CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı



Human Evolution

Human Evolution

Human Evolution

Human Evolution (LINK)


  • 3.5-million-year-old Laetoli canine, the oldest hominin fossil in the Museum's collection
  • Gibraltar 1 skull, the first adult Neanderthal skull ever found
  • skull and hand casts of the recently discovered human species, Homo naledi
  • scientifically accurate life-size Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens models
  • 420,000-year-old Clacton spear, the oldest preserved wooden spear in the world
  • Cheddar Man skeleton and fascinating insights into the cultural practices of early modern humans in Britain, including a human skull shaped into a cup


Hominin Timeline

Hominin Timeline (W)

Homo sapiens yaklaşık 200.000 yaşındadır. Homo erectusun kültür ürettiği savları kuşkuludur. İlk taş aletler 3,3 milyon yıl (?) önce yapıldı ve en erken yazı dizgesi 5.300 yıl önce geliştirildi. Aradaki dönem tarih-öncesidir.

Eğer bir "insan" olarak kabul edilecek olursa, homo habilisin bir insan beyni taşımayan bir insan olması gerekecektir. Homo erectus ile ilişkilendirilen yontulu taşlar ve ateş kullanımı için en erken kanıtların tarihi 1,7 ve 0,2 milyon yıl arasında değişmektedir. Homo erectusun beyin büyüklüğü homo sapiensin beyninin yarısı kadardır. Bu ve benzeri verilere göre yalnızca homo sapiensin kültür yarattığı görüşünü kesin olarak çürütmek olanaklı değildir. Fosilleri çoğunlukla ateş ve Homo sapiens taş kullanımı için kanıtlar ile birlikte bulunmaktadır. Ne olursa olsun, daha öte hiçbir türsel değişime uğramayan tam gelişmiş homo sapiensin 200 ya da 300 bin yıl boyunca yalnızca taş yontmuş olmakla yetinmiş olduğu görüşü daha öte açıklama gerektirir.



Evolutionary history of life

Evolutionary history of life (W)


The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present. Earth formed about 4.5 billion years (Ga) ago and evidence suggests life emerged prior to 3.7 Ga.[1][2][3] Although there is some evidence to suggest that life appeared as early as 4.1 to 4.28 Ga this evidence remains controversial due to the non-biological mechanisms that may have formed these potential signatures of past life.[1][4][5][6][7] The similarities among all known species of present-day organisms indicate that they have diverged through the process of evolution from a common ancestor.[8] It is estimated that more than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species,[9] that ever lived on Earth are extinct.[10][11] Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million,[12][13] of which about 1.9 million are estimated to have been named[14] and 1.6 million documented in a central database to date.[15] More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described.[16]


Earliest history of Earth

Earliest history of Earth (W)

The oldest meteorite fragments found on Earth are about 4.54 billion years old; this, coupled primarily with the dating of ancient lead deposits, has put the estimated age of Earth at around that time.[46] The Moon has the same composition as Earth's crust but does not contain an iron-rich core like the Earth's. Many scientists think that about 40 million years after the formation of Earth, it collided with a body the size of Mars, throwing into orbit crust material that formed the Moon. Another hypothesis is that the Earth and Moon started to coalesce at the same time but the Earth, having much stronger gravity than the early Moon, attracted almost all the iron particles in the area.[47]

Until 2001, the oldest rocks found on Earth were about 3.8 billion years old,[48][49][50][51] leading scientists to estimate that the Earth's surface had been molten until then. Accordingly, they named this part of Earth's history the Hadean.[52] However, analysis of zircons formed 4.4 Ga indicates that Earth's crust solidified about 100 million years after the planet's formation and that the planet quickly acquired oceans and an atmosphere, which may have been capable of supporting life.[53][54][55]

