CKM 2019-20 / Aziz Yardımlı


Habsburg Hanedanı

  House of Habsburg
The Hofburg in Vienna

📹 The Habsburgs — Rarely Seen Masterpieces from Europe's Greatest Dynasty (VİDEO)

📹 The Habsburgs — Rarely Seen Masterpieces from Europe’s Greatest Dynasty (LINK)

Exhibition Dates: February 15 - May 10, 2015

This sweeping exhibition showcases the amazing history of the Austrian Habsburg Emperors, who commissioned and collected households full of masterpieces by which to display their power. It focuses particularly on the three periods of their greatest flourishing. The first relates the history of the Habsburgs from the dynasty’s origins in the 13th century until the 16th century. The central figure is Maximilian I, during whose reign the Habsburgs achieved world-power status. You’ll see how an international network of political and family relations aided in the amassing of unique collections of art.

Devoted to the Age of the Baroque, the second block explores the art, culture, and politics of the 17th and 18th centuries. During this period the House of Habsburg dies out in both Spanish and Austrian male lines, provoking considerable political complications and the loss of Spain. A female heiress, Maria Theresa, succeeded in establishing her right to rule as heir to the Austrian line, becoming the final ruler of the House of Habsburg. Visitors will discover the role of religion, art, and court festivities as instruments propagating the dynasty’s self‐image and claim to rule. Key figures include Leopold Wilhelm, Leopold I, Charles VI, and Maria Theresa.

The early 19th century saw the final demise of the Holy Roman Empire and the establishment of the hereditary Austrian Empire. With the growth of nationalism, the empire would be transformed into the dual monarchy of Austria‐Hungary. Key figures of this period are Francis II (I) and Franz Joseph. This section explores the long reign of Emperor Franz Joseph, the founding of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, and the creation of the multinational empire. This empire, characterized by a highly hierarchical social order, is represented by the lavish gowns of the imperial court. At the end of World War I in 1918, it dissolved into its component parts, bringing almost 600 years of Habsburg rule in Europe to an end.


📹 The House of Habsburg (VİDEO)

📹 The House of Habsburg (LINK)

Habsburg Castle was built sometime in the 10th Century, and remained a rather unimportant entity for the next 200 years. This changed in the 12th Century when the Habsburgs began to rapidly gain lands in the Alps, making them one of the most powerful families there by 1218. During the rest of the 13th Century, they spread farther still, culminating in the inheritance of Austria and Styria in 1278. This collection of territories would expand farther still during the 14 Century, making the Habsburg one of the most influential families in the whole Holy Roman Empire. After a brief period of division, their influence would expand beyond the Imperial frontier into the Netherlands in 1477, Iberia in 1516, and Hungary-Bohemia in 1526. By now, the Habsburgs were an unparalleled European power, although the realm was split in 1556 into a Spanish and Austrian circle, after which a period of decline ensued. A revival for the Austrian branch began in 1683 when the Ottomans began to fall back away from Hungary during the Great Turkish War, but Spain continued to decline and fell out of Habsburg control entirely in the early 18th Century, with many former possessions passing to the Austrian branch. The borders would continue to shift in the 18th Century, as Austria lost Silesia in 1742 at the hands of Prussia, but gained Galicia and Little Poland during the Polish Partitions. After more brief losses during the Napoleonic Wars, the Habsburgs emerged in a strong position in 1815 with various branches penetrating deep into Italy. The 19th Century was mostly peaceful, with the exception of the loss of their Italian territories and the gain of Bosnia-Herzegovina. During the First World War, their dominions began to unravel, and the state collapsed in 1919, ending all Habsburg territorial sovereignty.


House of Habsburg (W)

House of Habsburg (W)

The House of Habsburg ( German: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk]; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English), also officially called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire {!?} was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.

A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.


The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa’s marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name, for example Karl von Habsburg.

The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite

  • wars with the Ottomans,
  • Frederick the Great,
  • Napoleon and
  • Bismarck,


until the final disaster of the First World War. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.

History (W)

Counts of Habsburg

Guntram the Rich, 920-973.

Habsburg Castle.

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forthwith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg (hawk castle), or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.


Ancestors of the Habsburgs (W)

Fragmentary references (see below) cite the Habsburgs as descendants of the early Germanic Etichonider, probably of Frankish, Burgundian or Visigothic origin, who ruled the Duchy of Alsace in the Early Middle Ages (7th-10th centuries). The dynasty is named for Eticho (also known as Aldarich) who ruled from 662 to 690.


Kings of the Romans and consolidation in the Eastern Alps (W)

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218-1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273, Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.

In a crucial step towards the creation of his own power base in the Eastern Alps, Rudolph led a coalition against king Ottokar II of Bohemia who had taken advantage of the Great Interregnum in order to expand southwards, taking over first the Babenberg (Austria, Styria, Savinja), and then the Spanheim inheritance (Carinthia and Carniola). In 1278, Ottokar was defeated and killed in the Battle of Marchfeld. The lands he had acquired in the previous decades were reverted to the German crown. In 1282, the Habsburgs gained for themselves the rulership of the duchies of Austria and Styria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. The southern portions of Ottokar's former realm, Carinthia, Carniola, and Savinja, were granted to Rudolph's allies from the House of Gorizia. The resulting arrangement, known as the "Habsburg-Gorizia equilibrium in the Eastern Alps" lasted for half a decade.

