Ptolemik Krallık

CKM 2017-18 / Aziz Yardımlı


Ptolemaic Kingdom

  Ptolemaic Kingdom (305-30 BC)
  Helenistik Ptolemi Hanedanı uygar Mısır’ı bir kez daha uygarlaştırdı, tarihsel olarak tükenmiş ve kitlenmiş bir boşinançlar kültüründen değişime, yeniliğe ve gelişime açık özgür bir kültür türetti.

Marble Head of a Ptolemaic Queen

Marble Head of a Ptolemaic Queen (L)


Arsinoe II

Arsinoe II (Ἀρσινόη, 316-270 BC) (?) (L)

Period: Hellenistic
Date: ca. 270–250 BC
Culture: Greek
Medium: Marble
Dimensions: H. 15 in. (38.1 cm)
Classification: Stone Sculpture
Credit Line: Purchase, Lila Acheson Wallace Gift, The Bothmer Purchase Fund, Malcolm Hewitt Wiener, The Concordia Foundation and Christos G. Bastis Gifts and Marguerite and Frank A. Cosgrove Jr. Fund, 2002
Accession Number: 2002.66

This monumental head gives an impression of sovereign calm and power, even though the veil that once covered the top and back of the head is now missing. Although the features are cast in a thoroughly classical style typical of the late fourth century BC, the face is stamped with enough individuality to identify it as a portrait. In all probability, it represents a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, that succession of Macedonian Greeks who ruled Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC until the annexation of Egypt by Rome and the suicide of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Most recently, the head has been identified as Arsinoe II, who ruled together with her brother, Ptolemy II, from 278 BC until her death in 270 BC. Not only was the queen part of a dynastic ruler cult during her life, she was also transformed into an independent deity by her brother after her death. She was worshiped as an Egyptian goddess in association with Isis and also separately as a Greek goddess, with her own sanctuaries and festivals. This strongly idealized head, which resembles classical images of Hera and Demeter, was probably associated with the latter cult.


4) Ptolemaic Kingdom
Cleopatra VII
How the Battle of Actium Changed the World?
Musaeum at Alexandria
Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemy I Stoer
Rosetta Stone
🎨 The Death of Cleopatra

  Ptolemy I Stoer

Ptolemy I Stoer

Ptolemy I Stoer (367-282 BC) (305/4-282 BC) (W)

Reign 305/4-282 BC (Ptolemaic dynasty)
Predecessor Alexander IV
Successor Ptolemy II
Personal details
Born c. 367 BC, Macedon
Died January 282 BC (aged 84–85), Alexandria, Egypt
Spouses Artakama, Eurydice, Berenice I
With Thaïs (mistress): Lagus, Leontiscus, Eirene
With Eurydice: Ptolemy Keraunos, Meleager, Unknown third son, Ptolemais, Lysandra
With Berenice I: Arsinoe II, Philotera, Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Parents Lagus or Philip II of Macedon (father); Arsinoe (mother)
Relatives Menelaus (brother)

Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great who succeeded to his empire. Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt (323-282 BC) and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled it for the next three centuries, turning Egypt into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.

Ptolemy was the son of Arsinoe of Macedon by either her husband Lagus or Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander.

Ptolemy was one of Alexander’s most trusted companions and military officers. He had been an intimate friend of Alexander since childhood.


Ptolemaic Kingdom

Ptolemaic Kingdom (305 BC-30 BC) (W)

Capital Alexandria
Common languages Greek (official), Egyptian (common)
Religion Ancient Greek religion, ancient Egyptian religion
Government Hellenistic monarchy
• 305–283 BC Ptolemy I Soter (first)
• 51–30 BC Cleopatra VII (last)
Historical era Classical antiquity
Established 305 BC
Disestablished 30 BC
Currency Greek Drachma
Preceded by
Macedonian Empire
Late Period of ancient Egypt
Succeeded by
Roman Egypt

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Koine Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaikeḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in ancient Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a diadochus originally from Macedon in northern Greece who declared himself pharaoh of Egypt and created a powerful Macedonian Greek dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.