Evidence from the Moon indicates that from 4 to 3.8 Ga it suffered a Late Heavy Bombardment by debris that was left over from the formation of the Solar System, and the Earth should have experienced an even heavier bombardment due to its stronger gravity.[52][56] While there is no direct evidence of conditions on Earth 4 to 3.8 Ga, there is no reason to think that the Earth was not also affected by this late heavy bombardment.[57] This event may well have stripped away any previous atmosphere and oceans; in this case gases and water from comet impacts may have contributed to their replacement, although outgassing from volcanoes on Earth would have supplied at least half.[58] However, if subsurface microbial life had evolved by this point, it would have survived the bombardment.[59]


Evolution of life from single celled organisms

Evolution of life from single celled organisms (LINK)



How did people live a million years ago? / Kurt Bengtson

How did people live a million years ago? (LINK)

A million years ago the dominant hominid species were Homo Erectus (Homo Ergaster in Africa). It is probably the hominid species with the longest lifespan. From its first appearance 1,8 mya until about 140.000 years ago when a small population still existed in and around Java. It was the first human to wander outside the African continent. It was the first human to learn how to control fire. They were also the first true human hunters. Their predecessor, Homo Habilis, used tools but did not really hunt; it scavenged recently dead prey with sharp tools and took meat and hides. But they never used spears while Homo Erectus did.

So, one milion years ago, Homo Erectus was a typical hunter-gatherer. He was still not as tall as later relatives would be, between 1,45 and 1,85 m. A typical male perhaps 1, 60–1,70 m in general and a female 1,50–1,60 m. His weight between 40 kg and 75. They had developed fire and used it for many purposes. Cooking fires are seen in the archaeological finds from approximately 1,4 mya. Fire was also a protection from bigger predators and could be used as a help in hunting (if they actually used fire for hunting purposes is very difficult to prove but there certainly is a possibility). Their bigger bodies (than Habilis) needed more food to sustain them and give them energy. Given their stature they were probably effective runners with a good stamina. They could not run as fast as their prey but they could run for a longer time than their prey. This kind of hunting demands social communication to be really effective. Some reconstruction of their skulls suggest that the area where social communication is lodged in the brain were developed and they probably used both signs and speech to communicate.

There is also proof that they took care of each other. Elderly individuals have been found, one whose teeth had fallen out long before he died. He had to have help to survive and the community he lived in gave it to him. Though they took care of their tribe members there is no evidence of burials. That is not to say that they did not do it, only that we can’t prove that they did.

Erectus' spreading pattern around the globe suggest that he was not adjusted for a colder climate. Proof of clothing is absent and he keeps himself to Africa, southern Asia and possibly southern Spain. The first proof of clothing we have come from his relative Homo Heidelbergensis (about 0,7 mya) which did move further north (Germany).

Below is a possible reconstruction of a campsite. They used caves or overhangs but could do without too. Fire was a powerful protector.


Kurt Bengtson, studied Archaeology at Stockholm University (1988)

The Histomap of Evolution


Circulatory System

Circulatory System (LINK)



Amino acid

Amino acid (W)

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 21 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues.[5] Beyond their role as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.

In biochemistry, amino acids having both the amine and the carboxylic acid groups attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom have particular importance. They are known as 2-, alpha-, or α-amino acids (generic formula H2NCHRCOOH in most cases,[6] where R is an organic substituent known as a "side chain");[7] often the term "amino acid" is used to refer specifically to these. They include the 22 proteinogenic ("protein-building") amino acids,[8][9][10] which combine into peptide chains ("polypeptides") to form the building-blocks of a vast array of proteins.[11] These are all L-stereoisomers ("left-handed" isomers), although a few D-amino acids ("right-handed") occur in bacterial envelopes, as a neuromodulator (D-serine), and in some antibiotics.[12]

Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are encoded directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are known as "standard" amino acids. The other two ("non-standard" or "non-canonical") are selenocysteine (present in many prokaryotes as well as most eukaryotes, but not coded directly by DNA), and pyrrolysine (found only in some archea and one bacterium). Pyrrolysine and selenocysteine are encoded via variant codons; for example, selenocysteine is encoded by stop codon and SECIS element.[13][14][15] N-formylmethionine (which is often the initial amino acid of proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts) is generally considered as a form of methionine rather than as a separate proteinogenic amino acid. Codon–tRNA combinations not found in nature can also be used to "expand" the genetic code and form novel proteins known as alloproteins incorporating non-proteinogenic amino acids.[16][17][18]



Protein (W)

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Towards the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids; however, in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine and—in certain archaeapyrrolysine. Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable protein complexes.


