Burgundy Krallığı
CKM 2019-20 / Aziz Yardımlı


Burgundy Krallığı

  Kingdom of Burgundy
  • Burgundy krallığı Roma İmparatorluğunun Batıda yıkılmasının ardından kurulan belirgin beş barbar krallıktan biridir.
  • “Burgundian” adlandırması kökeni İskandinavya anakarasında (Danimarka?) olan bir Germanik kabileden gelir.
  • İskit ya da Hun kökenli ve böylece Türkik bir halk da olabilirler.
    Agathias, Histiriae, V, 11, 2-4.
  • Batı Galya’ya yerleşerek barbar Burgundian krallığını kurdular.
  • 406’da Roma feodaratisi olarak Ren’in Batısına yerleştiler.
  • 534’te Frank İmparatorluğuna soğruldular.
  • Nibelungenlied’in efsane ve şarkılarından bir bölümü altıncı yüzyıl Burgundian krallığından kaynaklanır.

📹 Burgundy, a fascinating history (VİDEO)

📹 Burgundy, a fascinating history (LINK)



Agathias, The Histories, s. 146; transl. by Joseph D. Frendo.
Battle of Grandson 1476 (L)

Kingdom of Burgundy (W )

Kingdom of Burgundy (W)

The Carolingian empire and (inset) divisions after the Treaty of Verdun, 843.

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy and Switzerland and includes the major modern cities of Geneva and Lyon.

As a political entity, Burgundy existed in a number of forms with different boundaries, notably, when it was divided into Upper and Lower Burgundy and Provence. Two of the entities, the first around the 6th century and the second around the 11th century, were called the Kingdom of Burgundy. At other times were the Kingdom of Provence, the Duchy of Burgundy and the County of Burgundy.

Kingdom of the Burgundians 4th century-534 AD

Burgundy is named after a Germanic tribe of Burgundians who originated in mainland Scandinavia, then settled on the island of Bornholm, whose name in Old Norse was Burgundarholmr ("Island of the Burgundians"). From there they migrated south through Germanic lands into Roman Gaul and settled in the western part of the Alps and Rhône valley, establishing a barbarian kingdom of the Burgundians.


The first documented, though not historically verified King of the Burgundians was Gjúki (Gebicca), who lived in the late 4th century. In the course of the Crossing of the Rhine in 406 the Burgundians settled as foederati in the Roman province of Germania Secunda along the Middle Rhine. Their situation worsened when about 430 their king Gunther started several invasions into neighbouring Gallia Belgica, which led to a crushing defeat by joined Roman and Hunnic troops under Flavius Aetius in 436 near Worms (the focus of the mediæval Nibelungenlied poem).

The remaining Burgundians from 443 onwards settled in the Sapaudia (i.e. Savoy) region, again as foederati in the Roman Maxima Sequanorum province. Their efforts to enlarge their kingdom down the Rhône river brought them into conflict with the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, king Gundobad allied with the powerful Frank king Clovis I against the threat of Theoderic the Great. He was then able to organize the Burgundian acquisitions based on the Lex Burgundionum, an Early Germanic law code.

The decline of the Kingdom began when they came under attack from their former Frank allies. In 523 the sons of Clovis I campaigned in the Burgundian lands, instigated by their mother Clotilde, whose father king Chilperic II of Burgundy had been killed by Gundobad. In 532 the Burgundians were decisively defeated by the Franks at Autun, whereafter king Godomar was killed and Burgundian lands was annexed by the Frankish Empire in 534.


Kingdom of the Burgundians after the settlement in Savoy from 443.

Frankish Burgundy 534-933

While there no longer was an independent Burgundian kingdom, between 561 and 584 and between 639 and 737 several rulers of the Frankish Merovingian dynasty used the title of "King of Burgundy".

Burgundy as part of the Frankish Empire between 534 and 843.