After Rudolph's death, the Habsburgs failed to maintain the Roman kingship. In the 1300s, their attempt to gain the Bohemian crown was frustrated first by Henry of Bohemia and finally by the House of Luxembourg. However, the weakening of the House of Gorizia in this succession struggle enabled them to expand southwards: in 1311, they took over the Savinja, and after the death of Henry of Bohemia in 1335, they assumed power in Carniola and in Carinthia. In 1369, they would succeed his daughter in Tyrol, as well. After the death of Albert III of Gorizia in 1374, they gained their first foothold on the Adriatic, in central Istria (Mitterburg), followed by Trieste in 1382. The original home territories of the Habsburgs, the Aargau with Habsburg Castle and much of the other original possessions in what is now Switzerland were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Morgarten (1315) and Sempach (1386).

Through the forged privilegium maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House of Habsburg and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339-1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's brothers ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379: the former would maintain Austria proper, while the latter would rule over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, which became known as Inner Austria, as well as Tyrol and the original Habsburg lands in Swabia, now known as Further Austria.

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397-1439) of the Albertine line became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades. With Ladislaus's death, the Albertine line died out, and the Leopoldian line took over all the family possessions.


Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Central Europe.


‘Holy’ ‘Roman’ ‘emperors’ (W)

Kaiser Friedrich III. nach einem verlorenen Original von 1468.

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the electoral college to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III’s coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.

As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur and Leitha.

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474-75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favor of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.

Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer.

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian has proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the “chosen Emperor,” and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope’s consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.

Maximilian's rule (1493-1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon, and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became emperor Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World) as Charles I, Southern Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries.

The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515 and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe’s political landscape. All the children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson and Charles V's brother Ferdinand, became the King of Bohemia.

An elderly Karl V (also known as Don Carlos I of Spain), ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Habsburg dynasty achieved the position of a true world power {!} by the time of Charles V’s election in 1519, for the first and only time in their history — the "World Emperor" ruling an “empire on which the sun never sets.” {?}

The Habsburgs’ policies against Protestantism led to an eradication of the former throughout vast areas under their control.

Dominions of the Habsburgs at the time of the abdication of Charles V.

Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs (W)

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian Habsburgs (or German Habsburgs) and the branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor (designated as successor already in 1531). Philip II of Spain, son of Charles V, became King of Spain and its colonial empire, and ruler of the Mezzogiorno of Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time (1580-1640).


The Iberian Union in 1598, during the reign of Philip, King of Spain and Portugal.


The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were also left in personal union under the King of Spain, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia. In the secret Oñate treaty, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

Extinction of Habsburgs (W)

The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding."

Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs

The Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female line in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa; it was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses). Their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Habsburg-ruled territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinction.


📹 The Origins of the Habsburgs Explained (VİDEO)

📹 The Origins of the Habsburgs Explained (LINK)

We all know of the Habsburgs as a mighty dynasty ruling over great kingdoms and empires, but rarely do we hear anything about where they came from, or how they originally rose to power. This is my attempt at telling their early history, from humble beginnings as counts, to eventually being chosen as kings of Germany.


  • Habsburg Hanedanı topraklarını evlilik anlaşmaları yoluyla kazandı.
  • 1477: Hollanda, Lüksemburg, Burgundy; 1482: Britanny; 1496: İspanya, Napoli-Sicilya, Sardinya; ve İspanyolların Amerikalarda fethedecekleri topraklar.
  • V. Karl’ın 1519’da “Kutsal Roma İmparatoru” seçilmesini sağlayacak gücü yoktu; seçim rüşvet yoluyla kazanıldı.
  • V. Karl’ın tahta çıkışı sırasında Almanya’da Protestan Reformasyon yer alıyordu.

Hofburg Neue Burg section, seen from Heldenplatz. The statue of Archduke Charles is also pictured.

House of Habsburg — EUROPEAN DYNASTY (B)

House of Habsburg — EUROPEAN DYNASTY (B)

House of Habsburg, also spelled Hapsburg, also called House of Austria, royal German family, one of the principal sovereign dynasties of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century.


The name Habsburg is derived from the castle of Habsburg, or Habichtsburg (“Hawk’s Castle”), built in 1020 by Werner, bishop of Strasbourg, and his brother-in-law, Count Radbot, in the Aargau overlooking the Aar River, in what is now Switzerland. Radbot’s grandfather, Guntram the Rich, the earliest traceable ancestor of the house, may perhaps be identified with a Count Guntram who rebelled against the German king Otto I in 950. Radbot’s son Werner I (died 1096) bore the title count of Habsburg and was the grandfather of Albert III (died c. 1200), who was count of Zürich and landgrave of Upper Alsace. Rudolf II of Habsburg (died 1232) acquired Laufenburg and the “Waldstätte” (Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden, and Lucerne), but on his death his sons Albert IV and Rudolf III partitioned the inheritance. Rudolf III’s descendants, however, sold their portion, including Laufenburg, to Albert IV’s descendants before dying out in 1408.