Alexandria, a Greek polis founded by Alexander the Great, became the capital city and a major center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, the Ptolemies named themselves as pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions by marrying their siblings per the Osiris myth, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. The Ptolemies were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final conquest by Rome. Their rivalry with the neighboring Seleucid Empire of West Asia led to a series of Syrian Wars in which both powers jockeyed for control of the Levant. Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest.

Temple of Kom Ombo constructed in Upper Egypt in 180-47 BC by the Ptolemies and modified by the Romans. It is a double temple with two sets of structures dedicated to two separate deities.


📹 Ptolemy I (367-283) BCE (VİDEO)

Ptolemy I (367-283 BCE) (LINK)

Directed and edited by Phillip Oerton. Narrated by Oli Rae-Jeyson. Images researched by Imani Daley and Oli Rae-Jeyson. Created as part of the digital storytelling seminars of the Hellenistic world module @warwickuni.



Ptolemies (L)

The fourteen kings of this dynasty were all called Ptolemy and are numbered by modern historians I to XV (Ptolemy VII never reigned). A remarkable aspect of the Ptolemaic monarchy was the prominence of women (seven queens named Cleopatra and four Berenices), who rose to power when their sons or brothers were too young. This was almost unique in Antiquity. Another intriguing aspect was the willingness of the Ptolemies to present themselves to the Egyptians as native pharaohs. This was less unique: the Seleucid dynasty that reigned the Asian parts of Alexander's empire did the same.


📹 Ptolemaic Kingdom (VİDEO)

Ptolemaic Kingdom (LINK)


Ptolemy I Soter

Ptolemy I Soter (367-282 BC) (W)


The Expansion of the Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Expansion of the Ptolemaic Kingdom (L)

The Ptolemaic Empire at the end of the third century, c. 210 BC.
Although Ptolemy I had refused the regency after the death of Perdiccas, he aimed at more than Egypt alone. In the last years of the fourth century, he managed to seize Coele Syria, which is more or less equivalent to modern Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and southern Syria (and included the small Jewish state around Jerusalem). The possession of this area was, however, hotly contested: several Syrian wars were fought to defend it against the claims of the Seleucids. At first, Egyptian power was great: Cyprus, several Aegean islands, parts of Asia Minor, and parts of Thrace belonged to the Ptolemaic empire.


📹 Misunderstood Moments in History — Cleopatra’s Egypt (VİDEO)

Misunderstood Moments in History — Cleopatra’s Egypt (LINK)

The rich history of ancient Egypt is often reduced to nothing but Pharaohs and slaves in the desert. Today we will be bringing to life the fascinating tale of the Ptolemaic Dynasty and its most famous ruler, Queen Cleopatra!


  Cleopatra VII
  • Büyük İskender’in generallerinden Ptolemi I’in soyundan gelen Mısır kraliçesi Kleopatra anadili Koine Yunancası olan bir Makedon idi.
  • Ölümü ile Helenistik dönem sona erdi.

The view from Cleopatra's private residence and palace on the island of Antirrhodes in the port of Alexandria. The palace no longer exists as it now lies beneath the waves.


Cleopatra (69-30 BC) (W)

A (restructured) Roman statue of Cleopatra VII wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, marble, found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome along the Via Cassia, Museo Pio-Clementino.

Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne at the age of eighteen upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos. She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of 39.



Cleopatra (W)

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Ancient Greek: Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Φιλοπάτωρ, translit. Kleopátrā Philopátōr; 69-10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. She was also a diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the Hellenistic period that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336-323 BC). Her native language was Koine Greek and she was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.