Kingdom of Provence 855-863

Partitions of Charlemagne’s empire by his immediate Carolingian heirs led to a short-lived kingdom of Middle Francia, which was created after the 843 Treaty of Verdun. It included lands from North Sea to southern Italy and was ruled by emperor Lothair I. The northwestern part of the former Burgundian lands as Duchy of Burgundy (Bourgogne) was included in the kingdom of West Francia. Shortly before his death in 855, Lothair I divided his kingdom among his three sons in three parts — Lotharingia, Kingdom of Italy and regions of Lower Burgundy and Provence which were left to the youngest son — Charles of Provence. This partition created more conflicts, as older Carolingians who ruled West Francia and East Francia viewed themselves as the true heirs of Middle Francia.

As Charles of Provence was too young to rule, the actual power was held by regent, count Girart II of Vienne whose wife was the sister-in-law of emperor Lothar I. Girart was a strong regent, defending the kingdom from Vikings, who raided as far as Valence. Charles' uncle, Charles the Bald of West Francia, attempted to intervene in Provence in 861 after receiving an appeal for intervention from the Count of Arles. He invaded Provence as far as Mâcon before being restrained by Hincmar of Rheims.

Upper and Lower Burgundy


In 858, Count Girart arranged that should Charles of Provence die without heirs, the Kingdom of Provence would revert to Charles' older brother Lothair II who ruled in Lotharingia. When Charles died in 863, his oldest brother Louis II claimed Provence for himself, so the kingdom was divided between the two remaining brothers: Lothair II received the bishoprics of Lyon, Vienne and Grenoble, to be governed by Girart; and Louis II received Arles, Aix-en-provence and Embrun.

After the death of Lothair II, the 870 Treaty of Meerssen allotted the northern part of former Middle Francia to King Louis the German of East Francia and the southern lands of Charles of Provence to King Charles the Bald of West Francia.

After the overthrow of Charles the Bald in 877, followed by the death of his incapable son Louis the Stammerer two years later, the Frankish noble Boso of Provence proclaimed himself a "King of Burgundy and Provence" at Vienne in 879 and established his kingdom of Lower Burgundy and Provence.

Upper Burgundy remained under the influence of the East Frankish king Charles the Fat. It was centered in what is now western Switzerland, and included some neighboring territories now in France and Italy and some which later became the Franche-Comté. From 887 these northern territories formed the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy, proclaimed by the Welf noble Rudolph I of Burgundy at Saint-Maurice, Switzerland.

The Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy between 879 and 933.


Kingdom of Arles, 933-1378


The ruler of Upper Burgundy, Rudolph II, acquired Lower Burgundy from Hugh of Arles in 933 and created a kingdom which was known as the Kingdom of Arles. The Kingdom existed independently until 1033, when it was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire under Conrad II. It was one of the three kingdoms within the medieval Empire, along with the Kingdom of Germany and the Kingdom of Italy.

The kingdom gradually fragmented as it was divided among heirs, or territories were lost and acquired through diplomacy and dynastic marriages.

By 1378, when the Kingdom of Arles ceased to exist, large parts were already held by the County of Savoy. The remaining lands were ceded to the Dauphin of France Charles VI by Emperor Charles IV, creating the Dauphiné.


Kingdom of Arles (1033–1378).


“Third Kingdom of Burgundy”


In the late 15th century Duke Charles the Bold conceived the project of combining his territories into a "Third Kingdom of Burgundy" with himself as its fully independent monarch. Charles even persuaded Emperor Frederick III to crown him as a king at Trier. The planned ceremony did not take place because the emperor fled during the night of September 1473, due to displeasure with the duke's attitude. This ultimately ended the duchy as an independent realm with the defeat and mutilation of Charles at the Battle of Nancy.


The holdings of the House of Valois-Burgundy during the reign of Charles the Bold in the late 15th century.


📹 Rise and Fall of Burgundy (VİDEO)

📹 Rise and Fall of Burgundy (LINK)

With the Kingdom of Burgundy, Duchy of Burgundy, County of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands, it's often difficult to understand exactly what this rather strange state is. This video explains the difference between them all from the Rise of the First Kingdom in the 5th Century to the fall and partition of the duchy in 1477.