DNA chemical structure

DNA chemical structure (W)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains (made of nucleotides) that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.

DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Its molecular structure was first identified by James Watson and Francis Crick at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, who was a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin.

DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.[6][7] The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops, and other shapes.[8] In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres). The pair of chains has a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometre).[9] According to another study, when measured in a different solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 ångströms wide (2.2 to 2.6 nanometres), and one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å (0.33 nm) long.[10] Although each individual nucleotide repeating unit is very small, DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions to hundreds of millions of nucleotides. For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs[11] and would be 85 mm long if straightened.


Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

Timeline of the evolutionary history of life (W)

Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. In biology, evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, from kingdoms to species, and individual organisms and molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species,[1] that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.[2][3] Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million,[4] of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.[5] However, a May 2016 scientific report estimates that 1 trillion species are currently on Earth, with only one-thousandth of one percent described.[6]

While the dates given in this article are estimates based on scientific evidence, there has been controversy between more traditional views of increased biodiversity through a cone of diversity with the passing of time and the view that the basic pattern on Earth has been one of annihilation and diversification and that in certain past times, such as the Cambrian explosion, there was great diversity.[7][8]

In this timeline, Ma (for megaannum) means "million years ago," ka (for kiloannum) means "thousand years ago," and ya means "years ago."

The primary defined divisions of time are eons, in sequence the Hadean, the Archean, the Proterozoic and the Phanerozoic. The first three of these can be referred to collectively as the Precambrian supereon. Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, epochs and ages.

Evolutionary tree showing the divergence of modern species from their common ancestor in the center.[67] The three domains are colored, with bacteria blue, archaea green, and eukaryotes red.


Hadean Eon

4000 Ma and earlier.

Date Event
4600 Ma The planet Earth forms from the accretion disc revolving around the young Sun with organic compounds (complex organic molecules) necessary for life having perhaps formed in the protoplanetary disk of cosmic dust grains surrounding it before the formation of the Earth.[13]
4500 Ma According to the giant impact hypothesis, the Moon was formed when the planet Earth and the hypothesized planet Theia collided, sending a very large number of moonlets into orbit around the young Earth which eventually coalesced to form the Moon.[14] The gravitational pull of the new Moon stabilised the Earth's fluctuating axis of rotation and set up the conditions in which abiogenesis occurred.[15]
4404 Ma First appearance of liquid water on Earth.
4280 Ma Earliest possible appearance of life on Earth.[16][17][18][19]


Archean Eon

4000 Ma – 2500 Ma

Date Event
4000 Ma Formation of a greenstone belt of the Acasta Gneiss of the Slave craton in Northwest Territories, Canada, the oldest rock belt in the world.[20]
4100–3800 Ma Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB): extended barrage of impact events upon the inner planets by meteoroids. Thermal flux from widespread hydrothermal activity during the LHB may have been conducive to abiogenesis and life's early diversification.[21] "Remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[22][23] According to one of the researchers, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth ... then it could be common in the universe."[22][relevant? – discuss] This is when life most likely arose.
3900–2500 Ma Cells resembling prokaryotes appear.[24] These first organisms are chemoautotrophs: they use carbon dioxide as a carbon source and oxidize inorganic materials to extract energy. Later, prokaryotes evolve glycolysis, a set of chemical reactions that free the energy of organic molecules such as glucose and store it in the chemical bonds of ATP. Glycolysis (and ATP) continue to be used in almost all organisms, unchanged, to this day.[25][26]
3800 Ma Formation of a greenstone belt of the Isua complex of the western Greenland region, whose rocks show an isotope frequency suggestive of the presence of life.[20] The earliest evidences for life on Earth are 3.8 billion-year-old biogenic hematite in a banded iron formation of the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt in Canada,[27] graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in western Greenland[28]and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[29][30]
3500 Ma Lifetime of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA);[31][32] the split between bacteria and archaea occurs.[33]