Austria And The Rise Of The Habsburgs In Germany

Albert IV’s son Rudolf IV of Habsburg was elected German king as Rudolf I in 1273. It was he who, in 1282, bestowed Austria and Styria on his two sons Albert (the future German king Albert I) and Rudolf (reckoned as Rudolf II of Austria). From that date the agelong identification of the Habsburgs with Austria begins (see Austria: Accession of the Habsburg). The family’s custom, however, was to vest the government of its hereditary domains not in individuals but in all male members of the family in common, and, though Rudolf II renounced his share in 1283, difficulties arose again when King Albert I died (1308). After a system of condominium had been tried, Rudolf IV of Austria in 1364 made a compact with his younger brothers that acknowledged the principle of equal rights but secured de facto supremacy for the head of the house. Even so, after his death the brothers Albert III and Leopold III of Austria agreed on a partition (Treaty of Neuberg, 1379): Albert took Austria, Leopold took Styria, Carinthia, and Tirol.

King Albert I’s son Rudolf III of Austria had been king of Bohemia from 1306 to 1307, and his brother Frederick I had been German king as Frederick III (in rivalry or conjointly with Louis IV the Bavarian) from 1314 to 1330. Albert V of Austria was in 1438 elected king of Hungary, German king (as Albert II), , and king of Bohemia; his only surviving son, Ladislas Posthumus, was also king of Hungary from 1446 (assuming power in 1452) and of Bohemia from 1453. With Ladislas the male descendants of Albert III of Austria died out in 1457. Meanwhile the Styrian line descended from Leopold III had been subdivided into Inner Austrian and Tirolean branches.

Frederick V, senior representative of the Inner Austrian line, was elected German king in 1440 and crowned Holy Roman emperor, as Frederick III, in 1452 — the last such emperor to be crowned in Rome. A Habsburg having thus attained the Western world’s most exalted secular dignity, a word may be said about the dynasty’s major titles. The imperial title at that time was, for practical purposes, hardly more than a glorification of the title of German king, and the German kingship was, like the Bohemian and the Hungarian, elective. If Habsburg was to succeed Habsburg as emperor continuously from Frederick’s death in 1493 to Charles VI’s accession in 1711, the principal reason was that the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs formed an aggregate large enough and rich enough to enable the dynasty to impose its candidate on the other German electors (the Habsburgs themselves had an electoral vote only in so far as they were kings of Bohemia).

For the greater part of Frederick’s reign it was scarcely foreseeable that his descendants would monopolize the imperial succession so long as they did. The Bohemian and Hungarian kingdoms were lost to the Habsburgs for nearly 70 years from the death of Ladislas Posthumus in 1457; the Swiss territories, lost in reality from 1315 onward (see Switzerland: Expansion and Position of Power), were finally renounced in 1474; and Frederick’s control over the Austrian inheritance itself was long precarious, not only because of aggression from Hungary but also because of dissension between him and his Habsburg kinsmen. Yet Frederick, one of whose earliest acts in his capacity as emperor had been to ratify, in 1453, the Habsburgs’ use of the unique title of “archduke of Austria” (first arrogated for them by Rudolf IV in 1358-59), may have had some prescient aspiration toward worldwide empire for the House of Austria: the motto A.E.I.O.U., which he occasionally used, is generally interpreted as meaning Austriae est imperare orbi universo (“Austria is destined to rule the world”), or Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan (“The whole world is subject to Austria”). He lived long enough to see his son Maximilian make the most momentous marriage in European history; and three years before his death he also saw the Austrian hereditary lands reunited when Sigismund of Tirol abdicated in Maximilian’s favour (1490).

Before explaining what the Habsburgs owed dynastically to Maximilian, mention can be made of a physical peculiarity characteristic of the House of Habsburg from the emperor Frederick III onward: his jaw and his lower lip were prominent, a feature supposed to have been inherited by him from his mother, the Mazovian princess Cymbarka. Later intermarriage reproduced the “Habsburg lip” more and more markedly, especially among the last Habsburg kings of Spain.

The World Power Of The Habsburgs


Even before Frederick III’s time the House of Habsburg had won much of its standing in Germany and in central Europe through marriages to heiresses. Frederick’s son Maximilian carried that matrimonial policy to heights of unequalled brilliance. First he himself in 1477 married the heiress of Burgundy, Charles the Bold’s daughter Mary, with the result that the House of Habsburg, in the person of their son Philip, inherited the greater part of Charles the Bold’s widespread dominions: not the duchy of Burgundy itself, which the French seized, but Artois, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the County of Burgundy or Franche Comté. Secondly, though he failed after Mary’s death in 1482 to secure Brittany also by a similar coup ( France frustrated his proxy marriage to the Breton heiress Anne), he procured Philip’s marriage, in 1496, to Joan, prospective heiress of Castile and Aragon: thus securing for his family not only Spain, with Naples-Sicily and Sardinia, but also the immense dominions the Spaniards were about to conquer in America. Maximilian’s matrimonial achievements were the occasion of the famous hexameter Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube (“Let others wage wars: you, fortunate Austria, marry”).