📹 The Kingdom of the Burgundians (VİDEO)

📹 The Kingdom of the Burgundians (LINK)

In this video, I look at the kingdom of the Burgundians, one of the post-Roman successor states of early medieval Western Europe.


  History of Burgundy

History of Burgundy (W)

History of Burgundy (W)

Burgundy within the Frankish realms.

The history of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans (Gallo-Romans), and in the 5th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people originating in Bornholm (Baltic Sea), who settled there and established the Kingdom of the Burgundians.

This Burgundian kingdom was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks, who continued the kingdom of Burgundy under their own rule.

Later, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy (to the west) and the County of Burgundy (to the east). The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté, literally meaning free county.

The situation is complicated by the fact that at different times and under different geopolitical circumstances, many different entities have gone by the name of ‘Burgundy’. Historian Norman Davies has commented that “[f]ew subjects in European history have created more havoc than that summarized by the phrase ‘all the Burgundies.’” In 1862, James Bryce compiled a list of ten such entities, a list which Davies himself extends to fifteen, ranging from the first Burgundian kingdom founded by Gunther in the fifth century, to the modern French région of Burgundy.



The Burgundians, who migrated into the Western Roman Empire as it collapsed, are generally regarded as a Germanic people, possibly originating in Bornholm (modern Denmark). (A fringe theory suggests that the Burgundians may have been the Βουρουγουνδοι Bourougoundoi later alluded to by the Aeolian historian Agathias, as a component of Eurasian steppe peoples, namely the “Scythian or Huns” (and, by implication, Turkic peoples like the Bulgars). (Agathias, Histiriae, V, 11, 2-4. See also: Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p.7, & notes. Agathias connects the Bourougoundoi and Ουλτιζουροι Oultizouroi to the Bulgars and Utigurs.) While they were dominated by the Huns for a time and adopted some of their cultural practices, Agathias may have confused or conflated the Burgundians with the Lombards, who apparently had more significant ties to the Huns and Bulgars.)


Migrations and areas of settlement of Germanic tribes in 4th and 5th century.


In 411, the Burgundians crossed the Rhine and established a kingdom at Worms. Amidst repeated clashes between the Romans and Huns, the Burgundian kingdom eventually occupied what is today the borderlands between Switzerland, France, and Italy. In 534, the Franks defeated Godomar, the last Burgundian king, and absorbed the territory into their growing empire.

Territory of the Duchy of Burgundy (Bourgogne) in 1477 marked in yellow.

During and after the dissolution of the Frankish Empire a number of polities existed at different times and covering different areas. During the late 9th century there were three Burgundies:

  1. the Kingdom of Upper (Transjurane) Burgundy around Lake Geneva,
  2. the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in Provence,
  3. the Duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône.


The two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy were reunited in 937 and absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire under Conrad II in 1032, as the Kingdom of Arles. The Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by the French throne in 1004.

During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was the seat of some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, among them Cluny, Cîteaux, and Vézelay.

During the 12th and 13th centuries, the County of Burgundy emerged from the area previously within the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy. It became known as the Free County of Burgundy or Franche-Comté.

During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold, rather than leaving it for his successor on the French throne. Following a personal union between the Duchy and the County of Burgundy, the "Two Burgundies" soon became a major rival to the French throne. The Dukes of Burgundy succeeded in assembling an empire stretching from Switzerland to the North Sea, in large part by marriage. The Burgundian territories consisted of a number of fiefdoms on both sides of the (then largely symbolic) border between the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Its economic heartland was in the Low Countries, particularly Flanders and Brabant. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In Belgium and in the south of the Netherlands, the expression “Burgundian lifestyle” is still used to denote enjoyment of life, good food, and extravagant spectacle.

In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, and the Duchy itself was annexed by France. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the other Burgundian territories provided a power base for the rise of the Habsburgs, after Maximilian of Austria married the surviving daughter of the ducal family, Mary. After her death, her husband moved his court first to Mechelen and later to the palace at Coudenberg, Brussels, and from there ruled the remnants of the empire, the Low Countries (Burgundian Netherlands) and Franche-Comté, then still an imperial fief. The latter territory was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen of 1678.

