK)

Blue Marble 3000

This visualization has been developed at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences by Adrian Meyer and Karl Rege

It shows the earth starting at the last glacial maximum 21'000 years ago and ends 1'000 years in the future. End summer sea ice is shown. The yellow line shows the actual shoreline. The future projection is based on the assumption of complete cessation of carbon dioxide emissions in 2100 (~IPCC A2). Because world population is rather uncertain we froze to its current value. For further information: eMail: info.init(at)zhaw.ch

The data sources are mainly publicly and freely available in the Internet.

Further Information: http://radar.zhaw.ch/bluemarble3000.html


📹 Blue Marble 3000 Europe (VİDEO)

Blue Marble 3000 Europe (LINK)

This visualization has been developed at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences by Adrian Meyer and Karl Rege. It shows Europe starting at the last glacial maximum 21'000 years ago and ends 1'000 years in the future.

Further Information: http://radar.zhaw.ch/bluemarble3000.html


📹 Blue Marble 3000 Arctic 3D

Blue Marble 3000 Arctic 3D (LINK)

This visualization has been developed at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences by Adrian Meyer and Karl Rege. It shows the Arctic on a globe starting at the last glacial maximum 21'000 years ago and ends 1'000 years in the future.

Further Information: http://radar.zhaw.ch/bluemarble3000.html




Late Pleistocene

Late Pleistocene (W)

The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene (or Tarantian) stage rocks. The beginning of the stage is defined by the base of the Eemian interglacial phase before the final glacial episode of the Pleistocene 126,000 ± 5,000 years ago. Its end is defined at the end of the Younger Dryas, some 11,700 years ago. The age represents the end of the Pleistocene epoch and is followed by the Holocene epoch.

Much of the Late Pleistocene age was dominated by glaciations, such as the Wisconsin glaciation in North America and the Weichselian glaciation and Würm glaciation in Eurasia). Many megafauna became extinct during this age, a trend that continued into the Holocene. The Late Pleistocene contains the Upper Paleolithic stage of human development, including the out-of-Africa migration and dispersal of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of the last remaining archaic human species.

Quaternary = Pleistocene + Holocene

The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithicage used in archaeology.

"Pleistocene" ("Most New" or "Newest") from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, "most", and καινός, kainós (latinized as cænus), "new."

The Holocene is the current geological epoch. It began approximately 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat. The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period. The Holocene has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1. It is considered by some to be an interglacialperiod within the Pleistocene Epoch.

The Holocene has seen the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present.

Subdivisions of the Quaternary System
Age (Million years ago)
Quaternary Holocene11.700 to the present Meghalayan 0 0.0042
Northgrippian 0.0042 0.0082
Greenlandian 0.0082 0.0117
= Ice Age
2,588,000 to 11,700
'Tarantian' 0.0117 0.126
(126.000 years ago)
'Chibanian' 0.126 0.781
Calabrian 0.781 1.80
Gelasian 1.80 2.58
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzian 2.58 3.60


📹 History of Ice Ages (VİDEO)

History of Ice Ages (LINK)


Northern Hemisphere
glaciation during the last ice ages. The accumulation of 3 to 4 km thick ice sheets caused a sea level lowering of about 120 m. Also, the Alps and the Himalayas were covered by glaciers. Winter sea ice coverage was much more limited in the south. (W)

Vegetation types at time of Last Glacial Maximum

Vegetation types at time of Last Glacial Maximum (W)

Map generated from shapefile published by Ray, N. and J. M. Adams. 2001, “A GIS-based Vegetation Map of the World at the Last Glacial Maximum (25,000-15,000 BP). Internet Archaeology 11.” (Source)


Phanerozoic Climate Change

Phanerozoic Climate Change (W)

Climate history over the past 500 million years, with the last three major ice ages indicated, Andean-Saharan (450 Ma), Karoo (300 Ma) and Late Cenoizic. A less severe cold period or ice age is shown during the Jurassic-Cretaceous (150 Ma).

There have been five or six major ice ages in the history of Earth over the past 3 billion years. The Late Cenozoic Ice Age began 34 million years ago, its latest phase being the Quaternary glaciation, in progress since 2.58 million years ago.

Within ice ages, there exist periods of more severe glacial conditions and more temperate referred to as glacial periods and interglacial periods, respectively. The Earth is currently in such an interglacial period of the Quaternary glaciation, with the last glacial period of the Quaternary having ended approximately 11,700 years ago, the current interglacial being known as the Holocene epoch.


Last glacial period

Last glacial period (W)

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present.

Artist's impression of the last glacial period at glacial maximum.

Glaciation — Europe during the last glacial period.


📹 Snowball Earth — How the Universe Works (VİDEO)

Snowball Earth — How the Universe Works (LINK)


Snowball Earth

Snowball Earth (W)

The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago). Proponents of the hypothesis argue that it best explains sedimentarydeposits generally regarded as of glacialorigin at tropical palaeolatitudes and other enigmatic features in the geological record. Opponents of the hypothesis contest the implications of the geological evidence for global glaciation and the geophysical feasibility of an ice- or slush-covered ocean and emphasize the difficulty of escaping an all-frozen condition. A number of unanswered questions remain, including whether the Earth was a full snowball, or a "slushball" with a thin equatorial band of open (or seasonally open) water.

The snowball-Earth episodes are proposed to have occurred before the sudden radiation of multicellular bioforms, known as the Cambrian explosion. The most recent snowball episode may have triggered the evolution of multicellularity. Another, much earlier and longer snowball episode, the Huronian glaciation, which would have occurred 2400 to 2100 Mya, may have been triggered by the first appearance of oxygen in the atmosphere, the "Great Oxygenation Event".


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