Since Philip I of Castile died prematurely, his son was already ruler of the Burgundian heritage and of Spain when, in 1519, he succeeded Maximilian as ruler of the Habsburgs’ Austrian territories. In the same year, he was elected Holy Roman emperor as Charles V.

The threat of force as well as an enormous expenditure in bribes was necessary to secure Charles’s election. Besides the fact that many of the German princes were reluctant to saddle themselves with so mighty a sovereign, there was the opposition of France, which saw itself already half-encircled, from the northeast clockwise to the southwest, by Charles’s possessions. Dating from Maximilian’s Burgundian marriage, antagonism between the French kings and the Habsburgs was to persist, to the progressive detriment of the latter, until the middle of the 18th century, and until the second half of the 17th the other European powers would mostly sympathize with France. The Habsburgs in the 16th century were too formidable not to provoke envy and anxiety.

Charles V’s responsibilities at the time of his becoming emperor were moreover too great for one man to assume, as he himself could acknowledge: they had to be divided. By the Treaty of Brussels (1522) he assigned the Habsburg-Austrian hereditary lands to his brother, the future emperor Ferdinand I. In 1521 Ferdinand had married Anna, daughter of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia; and Louis II’s untimely death in 1526, after his defeat by the Turks in the Battle of Mohács, prompted Ferdinand to stand as candidate for his succession, to which, despite rivals, he was elected.


Power and weakness

The Habsburgs reached the zenith of their power before the end of the 16th century: the duchy of Milan, annexed by Charles V in 1535, was assigned by him to his son, the future Philip II of Spain, in 1540; Philip II conquered Portugal in 1580; and the Spanish dominions in America were ever expanding. There were, however, three faults in the power structure — two of them historical accidents, the third an effect of the Habsburg dynasty’s own measures for self-preservation.

In the first place, the ascendancy of Charles V coincided with the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, which was to spread turmoil for decades over Europe from the Netherlands to Hungary. As Charles, from his Spanish upbringing, was imbued with ideas of Catholic uniformity and as his successors, with the exception of the enigmatic Maximilian II, sought also to realize those ideas, religious resistance to the Habsburgs’ authority came to aggravate or to camouflage political resistance. At the same time, the papacy, overawed though it was by the Spanish military presence in Italy, did not always subscribe to the Habsburg’s special policy for Catholicism.

Secondly, Ferdinand’s accession to Hungary meant that the Habsburgs had to bear the brunt of the Ottoman Turkish drive from the Balkans into central Europe, just as Habsburg Spain had to confront Turkish incursions into the western Mediterranean. The great victory of Lepanto (1571), won by Charles V’s natural son, Juan de Austria. did not end those troubles, which were exploited, against the dynasty, by Hungarian dissidents and, more covertly, by France.

The third flaw in the Habsburg edifice was latent in the 16th century. Mindful of what they had won by marriages, the Habsburgs sought to preclude rival dynasties from turning the tables on them by the same means: to keep their heritage in their own hands, they began to intermarry more and more frequently among themselves. The result, in a few generations, was a fatal inbreeding that brought the male line of Charles V to extinction.


Bloodlines and conflict

By a series of abdications toward the end of his life, Charles V transferred his Burgundian, Spanish, and Italian possessions to his son Philip II and his functions as emperor to his brother Ferdinand, who succeeded him formally as such after his death (1558). That division of the dynasty between imperial and Spanish lines was definitive: Ferdinand’s male descendants were Holy Roman emperors until 1740, Philip’s were kings of Spain until 1700. The imperial line was inevitably concerned to maintain its position in Bohemia and to assert itself against the Turks in divided Hungary, because the loss of the two kingdoms would have meant the reduction of its possessions to what the Habsburgs had had hereditarily before Frederick III’s time (the Austrian duchies and scattered holdings in Swabia and in Alsace) — a reduction that in turn would have compromised its chances of continuing to be elected to the German kingship. Philip II of Spain remained territorially the greatest sovereign in the Western world until his death in 1598; but the Revolt of the Netherlands (see Low Countries, history of), which he proved unable to subdue, was an irritation that his English and French enemies did their worst to inflame.

Cooperation between imperial and Spanish Habsburgs in the 17th century failed to maintain the hegemony that the dynasty had enjoyed in the 16th. For the imperial line, religious troubles in Germany and in central Europe went on even when the domestic conflict between the insane emperor Rudolf II and his brothers was over (1612); and the Bohemian insurrection of 1618 gave rise to that chain of wars involving the Austrian Habsburgs that, because it was prolonged until 1648, is known conventionally as the Thirty Years’ War. For the Spanish Habsburgs, their truce of 1609 with the Dutch ended in 1621, whereupon the renewed conflict in the Netherlands became merged with the struggles of their Austrian cousins. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) finally abolished Habsburg sovereignty over the northern Netherlands, severely restricted the emperor’s authority over the other German princes, and transferred the Habsburg lands in Alsace to France; however, the ordinance of 1627, whereby the Bohemian crown had been converted into a hereditary one for the Habsburgs, was permitted to stand.

France from the late 1620s had made the most of the Thirty Years’ War to distress the Habsburgs of both lines, and peace with the imperial line did not prevent France from continuing its war against the Spanish until 1659, when by the Peace of the Pyrenees it obtained Gravelines, most of Artois, and part of Hainaut, together with some places south of Luxembourg.