With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the regions disappeared, but were reconstituted during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s. The modern-day administrative région includes most of the former duchy.


  Burgundian Wars 1474-1477

Burgundian Wars

Burgundian Wars 1474-1477 (W)

The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated three times on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy and several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté were inherited by Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg upon her death because of her marriage to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

General situation (W)

The Siege of Neuss (1474–75), from Geschichte Peter Hagenbachs und der Burgunderkriege (1477) by Konrad Pfettisheim.

The dukes of Burgundy had succeeded, over a period of about 100 years, in establishing their rule as a strong force between the Holy Roman Empire and France. Their possessions included, besides their original territories of the Franche-Comté and the Duchy of Burgundy, the economically strong regions of Flanders and Brabant as well as Luxembourg.

The dukes of Burgundy generally pursued an aggressive expansionist politics, especially in Alsace and Lorraine, seeking to geographically unite their northern and southern possessions. Having already been in conflict with the French king (Burgundy had sided with the English in the Hundred Years' War), Charles' advances along the Rhine brought him in conflict with the Habsburgs and especially emperor Frederick III.


Charles the Bold, a contemporary portrait by Rogier van der Weyden.

Initially in 1469, Duke Sigismund of Habsburg of Austria assigned his possessions in the Alsace as a fiefdom to the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, to have them protected better against the expansion of the Eidgenossen (or Old Swiss Confederacy). Charles's involvement west of the Rhine gave him no reason to attack the confederates as Sigismund had wanted, but his embargo politics against the cities of Basel, Strasbourg, and Mulhouse, directed by his reeve Peter von Hagenbach, prompted these to turn to Bern for help. Charles's expansionist strategy suffered a first setback in his politics when his attack on the Archbishopric of Cologne failed after the unsuccessful Siege of Neuss (1474-75).

In a second phase, Sigismund sought to achieve a peace agreement with the Swiss confederates, which eventually was concluded in Konstanz in 1474 (later called the Ewige Richtung). He wanted to buy back his Alsace possessions from Charles, which the latter refused. Shortly afterwards, von Hagenbach was captured and executed by decapitation in Alsace, and the Swiss, united with the Alsace cities and Sigismund of Habsburg in an "anti-Burgundian league", conquered part of the Burgundian Jura (Franche-Comté) when they won the Battle of Héricourt in November 1474. Louis XI of France joined the coalition by the Treaty of Andernach in December. The next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, who was allied with Charles the Bold. In the Valais, the independent republics of the Sieben Zenden, with the help of Bernese and other confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower Valais after a victory in the Battle on the Planta in November 1475. In 1476 Charles retaliated and marched to Grandson, which belonged to Pierre de Romont of Savoy, but which had recently been taken by the Swiss, where he had the garrison hanged or drowned in the lake despite their capitulation. When the Swiss confederate forces arrived a few days later, he was defeated in the Battle of Grandson, and he was forced to flee the battlefield, leaving behind his artillery and many provisions and valuables. Having rallied his army, he was dealt a devastating blow by the confederates in the Battle of Morat. Charles the Bold raised a new army, but fell in the Battle of Nancy in 1477, where the Swiss fought alongside an army of René II, Duke of Lorraine.


The Swiss army (left) and the Burgundian army (right) at the battle of Grandson. Illustration by Diebold Schilling the Elder (1483).


With the death of Charles the Bold, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. The Flemish territories of the Dukes of Burgundy subsequently became a possession of the Habsburgs, when Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who would later become Holy Roman Emperor, married Charles' only daughter Mary of Burgundy. The duchy proper reverted to the crown of France under king Louis XI. The Franche-Comté initially also became French, but was ceded to Maximilian's son Philip in 1493 by the French king Charles VIII in the treaty of Senlis, in an attempt to bribe the Emperor to remain neutral during Charles's planned invasion of Italy.