Bacteria develop primitive forms of photosynthesis which at first did not produce oxygen.[34] These organisms generated Adenosine triphosphate by exploiting a proton gradient, a mechanism still used in virtually all organisms.[35]

3200 Ma Diversification and expansion of acritarchs.[36]
3000 Ma Photosynthesizing cyanobacteria evolved; they used water as a reducing agent, thereby producing oxygen as a waste product.[37] The oxygen initially oxidizes dissolved iron in the oceans, creating iron ore. The oxygen concentration in the atmosphere slowly rose, acting as a poison for many bacteria and eventually triggering the Great Oxygenation Event. The Moon, still very close to Earth, caused tides 1,000 feet (305 m) high.[citation needed] The Earth was continually wracked by hurricane-force winds. These extreme mixing influences are thought to have stimulated evolutionary processes.[citation needed]
2800 Ma Oldest evidence for microbial life on land in the form of organic matter-rich paleosolsephemeral ponds and alluvial sequences, some of them bearing microfossils.[38]


Proterozoic Eon

2500 Ma – 542 Ma. Contains the PalaeoproterozoicMesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic eras.

Date Event
2500 Ma Great Oxygenation Event led by cyanobacteria's oxygenic photosynthesis.[37] Commencement of plate tectonics with old marine crust dense enough to subduct.[20]
By 1850 Ma Eukaryotic cells appear. Eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles with diverse functions, probably derived from prokaryotes engulfing each other via phagocytosis. (See Symbiogenesis and Endosymbiont). Bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) emerge before, or soon after, the divergence of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages.[39] The appearance of red beds show that an oxidising atmosphere had been produced. Incentives now favoured the spread of eukaryotic life.[40][41][42]
1400 Ma Great increase in stromatolite diversity.
1300 Ma Earliest land fungi[43]
By 1200 Ma Meiosis and sexual reproduction are present in single-celled eukaryotes, and possibly in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.[44] Sex may even have arisen earlier in the RNA world.[45] Sexual reproductionfirst appears in the fossil records; it may have increased the rate of evolution.[46]
1 bya The first non-marine eukaryotes move onto land. They were photosynthetic and multicellular, indicating that plants evolved much earlier than originally thought.[47]
750 Ma First protozoa (ex: Melanocyrillium)
850–630 Ma global glaciation may have occurred.[48][49] Opinion is divided on whether it increased or decreased biodiversity or the rate of evolution.[50][51][52] It is believed that this was due to evolution of first land plants, which increased the amount of oxygen and lowered the number of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.[53]
600 Ma The accumulation of atmospheric oxygen allows the formation of an ozone layer.[54] Prior to this, land-based life would probably have required other chemicals to attenuate ultraviolet radiation enough to permit colonisation of the land.[38]
580–542 Ma The Ediacara biota represent the first large, complex aquatic multicellular organisms — although their affinities remain a subject of debate.[55]
580–500 Ma Most modern phyla of animals begin to appear in the fossil record during the Cambrian explosion.[56][57]
550 Ma First fossil evidence for Ctenophora (comb jellies), Porifera (sponges), Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones)


Phanerozoic Eon

542 Ma – present

The Phanerozoic Eon, literally the "period of well-displayed life," marks the appearance in the fossil record of abundant, shell-forming and/or trace-making organisms. It is subdivided into three eras, the PaleozoicMesozoic and Cenozoic, which are divided by major mass extinctions.