In 58 BC, Cleopatra presumably accompanied her father Ptolemy XII during his exile to Rome, after a revolt in Egypt allowed his eldest daughter Berenice IV to claim the throne. The latter was killed in 55 BC when Ptolemy XII returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance. When Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC, he was succeeded by Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII as joint rulers, but a falling-out between them led to open civil war.

After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus in Greece against his rival Julius Caesar in Caesar's Civil War, the Roman statesman Pompey fled to Egypt, a Roman client state. Ptolemy XIII had Pompey killed while Caesar occupied Alexandria in pursuit of Pompey. As consul of the Roman Republic, Caesar attempted to reconcile Ptolemy XIII with Cleopatra. However, Ptolemy XIII's chief adviser, Potheinos, viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, and so his forces, which eventually fell under the control of Cleopatra's younger sister, Arsinoe IV, besieged both Caesar and Cleopatra at the palace. The siege was lifted by reinforcements in early 47 BC. Ptolemy XIII died shortly thereafter in the Battle of the Nile, Arsinoe IV was eventually exiled to Ephesus, and Caesar, now an elected dictator, declared Cleopatra and her other younger brother Ptolemy XIV as joint rulers of Egypt. However, Caesar maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion (Ptolemy XV). Cleopatra traveled to Rome as a client queen in 46 and 44 BC, staying at Caesar's villa. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Cleopatra attempted to have Caesarion named as his heir, but this fell instead to Caesar's grandnephew Octavian (known as Augustus by 27 BC, when he became the first Roman emperor). Cleopatra then had Ptolemy XIV killed and elevated Caesarion as co-ruler.

In the Liberators' civil war of 43-42 BC, Cleopatra sided with the Roman Second Triumvirate formed by Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. After their meeting at Tarsos in 41 BC, Cleopatra had an affair with Antony that would eventually produce three children: Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, and Ptolemy Philadelphus. Antony used his authority as a triumvir to carry out the execution of Arsinoe IV at Cleopatra's request. He became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire and the Kingdom of Armenia. In the Donations of Alexandria, Cleopatra's children with Antony were declared rulers over various erstwhile territories under Antony's authority. This event, along with his marriage to Cleopatra and divorce of Octavian's sister Octavia Minor, led to the Final War of the Roman Republic. After engaging in a war of propaganda, Octavian forced Antony's allies in the Roman Senate to flee Rome in 32 BC and declared war on Cleopatra. The naval fleet of Antony and Cleopatra was defeated at the 31 BC Battle of Actium by Octavian's general Agrippa. Octavian's forces invaded Egypt in 30 BC and defeated those of Antony, leading to his suicide. When Cleopatra learned that Octavian planned to bring her to Rome for his triumphal procession, she committed suicide by poisoning, with the popular belief being that she was bitten by an asp.

Cleopatra's legacy survives in numerous works of art, both ancient and modern, and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in literature and other media. She was described in various works of Roman historiography and Latin poetry, the latter producing a generally polemic and negative view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature. In the visual arts, ancient depictions of Cleopatra include Roman and Ptolemaic coinage, statues, busts, reliefs, cameo glass, cameo carvings, and paintings. She was the subject of many works in Renaissance and Baroque art, which included sculptures, paintings, poetry, theatrical dramas such as William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (1608), and operas such as George Frideric Handel's Giulio Cesare in Egitto (1724). In modern times Cleopatra has appeared in both the applied and fine arts, burlesque satire, Hollywood films such as Cleopatra (1963), and brand images for commercial products, becoming a pop culture icon of Egyptomania since the Victorian era.



🎨 Statue of Cleopatra VII

Statue of Cleopatra VII (LINK)

Plutarch, in the “Life of Antony” written a century after the great romance, said of Cleopatra:

“Her actual beauty, it is said, was not in itself so remarkable that none could be compared with her.”

“But the contact of her presence, if you lived with her, was irresistible; the attraction of her person, joining with the charm of her conversation, and the character that attended all she said or did, was something bewitching. It was a pleasure merely to hear the sound of her voice ...”