The victories of the Eidgenossen (Swiss Confederation) over one of the most powerful military forces in Europe at the time gained them a reputation of near invincibility, and the Burgundian Wars marked the beginning of the rise of Swiss mercenaries on the battlefields of Europe. Inside the Confederacy itself, however, the outcome of the war did lead to internal conflict when the city cantons insisted on having the lion's share of the proceeds since they had supplied the most troops. The country cantons resented this and the Dreizehn Orte disputes almost led to war. They were settled by the Stanser Verkommnis of 1481.


Burgundian territories (orange/yellow) and limits of France (red) after the Burgundian War.


  Burgundy (B)

Burgundy (B)

Burgundy (B)

An artist’s impression of Burgundian knights in gothic armour.

The Burgundians were a Scandinavian people whose original homeland lay on the southern shores of the Baltic Sea, where the island of Bornholm (Burgundarholm in the Middle Ages) still bears their name. About the 1st century CE they moved into the lower valley of the Vistula River, but, unable to defend themselves there against the Gepidae, they migrated westward to the borders of the Roman Empire. There, serving as foederati, or auxiliaries, in the Roman army, they established a powerful kingdom, which by the early 5th century extended to the west bank of the Rhine River and later centred on Sapaudia (Savoy) near Lake Geneva.

As Rome’s hold over the Western Empire declined in the second half of the 5th century, the Burgundians gradually spread their control over areas to the north and west of Savoy and then throughout the Rhône and Saône river valleys. This second Burgundian kingdom reached its zenith under the lawgiver and Christian king Gundobad (474-516), who promulgated a written code of laws, the Lex Gundobada, for the Burgundians and a separate code, the Lex Romana Burgundionum, for his Gallo-Roman subjects. This Burgundy remained independent until 534, when the Franks occupied the kingdom, extinguishing the royal dynasty.

Burgundy (Bourgogne), historical region of France.

With the death of the Frankish king Clotar I in 561, however, the Frankish kingdom was partitioned among members of the Merovingian dynasty, and one of Clotar’s sons, Guntram, secured the regnum Burgundiae, or kingdom of Burgundy. This kingdom eventually included not only all the former Burgundian lands but also the diocese of Arles in Provence, the Val d’Aosta east of the Alps, and even extensive territory in north-central France. It remained a separate Merovingian kingdom until Charles Martel, the grandfather of Charlemagne, subjugated it to Frankish Austrasia early in the 8th century.

The Carolingians made several partitions of Burgundy before Boso, ruler of the Viennois, had himself proclaimed king of all Burgundy from Autun to the Mediterranean Sea in 879. The French Carolingians later recovered the country west of the Saône and north of Lyons from him, and the German Carolingians recovered Jurane, or Upper, Burgundy (i.e., Transjurane Burgundy, or the country between the Jura and the Alps, together with Cisjurane Burgundy, or Franche-Comté). Boso and his successors, however, were able to maintain themselves in the kingdom of Provence, or Lower Burgundy, until about 933.

In 888 Rudolf I (died 912) of the German Welf family was recognized as king of Jurane Burgundy, including much of what is now Switzerland. His son and successor, Rudolf II, was able to conclude a treaty about 931 with Hugh of Provence, successor of Boso’s son Louis the Blind, whereby he extended his rule over the entire regnum Burgundiae except the areas west of the Saône. This union of Upper and Lower Burgundy was bequeathed in 1032 to the German king and emperor Conrad II and became known from the 13th century as the kingdom of Arles—the name Burgundy being increasingly reserved for the county of Burgundy (Cisjurane Burgundy) and for the duchy of Burgundy.

The duchy of Burgundy was that part of the regnum Burgundiae west of the Saône River; it was recovered from Boso by the French Carolingians and remained a part of the kingdom of France. Boso’s brother Richard, count of Autun, organized the greater part of the territory under his own authority. His son Rudolph (Raoul), who succeeded him in 921, was elected king of France in 923. On Rudolph’s death in 936 the Carolingian king Louis IV and Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks, detached Sens, Troyes, and (temporarily) Langres from Burgundy.