Palaeozoic Era

542 Ma – 251.0 Ma and contains the CambrianOrdovicianSilurianDevonianCarboniferous and Permian periods.

Date Event
535 Ma Major diversification of living things in the oceans: chordatesarthropods (e.g. trilobites, crustaceans), echinodermsmolluscsbrachiopodsforaminifers and radiolarians, etc.
530 Ma The first known footprints on land date to 530 Ma.[61]
525 Ma Earliest graptolites
510 Ma First cephalopods (nautiloids) and chitons
505 Ma Fossilization of the Burgess Shale
485 Ma First vertebrates with true bones (jawless fishes)
450 Ma First complete conodonts and echinoids appear
440 Ma First agnathan fishes: HeterostraciGaleaspida, and Pituriaspida
420 Ma Earliest ray-finned fishestrigonotarbid arachnids, and land scorpions[62]
410 Ma First signs of teeth in fish. Earliest Nautilidalycophytes, and trimerophytes.
395 Ma First lichensstoneworts. Earliest harvestmenmiteshexapods (springtails) and ammonoids. The first known tetrapod tracks on land.
363 Ma By the start of the Carboniferous Period, the Earth begins to resemble its present state. Insects roamed the land and would soon take to the skies; sharks swam the oceans as top predators,[63] and vegetation covered the land, with seed-bearing plants and forests soon to flourish.

Four-limbed tetrapods gradually gain adaptations which will help them occupy a terrestrial life-habit.

360 Ma First crabs and ferns. Land flora dominated by seed ferns.
350 Ma First large sharks, ratfishes, and hagfish
340 Ma Diversification of amphibians
330 Ma First amniote vertebrates (Paleothyris)
320 Ma Synapsids (precursors to mammals) separate from sauropsids (reptiles) in late Carboniferous.[64]
305 Ma Earliest diapsid reptiles (e.g. Petrolacosaurus)
280 Ma Earliest beetles, seed plants and conifers diversify while lepidodendrids and sphenopsids decrease. Terrestrial temnospondyl amphibians and pelycosaurs (e.g. Dimetrodon) diversify in species.
275 Ma Therapsid synapsids separate from pelycosaur synapsids
251.4 Ma The Permian–Triassic extinction event eliminates over 90-95% of marine species. Terrestrial organisms were not as seriously affected as the marine biota. This "clearing of the slate" may have led to an ensuing diversification, but life on land took 30 million years to completely recover.[65]

Mesozoic Era

From 251.4 Ma to 66 Ma and containing the TriassicJurassic and Cretaceous periods.

Date Event
The Mesozoic Marine Revolution begins: increasingly well adapted and diverse predators[who?] pressurize sessile marine groups; the "balance of power" in the oceans shifts dramatically as some groups of prey[who?]adapt more rapidly and effectively than others[who?].
248 Ma Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseridae) first appear.
245 Ma Earliest ichthyosaurs
240 Ma Increase in diversity of gomphodont cynodonts and rhynchosaurs
225 Ma Earliest dinosaurs (prosauropods), first cardiid bivalves, diversity in cycadsbennettitaleans, and conifers. First teleost fishes. First mammals (Adelobasileus).
220 Ma Seed-producing Gymnosperm forests dominate the land; herbivores grow to huge sizes to accommodate the large guts necessary to digest the nutrient-poor plants.[citation needed] First flies and turtles (Odontochelys). First coelophysoid dinosaurs.


the Massive extinction of Triassic/Jurassic, that wiped out most of the group of pseudosuchians and was given the opportunity of dinosaurs including the Apatosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Perrotasaurus, and Stegosaurus to enter its golden age.
200 Ma The first accepted evidence for viruses that infect eukaryotic cells (at least, the group Geminiviridae) existed.[66] Viruses are still poorly understood and may have arisen before "life" itself, or may be a more recent phenomenon.

Major extinctions in terrestrial vertebrates and large amphibians. Earliest examples of armoured dinosaurs