The next 30 years saw the end of the Habsburg dynasty’s claim to European hegemony in any real sense. The aggressions of Louis XIV of France, from 1667 onward, took territory after territory from the Spanish Habsburgs — large parts of Flanders, the rest of Artois, and other areas in the Netherlands, as well as the whole Franche Comté and, in 1684, the stronghold of Luxembourg — and demonstrated at the same time that the imperial Habsburgs, preoccupied as they were with the Turkish assault from Hungary, could not effectively defend the German frontier west of the Rhine. After being saved from the crisis of the Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683, the imperial Habsburgs did indeed obtain one dynastically significant success — the conversion, in 1687, of the Hungarian crown into an hereditary one for themselves — but by that time it was plain to Europe that the most formidable dynasty was no longer the Habsburg but the Bourbon. In the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-97) the rising powers that 100 years earlier had been Habsburg Spain’s principal enemies and feeble France’s most fluent encouragers, the Dutch and English, led those supporting the Habsburgs against Louis XIV.

Apart from the Bourbon ascendancy, there was a further reason for other powers to watch with jealous solicitude over the fate of Spain. The physical debility of Charles II of Spain was such that no male heir could be expected to be born to him, and the question of his succession was one of great concern to the European powers. Up to 1699 it was understood that his crowns would pass to the electoral prince of Bavaria, Joseph Ferdinand, son of his niece Maria Antonia, daughter of the emperor Leopold I. That arrangement was generally acceptable because, by transferring the Spanish inheritance to the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach, it would not necessarily upset the balance of power between the imperial Habsburgs and Bourbon France. In 1699, however, when Joseph Ferdinand died, the moribund Charles II’s next natural heirs were the descendants (1) of his half-sister, who had married Louis XIV of France, and (2) of his father’s two sisters, of whom one had been Louis XIV’s mother and the other the emperor Leopold I’s. Critical tension developed: on the one hand neither the imperial Habsburgs nor their British and Dutch friends could consent to their Bourbon enemy’s acquiring the whole Spanish inheritance; on the other neither Bourbon France nor its British and Dutch enemies wanted to see an imperial Habsburg reunite in one pair of hands most of what the emperor Charles V had had in 1519. Charles II in the meantime regarded any partition of his inheritance as a humiliation to Spain: dying in 1700, he named as his sole heir a Bourbon prince, Philip of Anjou, the second of Louis XIV’s grandsons. The War of the Spanish Succession ensued.

The Habsburg Succession In The 18th Century

To allay British and Dutch misgivings, Leopold I and his elder son, the future emperor Joseph I, in 1703 renounced their own claims to Spain in favour of Joseph’s brother Charles, so that he might found a second line of Spanish Habsburgs distinct from the imperial; but when Joseph I died, leaving only daughters, in 1711, and was succeeded by his brother as emperor ( Charles VI) and as ruler of the Austrian, Bohemian, and Hungarian lands, the British and the Dutch lost interest in making him king of Spain and together began serious negotiations with France. Their Treaties of Utrecht (1713), which recognized the Bourbon accession to Spain and to Spanish America, virtually forced the hand of the reluctant Charles, who made peace with France by the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714: out of the whole inheritance of the Spanish Habsburgs, he had finally to content himself with the southern Netherlands and with the former Spanish possessions on the mainland of Italy, together with Mantua (annexed by him in 1708) and Sardinia. Sardinia, however, was exchanged by him in 1717 for Sicily, which the peacemakers of Utrecht had assigned to the House of Savoy. With characteristic obstinacy, Charles remained technically at war with Bourbon Spain until 1720, when an armistice was declared (formal recognition of the Bourbon accession came only in 1725).

Meanwhile the extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs’ male line and the death of his brother Joseph left Charles, in 1711, as the last male Habsburg. He had therefore to consider what should happen after his death. No woman could rule the Holy Roman Empire, and furthermore the Habsburg succession in some of the hereditary lands was assured only to the male line. In order, therefore, to secure the indivisibility of his Habsburg inheritance he issued his famous Pragmatic Sanction of April 19, 1713, prescribing that, in the event of his dying sonless, the whole inheritance should pass (1) to a daughter of his, according to the rule of primogeniture, and thence to her descendants; next (2) if he himself left no daughter, to his late brother’s daughters, under the same conditions; and finally (3) if his nieces’ line was extinct, to the heirs of his paternal aunts. The attempt to win general recognition for his Pragmatic Sanction was Charles VI’s main concern from 1716 onward (his baby son died in that year). By 1738, at the end of the War of the Polish Succession (in which he lost both Naples and Sicily to a Spanish Bourbon but got Parma and Piacenza for the Habsburgs in compensation), he seemed to have won his point: Saxony, Bavaria (grudgingly and with an express reservation), Spain, Russia, Prussia, Hanover-England, and finally France (with a reservation about third-party rights) had all, in one way or another, acknowledged the Pragmatic Sanction. His hopes were illusory: less than two months after his death, in 1740, his daughter Maria Theresa had to face a Prussian invasion of Silesia, which unleashed the War of the Austrian Succession. Bavaria then promptly challenged the Habsburg position in Germany; and France’s support of Bavaria encouraged Saxony to follow suit and Spain to try to oust the Habsburgs from Lombardy. Great Britain came, late enough, to support Maria Theresa rather out of hostility toward France than out of loyalty to the Pragmatic Sanction.