The duchy thus formed, though smaller than its 10th-century predecessor, was stronger and remained in the Capetian family until 1361. In their foreign policy the Capetian dukes adhered loyally to their cousins the kings of France and in internal affairs enlarged their domain and enforced obedience from their vassals. Burgundy came to be recognized as the premier peerage of the French kingdom.

Both the duchy of Burgundy and Cisjurane Burgundy (the county of Burgundy) flourished during this period. The towns prospered: Dijon became an important market town. Pilgrims flocked to Vézelay and Autun, where in 1146 a magnificent church was built around the tomb of St. Lazare. Burgundian monasteries were famous: Cluny (founded 910) became the centre of an order of monks extending from England to Spain, and in 1098 the monastery of Cîteaux was founded and with it a new religious order, the Cistercians.

A reunification of the two Burgundies was effected in 1335 and ended in 1361. The king of France, John II (the Good), reunited the duchy with the domain of the crown, while Cisjurane Burgundy, or Franche-Comté, went to the independent count of Flanders. A new period of Burgundian ducal history began under John II, who in 1363 gave the duchy to his son Philip, who became Philip II, known as “the Bold.” In 1369 Philip married the heiress of the county, Margaret of Flanders. In 1384, when his father-in-law died, Philip inherited Nevers, Rethel, Artois, and Flanders, as well as Franche-Comté. The two Burgundies formed the southern part of a state, the northern possessions of which extended over the Netherlands, the valley of the Meuse, and the Ardennes. In the north, expansion was to continue (Hainaut, 1428; Brabant, 1430; Luxembourg, 1443), but the south, from which Nevers was again detached in 1404, became less and less important. Philip II, however, who lived in Burgundy, did purchase the southern territory of Charolais in 1390.

John the Fearless succeeded Philip II in 1404 and devoted himself to the struggle with his rival Louis, duc d’Orleans, and with Louis’s supporters under the count of Armagnac, who devastated the southern borders of Burgundy between 1412 and 1435. John was assassinated in 1419, and his son Philip III (the Good) continued the struggle against the Armagnacs and threw his support to the English during the Hundred Years’ War. The Treaty of Arras (1435), which established peace between Burgundy and Charles VII of France, added greatly to the Burgundian domain. Even so, mercenary bands continued their depredations in Burgundy until 1445, after which the duchy enjoyed peace until Philip III’s death in 1467.

The next duke, Charles the Bold, was constantly in conflict with the French king Louis XI. Charles’s aim was to unite the northern and southern sections of the kingdom by annexing Lorraine, and he demanded from the Holy Roman emperor the title of king of Burgundy. Charles was thwarted in these efforts by the persistent efforts of Louis XI, who conducted several campaigns against him and subjected Burgundy to an economic blockade.

The two Burgundies suffered from the ravages of the Black Death in 1348 and from the mercenaries’ bands of the Hundred Years’ War. The population declined perceptibly, and this put a heavy strain on production in the 15th century. The lucrative trade in grain, wines, and finished wool was threatened, and the market-fairs lost some of their importance. But on the whole the two Burgundies seem to have enjoyed more security than much of Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries.

After the death of Charles the Bold in 1477, his heiress, Mary of Burgundy, married the Austrian archduke Maximilian of Habsburg (later the Holy Roman emperor), thus disappointing French hopes that she would marry Louis XI’s son Charles, the future Charles VIII of France. The Treaty of Arras (1482), however, ceded Franche-Comté to Charles on his betrothal to Mary’s daughter Margaret of Austria. When he broke this engagement, he had to cede Franche-Comté to Austria by the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.

For the next 185 years Franche-Comté was a possession of the Habsburgs. By the Treaty of Saint-Jean-de-Losne (1522) with France, the neutrality of the county was ensured during the wars between the Habsburgs and the last French kings of the Valois line. Its enduring prosperity, enhanced by industrial development, can be judged by the splendid Renaissance architecture of its towns. Civil disturbances, however, came with the Reformation, when bands of Protestants entered the mainly Roman Catholic county from Germany and Switzerland. Franche-Comté passed to the Spanish Habsburgs through the emperor Charles V’s partition of his dominions in 1556. Under Philip II of Spain a forceful repression of Protestants took place, and Henry IV of France, in his war with Philip, violated Franche-Comté’s neutrality. From 1598 to 1635 peace was maintained, but French fear of Habsburg encirclement led Louis XIII to attempt to annex the county. He invaded and ravaged the area annually from 1636 to 1639, but the Peace of Westphalia (1648) confirmed Habsburg control.