195 Ma First pterosaurs with specialized feeding (Dorygnathus). First sauropod dinosaurs. Diversification in small, ornithischian dinosaurs: heterodontosauridsfabrosaurids, and scelidosaurids.
190 Ma Pliosauroids appear in the fossil record. First lepidopteran insects (Archaeolepis), hermit crabs, modern starfish, irregular echinoids, corbulid bivalves, and tubulipore bryozoans. Extensive development of sponge reefs.
176 Ma First members of the Stegosauria group of dinosaurs
170 Ma Earliest salamandersnewtscryptoclididselasmosaurid plesiosaurs, and cladotherian mammals. Sauropod dinosaurs diversify.
165 Ma First rays and glycymeridid bivalves
163 Ma Pterodactyloid pterosaurs first appear[67]
161 Ma Ceratopsian dinosaurs appear in the fossil record (Yinlong) and the oldest known Eutherian Mammal appear in the fossil record: Juramaia.
160 Ma Multituberculate mammals (genus Rugosodon) appear in eastern China
155 Ma First blood-sucking insects (ceratopogonids), rudist bivalves, and cheilostome bryozoans. Archaeopteryx, a possible ancestor to the birds, appears in the fossil record, along with triconodontid and symmetrodontmammals. Diversity in stegosaurian and theropod dinosaurs.
130 Ma The rise of the angiosperms: Some of these flowering plants bear structures that attract insects and other animals to spread pollen;other angiosperms were pollinated by wind or water. This innovation causes a major burst of animal evolution through coevolution. First freshwater pelomedusid turtles.
120 Ma Oldest fossils of heterokonts, including both marine diatoms and silicoflagellates
115 Ma First monotreme mammals
110 Ma First hesperornithes, toothed diving birds. Earliest limopsidverticordiid, and thyasirid bivalves.
106 Ma Spinosaurus, the largest theropod dinosaur, appears in the fossil record
100 Ma Earliest bees
90 Ma Extinction of ichthyosaurs. Earliest snakes and nuculanid bivalves. Large diversification in angiosperms: magnoliidsrosidshamamelididsmonocots, and ginger. Earliest examples of ticks. Probable origins of placental mammals (earliest undisputed fossil evidence is 66 Ma).
80 Ma First ants
70 Ma Multituberculate mammals increase in diversity. First yoldiid bivalves.
68 Ma Tyrannosaurus, the largest terrestrial predator of what is now western North America appears in the fossil record. First species of Triceratops.