The War of the Austrian Succession cost Maria Theresa most of Silesia, part of Lombardy, and the duchies of Parma and Piacenza (Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748) but left her in possession of the rest of her father’s hereditary lands. Moreover, her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine, who in 1737 had become hereditary grand duke of Tuscany, was finally recognized as Holy Roman emperor, with the title of Francis I. He and his descendants, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, are the dynastic continuators of the original Habsburgs.

The peace of 1748 did not last long. Prussia was not satiated by the seizure of Silesia from the Habsburgs, and they in turn were even more determined to recover Silesia than anxious to ensure the protection of their outlying possessions in the Netherlands against the continuing danger of French attack. The so-called Diplomatic Revolution, which preceded the Seven Years’ War of 1756-63, was the product, basically, of those situations: finding that their former British friends were more interested in conciliating Prussia than in abetting Austro-Russian plans for destroying it, the Habsburgs played their part in the “reversal of alliances” by achieving—without territorial profit—a reconciliation with France, hitherto their longest-standing enemy. An Austro-French entente was subsequently maintained until 1792: the marriage of the archduchess Marie-Antoinette to the future Louis XVI of France (1770) was intended to confirm it.

To secure their imperial status in Germany against Prussian enterprises, the Habsburgs exerted themselves to consolidate and to expand their central European bloc of territory. For that purpose Tuscany and the Netherlands were practically irrelevant. Tuscany in fact was kept separate from the ancient Habsburg inheritance: when the emperor Francis I died (1765), his eldest son, the emperor Joseph II, became coregent with his mother of the Austrian dominions, but Joseph’s brother Leopold became grand duke of Tuscany. Similarly, when Leopold succeeded to Joseph’s titles (1790), his own second son succeeded to Tuscany as Ferdinand III. Thereafter the Tuscan branch of the Habsburgs remained distinct from the senior or imperial line.

The northeastward expansion of Habsburg central Europe, which came about in Joseph II’s time, was a result not so much of Joseph’s initiative as of external events: the First Partition of Poland (1772), which gave him Galicia and Lodomeria, was a Russo-Prussian arrangement disgusting to his conscientious mother, who remembered Silesia; and his subsequent acquisition of Bukovina (1775), geopolitically logical though it was as bridging a gap between his Transylvanian and his new Galician lands, was a side effect of the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774).

Joseph II was considerably more interested in westward expansion, over Bavaria, which would have both strengthened his western frontier strategically and enhanced his status among the German princes politically. Prussia’s forceful opposition, however, reduced his gains in the War of the Bavarian Succession to the Innviertel (1779) and frustrated his plan for ceding the Netherlands to the House of Wittelsbach in exchange for Bavaria five years later (1784).

The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars brought a kaleidoscopic series of changes. Three were clearly significant for the future of the House of Habsburg: (1) the formal dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, in anticipation of which Leopold II’s successor Francis II had in 1804 begun to style himself “hereditary emperor of Austria,” a title that, as Francis I, he could retain come what might; (2) the definitive renunciation of the southern Netherlands by the Habsburgs in 1797; and (3) the awakening of the spirit of nationalism in the modern sense.

On Napoleon’s downfall the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) inaugurated the Restoration, from which the battered House of Habsburg naturally benefitted. Francis I of Austria recovered Lombardy (lost in 1797), Venetia and Dalmatia (both of them acquired in 1797 but lost in 1809), and Tirol (lost also in 1809); Ferdinand III of Tuscany recovered his grand duchy; another Habsburg was recognized as sovereign duke of Modena, because his father, a brother of the Holy Roman emperors Joseph II and Leopold II, had in 1771 married the heiress of the House of Este; and Napoleon’s Habsburg consort, Marie Louise, received the duchies of Parma and Piacenza for her lifetime (after which they were to revert to the Bourbons). The territory of Salzburg, which the Habsburgs had acquired in 1803 but lost to Bavaria in 1809, was finally restored to Austria in 1816. Though the Congress of Vienna did not restore Austrian rule over “Western Galicia” (the Habsburgs’ share under the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, lost likewise in 1809), a small part of that area, namely the territory of Cracow, was annexed by Austria in 1846.

The history of the House of Habsburg for the century following the Congress of Vienna is inseparable from that of the Austrian Empire, a bastion of monarchical conservatism that the forces of nationalism—German, Italian, Hungarian, Slav, and Romanian—gradually eroded. The first territorial losses came in 1859, when Austria had to cede Lombardy to Sardinia-Piedmont, nucleus of the emergent kingdom of Italy, and could do nothing to prevent the same power from dispossessing the Habsburgs of Tuscany and of Modena. Next, the Seven Weeks’ War of 1866, in which Prussia, exploiting German nationalism, was in alliance with Italy, forced Austria both to renounce its hopes of reviving its ancient hegemony in Germany and to cede Venetia. After that disaster the Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph took a step intended to consolidate his “multinational empire”: in 1867, to conciliate Hungary, he granted to that kingdom equal status with the Austrian Empire in what was henceforth to be the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The result, however, was that the Magyars, jealous of their unique parity with the Germans and of their superiority over the non-Magyar peoples of their kingdom, rejected any suggestion of conciliating the Slavs and the Romanians of the Dual Monarchy by similar measures. The ardent German nationalists of the Austrian Empire, as opposed to the Germans who were simply loyal to the Habsburgs, took the same attitude as did the Magyars.