Conquered in 1668 by the Great Condé in the War of Devolution but returned to Spain by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (May 2, 1668), Franche-Comté was finally conquered for France by Condé in the last of the so-called Dutch Wars, the French annexation being recognized by the Peace of Nijmegen in 1678. Louis XIV moved the capital of the new province to the former imperial city of Besançon. In 1790, along with the rest of France, Franche-Comté was divided into separate départements—Jura, Doubs, and Haute-Saône.

After the death of Charles the Bold (1477), the duchy of Burgundy was annexed by the French crown. During the 16th century it was devastated by the Wars of Religion. The towns had to be fortified, and mercenaries roamed the country. The duchy was again ravaged in the Thirty Years’ War and also during the aristocratic revolt known as the Fronde (1648–53) led by the Great Condé. Not until the French annexation of Franche-Comté in 1678 were peace and security restored. From 1631 to 1789 the duchy was governed by the princes de Condé. After the French Revolution the province of Burgundy disappeared, divided into the départements of Côte-d’Or, Saône-et-Loire, and Yonne. In 2016 the région of Burgundy was merged with Franche-Comté as part of a national plan to increase bureaucratic efficiency.


  Burgundian Netherlands

The Battle with the Sagittary and the Conference at Achilles' Tent (from Scenes from the Story of the Trojan War).


The Battle with the Sagittary and the Conference at Achilles’ Tent (from Scenes from the Story of the Trojan War) (LINK)

Artist: Probably produced through Jean or Pasquier Grenier of Tournai
Date: ca. 1470-90
Geography: Made in Tournai, South Netherlands
Culture: South Netherlandish
Medium: Wool warp, wool wefts with a few silk wefts
Dimensions: Overall: 172 × 156 in. (436.9 × 396.2 cm)
Classification: Textiles-Tapestries Credit
Line: Fletcher Fund, 1952
Accession Number: 52.69


This tapestry fragment is one of two or more tapestries that were woven after a cartoon illustrating a composition in the Trojan War series. Among the composition's episodes were the two illustrated here: the fifth battle, in which the centaur, or Sagittary, fought on the side of the Trojans; and the conference held in Achilles' tent to arrange single combat between Hector and Menelaus. Another fragment (acc. no. 39.74) depicts Hector arming for war as Andromache and Priam urge him not to go. The legend of the Trojan War had special appeal for the dukes of Burgundy, who claimed Priam, the last king of Troy and the father of Hector and Paris, as an ancestor. In September 1472, Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, received as a gift a set of Trojan War tapestries that were produced by Pasquier Grenier of Tournai. The Museum's pieces, while probably not part of the original set made for Charles, were likely woven after the same series of cartoons. They are formidable examples of the types of ambitious tapestries produced for the Burgundian court in the Netherlands.


Burgundian Netherlands (W)

Burgundian Netherlands 1384-1482 (W)

Burgundian territories of the House of Valois-Burgundy during the reign of Charles the Bold (1465/67-1477), with the Burgundian possessions in the Low Countries appearing in the top half of the map, known as pays de par deça (land over here), that under Habsburg rule developed in pays d'embas (lands down here).


In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (French: Pays-Bas Bourguignons, Dutch: Bourgondische Nederlanden, Luxembourgish: Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Walloon: Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy in the period from 1384 to 1482 and later their Habsburg heirs. The area comprised large parts of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as Luxembourg and parts of northern France.