🎨 “The Triumph of Cleopatra” (“Cleopatra's Arrival in Cilicia”)

“The Triumph of Cleopatra” (“Cleopatra’s Arrival in Cilicia”) (W)

The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia made Etty's reputation as an artist, and its success prompted him to paint further nude figures in historical scenes.

The Triumph of Cleopatra

The Triumph of Cleopatra (W)


The Triumph of Cleopatra, also known as Cleopatra's Arrival in Cilicia and The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia, is an oil painting by English artist William Etty. It was first exhibited in 1821. During the 1810s Etty had become widely respected among staff and students at the Royal Academy of Arts, in particular for his use of colour and ability to paint realistic flesh tones. Despite having exhibited at every Summer Exhibition since 1811 he attracted little commercial or critical interest. In 1820 he exhibited The Coral Finder, which showed nude figures on a gilded boat. This painting attracted the attention of Sir Francis Freeling, who commissioned a similar painting on a more ambitious scale.

The Triumph of Cleopatra illustrates a scene from Plutarch's Life of Antony and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, in which Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, travels to Tarsus in Cilicia aboard a magnificently decorated ship to cement an alliance with the Roman general Mark Antony. An intentionally cramped and crowded composition, it shows a huge group of people in various states of undress, gathering on the bank to watch the ship's arrival. Although not universally admired in the press, the painting was an immediate success, making Etty famous almost overnight. Buoyed by its reception, Etty devoted much of the next decade to creating further history paintings containing nude figures, becoming renowned for his combination of nudity and moral messages.




  How the Battle of Actium Changed the World?
  • The end of the Roman Republic
  • The beginning of the Roman Empire
  • The end of the Ptolemaic Egypt
  • The end of the Helenistic Period
  • The beginning of the Roman Period
  The Battle of Actium —
  • Mark Antony and Cleopatra against former ally Octavian
  • Antony and Cleopatra on one side with a fleet totaling 500 warships
  • Octavian on the other with almost 1,000
  • The Battle of Actium was fought in the waters off Greece.
  • It ended in the complete obliteration of Antony and Cleopatra’s forces.
  • Antony and Cleopatra were chased down by Octavian. They both committed suicide instead of being captured.
  • Octavian went to Egypt and executed Cleopatra’s children by Antony as well as Julius Caesar’s one and only son.

A baroque painting of the battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672.

💣 Battle of Actium

Battle of Actium (31 BC) (W)

A baroque painting of the battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672.

The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt.

Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome and its dominions. He adopted the title of Princeps (“first citizen”) and some years later was awarded the title of Augustus ("revered") by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in later times. As Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians generally view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.

The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, commonly known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC. However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion. Such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Antony was inevitably perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic.

Despite a victory at Alexandria on 31 July 30 BC, more of Antony's men deserted, leaving him with insufficient forces to fight Octavian. A slight success over Octavian's tired soldiers encouraged him to make a general attack, in which he was decisively beaten. Failing to escape on board a ship, he stabbed himself in the stomach upon mistakenly believing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide. He did not die at once, and when he found out that Cleopatra was still alive, he insisted on being taken to the mausoleum in which she was hiding, and died in her arms. She was shortly afterwards brought to the palace and vainly attempted to move Octavian to pity.

Cleopatra killed herself on 12 August 30 BC. Most accounts say she put an end to her life by the bite of an asp conveyed to her in a basket of figs. Octavian had Caesarion killed later that month, finally securing his legacy as Caesar's only 'son'.

Octavian’s victory at Actium gave him sole and uncontested control of "Mare Nostrum" (Our Sea, i.e., the Roman Mediterranean) and he became “Augustus Caesar” and the "first citizen" of Rome. This victory, consolidating his power over every Roman institution, marked the transition of Rome from Republic to Empire. Egypt's surrender following Cleopatra's death marked the final demise of both the Hellenistic Period and the Ptolemaic Kingdom, turning it into a Roman province.