Remote from Austria’s national concerns but still wounding to the House of Habsburg was the fate of Franz Joseph’s brother Maximilian: set up by the French as emperor of Mexico in 1864, he was executed by a Mexican firing squad in 1867. No less grievous to the dynasty and of more concern to Austria-Hungary was the suicide of the crown prince Rudolf in 1889, though his fitness for the imperial and royal succession was questionable; and the scandalous misconduct of certain archdukes and archduchesses, in the imperial and in the Tuscan lines alike, further impaired the Habsburgs’ personal prestige. The assassination of Franz Joseph's Wittelsbach consort Elizabeth in 1898 was to be followed in less than two decades by an assassination of far greater consequence.

In 1878 Austro-Hungarian forces had “occupied” Bosnia and Herzegovina, which belonged to declining Turkey. In 1908 that territory had been formally annexed to Austria-Hungary, in a manner that was outrageous not only to Serbia (which coveted Bosnia for itself) but also to Serbia’s patron, Russia. Visiting the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, in 1914, the archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Dual Monarchy (and incidentally legatee, from 1875, of the rights of the House of Austria-Este to Modena), was shot to death by a nationalist Serb. A month later the First World War was beginning.

World War I led to the dismemberment of the Habsburg Empire. While Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Romanians, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Italians were all claiming their share of the spoil, nothing remained to Charles, the last emperor and king, but “German” Austria and Hungary proper. On November 11, 1918, he issued a proclamation recognizing Austria’s right to determine the future form of the state and renouncing for himself any share in affairs of state, and on November 13 he issued a similar proclamation to Hungary. Even so, he did not abdicate his hereditary titles either for himself or for the Habsburg dynasty. Consequently the national assembly of the Austrian Republic passed the “Habsburg Law” of April 3, 1919, banishing all Habsburgs from Austrian territory unless they renounced all dynastic pretensions and loyally accepted the status of private citizens. In Hungary, however, the collapse of the republican regime at the end of 1919 raised strong royalist hopes of a Habsburg restoration, and after the conclusion of the Treaty of Trianon (June 1920) Charles twice tried to return (March and October 1921). Under pressure from the other European powers, especially those of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania), the Hungarian parliament on November 3, 1921, decreed the abrogation of Charles’s sovereign rights and of the Pragmatic Sanction.

Habsburg property rights in Austria, forfeited under the law of 1919, were restored in 1935 but withdrawn again by the German chancellor Adolf Hitler in 1938. After World War II the Allied Control Council in Austria in January 1946 declared that it would support the Austrian government in measures to prevent any return of the Habsburgs, and the law of 1919 was written into the Austrian State Treaty of 1955. In June 1961 the Austrian government rejected an application by the archduke Otto, head of the House of Habsburg, to be allowed to return to Austria as a private citizen, but in 1963 the administrative court of Austria ruled that Otto’s application was legal. Because of Socialist opposition to his return, however, he was not granted a visa until June 1966 after the People’s Party had won a majority in that year’s general election. Under Chancellor Bruno Kreisky (1970-83), tensions between the Austrian government and the Habsburgs eased, although some family members continued to demand the restitution of the Habsburg assets.


📹 Franz Joseph 1830-1916 (VİDEO)

📹 Franz Joseph 1830-1916 (LINK)

FRANZ JOSEPH TEMPORARY EXHIBITION (http://www.franzjoseph2016.at/)

To mark the centenary of the death of Emperor Franz Joseph, an extensive and multi-faceted exhibition exploring the life and work of this legendary monarch will be held at Schönbrunn and the Imperial Furniture Collection in Vienna, Schloss Niederweiden in the Marchfeld region of Lower Austria and the Imperial Carriage Collection in Vienna.


📹 Habsburg Family Tree (VİDEO)

📹 Habsburg Family Tree (LINK)

This video traces the House of Habsburg family tree from Radbot, Count of Habsburg (985-1045) to Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg (b. 1997). It covers the Habsburgs who were Holy Roman Emperors as well as those who were Kings of Spain.


📹 The Habsburgs & The consequences of inbreeding (VİDEO)

📹 The Habsburgs & The consequences of inbreeding (LINK)

From the Discovery Channel 1996 show "Royal Secrets" episode "Dynasty."


  Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, with the famous Hapsburg chin (or lip), circa 1514-16, Flemish School. First recorded in the collection of Henry VIII. The Royal Collection © 2012, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.


Description (L)


Emperor Charles V (1500-58) c. 1514-16

Oil on panel | 43.8 x 32.2 cm (support, canvas/panel/str external) | RCIN 403439


The son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad, Charles V was born in Ghent and raised in Mechelen (Malines) by his aunt, Margaret of Austria. At the age of 6 he succeeded his father as ruler of the Low Countries, although Margaret acted as regent until 1515. He succeeded his maternal grandfather in 1516 as King of Spain and in 1519 became Holy Roman Emperor on the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian I. He was identifiable by his dramatically undershot lower jaw, known as the ‘Habsburg lip’. This unsightly quality serves only to make the physical impression of this ruler more powerful - the combination of the strong jaw and steady gaze of the Emperor render this a commanding image.