History (W)

A fair share (but not most) of these territories were inherited by the Burgundian dukes, a younger branch of the French royal House of Valois in 1384, upon the death of Count Louis II of Flanders. His heiress, Margaret III of Flanders in 1369 had married Philip the Bold, youngest son of King John II of France and the first of the Valois dukes of Burgundy at Dijon, who thus inherited the County of Flanders. The Flemish comital House of Dampierre had been French vassals, who held territory around the affluent cities of Bruges and Ghent, but also adjacent lands in former Lower Lorraine east of the Scheldt river ("Imperial Flanders") including the exclave of Mechelen, which were a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, and furthermore the neighbouring French County of Artois. Together they initiated an era of Burgundian governance in the Low Countries.

The Dampierre legacy further comprised the French counties of Rethel in northern Champagne and Nevers west of Burgundy proper, both held by Philip's younger son Philip II from 1407, as well as the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté) east of it, an Imperial fief which had been part of the former Kingdom of Arles.

In the following decades, the Burgundian dukes expanded their territories in the Low Countries by the acquisition of several Imperial States: Duke Philip the Good purchased the County of Namur in 1421, inherited the Duchies of Brabant and Limburg in 1430, and seized the Counties of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland in 1432, and the Duchy of Luxembourg in 1441. His son, the last Burgundian duke Charles the Bold, in 1473 annexed the Duchy of Guelders, which had been pawned by late Arnold of Egmond.

The Valois era would last until 1477, when Duke Charles the Bold died at the Battle of Nancy leaving no male heir. The territorial Duchy of Burgundy reverted to the French crown according to Salic law, and King Louis XI of France also seized the French portion of the Burgundian possessions in the Low Countries. The Imperial fiefs passed to the Austrian House of Habsburg through Charles' daughter Mary of Burgundy and her husband Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg, son of Emperor Frederick III. Maximilian however regarded the Burgundian Netherlands including Flanders and Artois as the undivided domains of his wife and himself and marched against the French. The conflict culminated at the Battle of Guinegate in 1479. Though Maximilian was victorious, he was only able to gain the County of Flanders according to the 1482 Treaty of Arras after his wife Mary had suddenly died, while France retained Artois.

In her testament, Mary of Burgundy had bequested the Burgundian heritage to her and Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome. His father, dissatisfied with the terms of the Arras agreement, continued to contest the seized French territories. In 1493, King Charles VIII of France according to the Treaty of Senlis finally renounced Artois, which together with Flanders was incorporated into the Imperial Seventeen Provinces under the rule of Philip.



The Burgundian dukes who ruled the Burgundian territories were:

House of Valois, territorial Dukes of Burgundy

House of Valois, titular Duchess of Burgundy

House of Habsburg, titular Dukes of Burgundy (see Habsburg Netherlands)


The sheer burden of variety of bishoprics and independent cities, the intensely local partisanship, the various taxation systems, weights and measures, internal customs barriers, fiercely defended local rights were all hindrances to a "good Valois". Attempts at enlarging personal control by the dukes resulted in revolts among the independent towns (sometimes supported by independent local nobles) and bloody military suppression in response. An increasingly modernized central government, with a bureaucracy of clerks, allowed the dukes to become celebrated art patrons and establish a glamorous court life that gave rise to conventions of behavior that lasted for centuries. Philip the Good (1419-1467) extended his personal control to the southeast; bringing Brussels, Namur, and Liège under his control. He channeled the traditional independence of the cities through such mechanisms as the first Estates-General, and consolidating of the region's economy.

The first Estates General of the Burgundian territories met in the City Hall of Bruges on 9 January 1464. It included delegates from the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Flanders, Lille, Douai and Orchies, the County of Artois, the County of Hainaut, the County of Holland, the County of Zeeland, the County of Namur, the Lordship of Mechelen, and the Boulonnais. Up to 1464, the Duke only maintained ties with each of the provincial States separately. In principle, the provincial Estates were composed of representatives of the three traditional estates: clergy, nobility and the Third Estate, but the exact composition and influence of each estate (within the provincial Estates) could differ. Convening an Estates General in which all provincial Estates were represented was part of Philip the Good's policy of centralisation.


🔗 Burgundian Netherlands: Court Life and Patronage (THE MET)

🔗 Burgundian Netherlands: Court Life and Patronage (THE-MET)




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