  The Death of Cleopatra

🎨 The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658

The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658 (W)

The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658


🎨 The Death of Cleopatra (Reginald Arthur, (1871-1934)

The Death of Cleopatra (Reginald Arthur, (1871-1934) (W)


🎨 Death of Cleopatra (Jean-André Rixens, 1846-1925)

Death of Cleopatra (Jean-André Rixens, 1846-1925) (W)


🎨 Death of Cleopatra (Alessandro Turchi, 1578-1649)

Death of Cleopatra (Alessandro Turchi, 1578-1649) (W)

  • File:Alessandro Turchi - Death of Cleopatra
  • Created: circa 1640


  Musaeum at Alexandria

Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria / Library of Alexandria

Musaeum at Alexandria (W)

Bust of excavated at the Villa of the Papyri depicting Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who is believed to have been the one to establish the Library as an actual institution, although plans for it may have been developed by his father Ptolemy I Soter.

The Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria (Ancient Greek: Μουσεῖον τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), which included the famous Library of Alexandria, was an institution founded by Ptolemy I Soter or, perhaps more likely, by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. This original Musaeum ("Institution of the Muses") was the home of music or poetry, a philosophical school and library such as Plato’s Academ, also a storehouse of texts. It did not have a collection of works of art, rather it was an institution that brought together some of the best scholars of the Hellenistic world, analogous to a modern university. This original Musaeum was the source for the modern usage of the word museum.

The Greek geographer Strabo described the Musaeum and Library as richly decorated edifices in a campus of buildings and gardens.

"The Mouseion is also part of the palaces, possessing a peripatos and exedra and large oikos, in which the common table of the philologoi, men who are members of the Mouseion, is located. This synodos has property in common and a priest in charge of the Mouseion, formerly appointed by the kings, but now by Caesar." — Strabo

The Mouseion featured a roofed walkway, an arcade of seats, and a communal dining room where scholars routinely ate and shared ideas. The building was filled with private study rooms, residential quarters, lecture halls, and theaters.

Once the largest library in the ancient world, and containing works by the greatest thinkers and writers of antiquity, including Homer, Plato, Socrates and many more, the Library of Alexandria, northern Egypt, is popularly believed to have been destroyed in a huge fire around 2000 years ago and its volumous works lost.

Library of Alexandria (W)

Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great who succeeded to his empire. Ptolemy became ruler of Egypt (323–282 BC) and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled it for the next three centuries, turning Egypt into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.

Ptolemy was the son of Arsinoe of Macedon by either her husband Lagus or Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander. Ptolemy was one of Alexander's most trusted companions and military officers. He had been an intimate friend of Alexander since childhood.

The Royal Library of Alexandria or Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The Library was part of a larger research institution called the Mouseion, which was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts. The idea of a universal library in Alexandria may have been proposed by Demetrius of Phalerum, an exiled Athenian statesman living in Alexandria, to Ptolemy I Soter, who may have established plans for the Library, but the Library itself was probably not built until the reign of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The Library quickly acquired a large number of papyrus scrolls, due largely to the Ptolemaic kings' aggressive and well-funded policies for procuring texts. It is unknown precisely how many such scrolls were housed at any given time, but estimates range from 40,000 to 400,000 at its height.

The following scholars are known to have studied, written, or performed their experiments at the Musaeum of Alexandria.

Nineteenth century artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria by the German artist O. Von Corven, based partially on the archaeological evidence available at that time.

Established probably during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BC).
Location: Alexandria, Egypt.
Items collected: Any written works of any kind.
Size: Estimates vary; Livy says that it possessed roughly 400,000 scrolls at the time of the fire of Julius Caesar, perhaps equivalent to roughly 100,000 books.
Staff: Estimated to have employed over 100 scholars at any given time when it was at its height.