Cenozoic Era

66 Ma – present
Date Event
66 Ma The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event eradicates about half of all animal species, including mosasaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ammonitesbelemnites, rudist and inoceramid bivalves, most planktic foraminifers, and all of the dinosaurs excluding the birds.[68]
From 66 Ma Rapid dominance of conifers and ginkgos in high latitudes, along with mammals becoming the dominant species. First psammobiid bivalves. Earliest rodents. Rapid diversification in ants.
63 Ma Evolution of the creodonts, an important group of meat-eating (carnivorous) mammals
60 Ma Diversification of large, flightless birds. Earliest true primates, along with the first semelid bivalves, edentatecarnivoran and lipotyphlan mammals, and owls. The ancestors of the carnivorous mammals (miacids) were alive.
56 Ma Gastornis, a large flightless bird, appears in the fossil record
55 Ma Modern bird groups diversify (first song birdsparrotsloonsswiftswoodpeckers), first whale (Himalayacetus), earliest lagomorphsarmadillos, appearance of sirenianproboscideanperissodactyl and artiodactyl mammals in the fossil record. Angiosperms diversify. The ancestor (according to theory) of the species in the genus Carcharodon, the early mako shark Isurus hastalis, is alive.
52 Ma First bats appear (Onychonycteris)
50 Ma Peak diversity of dinoflagellates and nannofossils, increase in diversity of anomalodesmatan and heteroconch bivalves, brontotherestapirsrhinoceroses, and camels appear in the fossil record, diversification of primates
40 Ma Modern-type butterflies and moths appear. Extinction of GastornisBasilosaurus, one of the first of the giant whales, appeared in the fossil record.
37 Ma First nimravid ("false saber-toothed cats") carnivores — these species are unrelated to modern-type felines
35 Ma Grasses diversify from among the monocot angiospermsgrasslands begin to expand. Slight increase in diversity of cold-tolerant ostracods and foraminifers, along with major extinctions of gastropods, reptiles, amphibians, and multituberculate mammals. Many modern mammal groups begin to appear: first glyptodontsground slothscanidspeccaries, and the first eagles and hawks. Diversity in toothed and baleenwhales.
33 Ma Evolution of the thylacinid marsupials (Badjcinus)
30 Ma First balanids and eucalypts, extinction of embrithopod and brontothere mammals, earliest pigs and cats
28 Ma Paraceratherium appears in the fossil record, the largest terrestrial mammal that ever lived
25 Ma Pelagornis sandersi appears in the fossil record, the largest flying bird that ever lived
25 Ma First deer
20 Ma First giraffeshyenasbears and giant anteaters, increase in bird diversity
15 Ma Genus Mammut appears in the fossil record, first bovids and kangaroos, diversity in Australian megafauna
10 Ma Grasslands and savannas are established, diversity in insects, especially ants and termiteshorses increase in body size and develop high-crowned teeth, major diversification in grassland mammals and snakes
9.5 Ma The Great American Interchange, where various land and freshwater faunas migrated between North and South America. Armadillos, opossumshummingbirds PhorusrhacidsGround SlothsGlyptodonts, and Meridiungulates traveled to North America, while horsestapirssaber-toothed catsJaguarsBearsCoatiesFerretsOttersSkunks and deer entered South America.
6.5 Ma First hominins (Sahelanthropus)
6 Ma Australopithecines diversify (OrrorinArdipithecus)
5 Ma First tree sloths and hippopotami, diversification of grazing herbivores like zebras and elephants, large carnivorous mammals like lions and the genus Canis, burrowing rodents, kangaroos, birds, and small carnivores, vultures increase in size, decrease in the number of perissodactyl mammals. Extinction of nimravid carnivores.
4.8 Ma Mammoths appear in the fossil record
4 Ma Evolution of AustralopithecusStupendemys appears in the fossil record as the largest freshwater turtle, first modern elephants, giraffes, zebras, lions, rhinoceros and gazelles appear in the fossil record
2.7 Ma Evolution of Paranthropus
2.5 Ma The earliest species of Smilodon evolve
2 Ma First members of the genus HomoHomo Habilis, appear in the fossil record. Diversification of conifers in high latitudes. The eventual ancestor of cattle, aurochs (Bos primigenus), evolves in India.
1.7 Ma Extinction of australopithecines
1.2 Ma Evolution of Homo antecessor. The last members of Paranthropus die out.
800 Ka Short-faced bears (Arctodus simus) become abundant in North America
600 ka Evolution of Homo heidelbergensis
350 ka Evolution of Neanderthals
300 ka Gigantopithecus, a giant relative of the orangutan from Asia dies out
250 ka Anatomically modern humans appear in Africa.[69][70][71] Around 50,000 years before present they start colonising the other continents, replacing the Neanderthals in Europe and other hominins in Asia.
40 ka The last of the giant monitor lizards (Varanus priscus) die out
30 ka Extinction of Neanderthals, first domestic dogs
15 ka The last woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) are believed to have gone extinct
11 ka Short-faced bears vanish from North America, with the last giant ground sloths dying out. All Equidae become extinct in North America.
10 ka The Holocene epoch starts 10,000[72] years ago after the Late Glacial Maximum. The last mainland species of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenus) die out, as does the last Smilodon species.
8 ka The Giant Lemur died out


Historical extinctions

Date Event
6000 ya (c. 4000 BC) Small populations of American mastodon die off in places like Utah and Michigan
4500 ya (c. 2500 BC) The last members of a dwarf race of woolly mammoths vanish from Wrangel Island near Alaska
c. 600 ya (c. 1400) The moa and its predator, Haast's eagle, die out in New Zealand
391 ya (1627) The last recorded wild aurochs die out
330 ya (1688) The dodo goes extinct
250 ya (1768) The Steller's sea cow goes extinct
135 ya (1883) The quagga, a subspecies of zebra, goes extinct
104 ya (1914) Martha, last known passenger pigeon, dies
82 ya (1936) The thylacine goes extinct in a Tasmanian zoo, the last member of the family Thylacinidae
66 ya (1952) The Caribbean monk seal goes extinct[75]
10 ya (2008) The baiji, the Yangtze river dolphin, becomes functionally extinct, according to the IUCN Red List[76]
7 ya (2011) The western black rhinoceros is declared extinct



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