The Ptolemaic rulers intended the Library to be a collection of all knowledge and they worked to expand the Library's collections through an aggressive and well-funded policy of book purchasing. They dispatched royal agents with large amounts of money and ordered them to purchase and collect as many texts as they possibly could, about any subject and by any author. Older copies of texts were favored over newer ones, since it was assumed that older copies had undergone less copying and that they were therefore more likely to more closely resemble what the original author had written. This program involved trips to the book fairs of Rhodesand Athens. According to the Greek medical writer Galen, under the decree of Ptolemy II, any books found on ships that came into port were taken to the library, where they were copied by official scribes. The original texts were kept in the library, and the copies delivered to the owners. The Library particularly focused on acquiring manuscripts of the Homeric poems, which were the foundation of Greek education and revered above all other poems. The Library therefore acquired many different manuscripts of these poems, tagging each copy with a label to indicate where it had come from.
Destruction of the Great Library (LINK)

Edward Parsons has analyzed the Caesar theory in his book The Alexandrian Library and summarizes the sources as follows:

A final summary is interesting: of the 16 writers, ten — Caesar himself, the author of the Alexandrian War, Cicero, Strabo, Livy (as far as we know), Lucan, Florus, Suetonius, Appian, and even Athenaeus — apparently knew nothing of the burning of the Museum, of the Library, or of Books during Caesar's visit to Egypt; and six tell of the incident as follows:

  1. Seneca the Younger (49 C.E.), the first writer to mention it (and that nearly 100 years after the alleged event), definitely says that 40,000 books were burned.
  2. Plutarch (46-120 C.E.) says that the fire destroyed the great Library.
  3. Aulus Gellius (123-169 C.E.) says that during the "sack" of Alexandria 700,000 volumes were all burned.
  4. Dio Cassius (155-235 C.E.) says that storehouses containing grain and books were burned, and that these books were of great number and excellence.
  5. Ammianus Marcellinus (390 C.E.) says that in the "sack" of the city 70,000 volumes were burned.
  6. Orosius (c. 415 C.E.), the last writer, singularly confirms Seneca as to number and the thing destroyed: 40,000 books.

Of all the sources, Plutarch is the only one to refer explicitly to the destruction of the Library. Plutarch was also the first writer to refer to Caesar by name. Ammianus Marcellinus' account seems to be directly based on Aulus Gellius because the wording is almost the same. The majority of ancient historians, even those strongly opposed to Caesar politically, give no account of the alleged massive disaster.


📹 What really happened to the Library of Alexandria? (VİDEO)

What really happened to the Library of Alexandria? (LINK)


  Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone (W)

The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler. The decree was issued by a congress of priests who gathered at Memphis. The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir" in the Egyptian calendar, which corresponds to March 27, 196 BC.

One possible reconstruction of the original stele

Rosetta Stone decree

Rosetta Stone decree (W)

The Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled Egypt from 305 BC to 30 BC, issued a series of decrees over the course of their reign. The Rosetta Stone is the best known example.
Rosetta Stone decree

The list of accomplishments

After six lines of preview on the Nubayrah Stele, the decree: "....Eirene, daughter of Ptolemy priestess of Arsinoe, the lover of her father; day this Decree, being the directors (superintendents) of services (?)....", the Priests Decree:)

(Start 0 before list) (Summary of the Priests)
A–Directors of Services, the Prophets-(hidden things)..., the Priests who go in the holy shrine to "robe the gods"-(statues), Scribes of the Gods, Sages of the 'House of Life', (the Per-Ankh)-(per-House, the House of Life, the Library, the storing of the "secret, priest scrolls")
B–Priests, arriving from the regions- (South and North, Upper and Lower Egypt temples) on honoring assumption of kingship by Ptolemy V, "they went into sanctuary of Memphis [and] behold they spake:

  1. Ptolemy V Summary
    A–Ptolemy and Wife Arsinoe-(Arsna) did great things, for Horus-Lands, of All People-(under his control), "being like a God, son of a gods, II," (his ancestry), .."the semblance-(likeness) of Horus", son of Isis, son of Osiris, with giving heart, supplied silver, great quantities Grain for sanctuaries, supplied "precious objects" for quieting of Egypt, ..establishing sanctuaries (of South and North–Upper and Lower Egypt).
    B–Gifts to Soldiers, in his authority, according to their rank.
  2. Citizen taxes remitted
    A–Taxes of Nobles, that concerned Pharaoh, remitted
    B–Others, absolved completely.
    C–Made Army (Soldiers), and Citizens "comfortable" in his period of sole Kingship.
  3. Tax Arrears and Pardons
    A–Taxes on Egyptians, and Foreigners remitted.
    B–Pardoned prisoners (from "long-ago 'incarcerations'").
  4. Offering to Gods, Silver & Grain, (yearly) to temples, (and their land holdings)(all types), and gods of the "plantation lands", of the nomes, to continue.
    All possession lands, all kinds, to remain in possession.
  5. Priesthood
    A–Priesthood taxes not to increase.
    B–Priests (of 'hourly-course duties' in temples) with Annual journey to Memphis-(Wall of Alexandria), released from journey.
  6. Disallowing of corvée shanghaiing of "men of the sailors".
  7. Byssus cloth made for the Pharaoh's house, 2/3 remitted.
  8. Restoration
    A–Things overdue for 'long time', restored (made "beautiful"-Nfr).
    B–Restored Customs, (as Perfect, in the past)
    C–Gave "height of Happiness"- (Restored Peace) to citizens as did God "Thoth, Great, Great"
  9. (not in Nubayrah Stele)-(from Demotic)-Revolt of citizens (the region that rebelled), citizens allowed to return to their homeland.
  10. (Foreign Invasion)
    A–Infantry-(Army), Cavalry-(horseman, etc), and Ships to drive back, those who came against Egypt from the 'Sea Coast' as well as those from the "Great Green"-(Mediterranean Sea)-(Green-papyrus stem)
    B–Gave Silver, Grains (great Amounts) to quiet "Horus-lands" and "Egypt".
  11. Took Siege against Lycopolis
    A–People, citizens had transgressed "the Ways"
    B–Blocked up canals (for water, growing food?)
    C–Spent monies.
    D–Set up Infantry at canals. Conquered "district"-(conquer: kheb-nef-two whips with shen ring)
    E–Made a great Massacre (of the citizens)
    F–(Punishes the Leaders)
    G–Gathered soldiers, captured Leaders, ("at their head, they led astray the nomes, they pillaged the "Horus Lands"-(temple properties), they transgressed the way of "His Majesty")
    H–Father August (god Ra) granted: Leaders be brought to White Wall (Memphis); Rebels: "slaying by placing [them] upon stake[s]"- (branch)-(= to the crucifying, forerunner to events)-(earlier people had been immersed in hot oil)
  12. Temples
    A–Remitted Tax Arrears.
    Gave temples, Money(monies), (Silver-gold + Mace, the ligatured two hieroglyphs mean "silver", or "money"), and gave them Grains.
    B–Byssus Cloth Production-(Tax) remitted. (Past Byssus owed, Remitted)
    C–5 Grain Bushels on temple aroura lands remitted. Likewise the temple aroura Vineyards.
  13. Endowments to Temples of Apis and Mnevis
    A–Plus the animal burials
    B–Provisions for the animal temples, Festivals conducted, Burnt Offerings, (animals) for slaughter, drink offerings (libations), and all things (everything) "customary", and the best for temples, and everything, large quantities, of Egypt, (provided) "according to what [is] in the laws" - (laws: hepu, uses the H, reed shelter)
  14. Gold and Silver and Grain, large quantities, everything, for "Temple of Apis"-(Hapy's temple); restored temple, (claim of its greatness, and God thankful)
  15. (And Lastly)
    Set up Temples, Chapels, and Altars
    A–The gods and goddesses rewarded Ptolemy V by giving him: "victory, might-(Nekh-t-"branch (hieroglyph)", etc)(Nike: Goddess of Victory), life-(Ankh), Strength, health, and everything Good, to the extent of them etc. for him, and his children, for ever."

The completed accomplishment list is then followed by And a Happening Good [may there be]

The list of rewards given by the gods and goddesses is also referencing: A.U.S. (Life, Dominion, Health), commonly translated, or transcribed as Life, Prosperity, Health. It is an acronym, and commonly followed the reference to "Pharaoh, aus". (i.e. Pharaoh, life, dominion, health), in Egyptian: "Pharaoh, ankh, wedja, seneb". –(or "ankh, utcha, senbi")

The list of rewards

The list of 8 rewards is preceded by:

"With Fortunate Happening !"(may Good Luck attend this)

  1. Priests agree to increase honors to Ancestors (Ptolemy IV & III)
  2. A–Set up Statue-(wood)-(in Shrine, gold) to Ptolemy V, Title: "Avenger of Baq-t"-(Egypt)-(Avenger: cross-ndj (hieroglyph)-(a cross)–(a "grinding mill", to reduce to pellets, powder))
    B–Statue with Sword Royal of Victory, etc.
    C–Honor Statues 3 times per day
  3. (long reward)-Create Shrine (for statue); Uraeii-(cobras) on shrine, Pschent crown, with Payyrus Clusters-(two types), Mut-Vulture–on–Basket-(basket (hieroglyph)) and Uraeus–on–Basket....the meaning thereof: the Lord of the Two Crowns Illumineth the Two Lands–(Upper and Lower Egypt)
  4. (long reward)-Celebrate Festival, (each month)-Celebrate the day of Ptolemy V birth, and "Day of Accession"-to throne; using: burnt offerings, (incense, food), poured libations, all customs for festivals, (and mostly done in temples?)
  5. Five Day Festival, annual, beginning of month "Thoth"-(tutelary god of Scribes); Garlands on people's heads, festal altars, libations poured, and "all customs, etc"
  6. Priests given title: "Priest of the God "Manifested" -(legs-forward (hieroglyph)), "Lord of 'Benefits' "–(Lord-Beauty,Beauty,Beauty); record on Documents, and engrave upon ring for each priest: "Priest of the god appearing-(manifesting), lord of benefits"-(beauty,beauty,beauty)
  7. Copy of Shrine-(statue) can be made by citizens for their House-(pr (hieroglyph)-House (hieroglyph)), and they must celebrate on "days each month"
  8. Engrave Decree, upon a stele, stone hard-(bowstring (hieroglyph)), in Hieroglyphs, Demotic-(democratic: Citizen text), and Greek; Erect-(mast (hieroglyph) stele in temples, of 1st, 2nd, 3rd orders by side of Statue of King, North, South, (Upper and Lower Egypt), Ptolemy V.

The Egyptian language hieroglyphs for a "good luck" quote:

"And a Happening Good [may there be]"–("and" = wick (hieroglyph) plus "arm":
, (arm centered on wick))


The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, thereby opening a window into ancient Egyptian history.

The stone, carved during the Hellenistic period, is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple, possibly at nearby Sais. It was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period, and was eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in July 1799 by a French soldier named Pierre-François Bouchard during the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt. It was the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, and it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. British troops having meanwhile defeated the French, under the Capitulation of Alexandria in 1801 the original stone came into British possession and was transported to London. It has been on public display at the British Museum almost continuously since 1802 and is the most-visited object there.



📹 Ptolemaic Rosetta Stone — KHAN ACADEY (VİDEO)

Ptolemaic Rosetta Stone — KHAN ACADEY (LINK)



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