Charles V is depicted wearing the symbol of the Order of the Golden Fleece, in this instance hanging simply from a black ribbon around his neck. Although it was popular to do otherwise, members of the Order were not officially allowed to wear the symbol without a full collar until the rules were changed in 1516. His hat is adorned with a badge of the Virgin Mary and the discernible part of the Latin inscription reads SANCTA MARIA ORA PRO NOBIS (‘Holy Mary, pray for us’). On the badge the Virgin is shown clothed in the sun; imagery taken from the Book of Revelation (12:1). Charles V is positioned in front of a parapet, creating the illusion that the fictive space of the portrait is only separated from reality by a low stone wall.

The sitter delicately holds a sprig of rosemary in his left hand. Often used as a symbol of remembrance, as spoken by Ophelia’s in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, rosemary also symbolises love and friendship. In Greek mythology rosemary was dedicated to Aphrodite, the goddess of love and fertility. As such its inclusion in this portrait may indicate that the image was created for a prospective bride. In 1514 the adolescent Charles V was betrothed to Henry VIII’s sister Mary. A letter of 30 June 1514 mentions a portrait of Charles that had been sent to Mary ‘where he is very badly depicted’ (où il est tres mal contrefait), which may relate to this portrait.

The painting appears in Pyne's illustrated 'Royal Residences' of 1819, hanging in The Old Drawing Room at Kensington Palace (RCIN 922153).

Catalogue entry adapted from Bruegel to Rubens: Masters of Flemish Painting, London, 2007


First recorded in the collection of Henry VIII at Whitehall in 1542


Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (W)

Charles V with Armor by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (1605), copying Titian

Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506. As head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire, extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the Burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia.

Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled “the empire on which the sun never sets.”

Born in Flanders to Philip the Handsome of the Austrian House of Habsburg (son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy) and Joanna the Mad of the Spanish House of Trastámara (daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age, due to the premature death of his father and the mental illness of his mother.

After the death of Philip in 1506, he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands, originally held by his paternal grandmother Mary. In 1516, he became co-monarch of Spain with his mother Joanna, and as such he was the first king of Spain to inherit the country as dynastically unified by the Catholic Monarchs, his maternal grandparents. The Spanish possessions at his accession also included the Castilian West Indies and the Aragonese Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. At the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian in 1519, he inherited Austria and was elected to succeed him as Holy Roman Emperor. He adopted the Imperial name of Charles V as his main title, and styled himself as a new Charlemagne.

Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy and spent most of his life defending the integrity of the Holy Roman Empire from the Protestant Reformation, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, and a series of wars with France.

With no fixed capital city, he made 40 journeys, travelling from country to country, and it is estimated that he spent a quarter of his reign on the road. In order to finance the Imperial wars and maintain his armies of German Landsknechte, Spanish tercios, Burgundian knights, and Italian condottieri, Charles V relied on the economic productivity of the Habsburg Netherlands (birthplace of capitalism) and the flow of precious metals (the chief source of his wealth) from South America to Spain. Charles ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish Conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, the establishment of Klein-Venedig by the German Welser family in search of the legendary El Dorado, and the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe. In order to consolidate power in his early reign, Charles suppressed two Spanish insurrections (Comuneros' Revolt and Brotherhoods' Revolt) and two German rebellions (Knights' Revolt and Great Peasants' Revolt).

Crowned King in Germany, Charles sided with Pope Leo X and declared Martin Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms. The same year Francis I of France, surrounded by the Habsburg possessions, started a conflict in Lombardy that lasted until the Battle of Pavia (1525) led to his temporary imprisonment. In 1527, Rome was sacked by Charles's Spanish troops and German mercenaries. After ordering the retreat of the troops from the Papal States, Charles V defended Vienna from the Turks and obtained the coronation as King in Italy by Pope Clement VII. In 1535, he annexed the vacant Duchy of Milan and captured Tunis. Nevertheless, the Algiers expedition and the loss of Buda in the early 40s frustrated his anti-Ottoman policies. Meanwhile, Charles V had come to an agreement with Pope Paul III for the organisation of the Council of Trent (1545). The refusal of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League to take part in the Council led to a war, won by Charles V with the imprisonment of the Protestant princes. However, Henry II of France offered new support to the Lutheran cause and strengthened a close alliance with the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the ruler of the Ottoman Empire since 1520.

After thirty-five years of incessant warfare and facing the prospect of an alliance between all of his enemies, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria in Charles's name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531. The Duchy of Milan and the Habsburg Netherlands were left in personal union to the King of Spain, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. The two Habsburg dynasties remained allied until the extinction of the Spanish line. In 1557, Charles retired to the Monastery of Yuste in Extremadura and there died a year later.


  Holy Roman Emperor

Depiction of Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, Strasbourg Cathedral, now at Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame.
  • ‘Orta Çağlar’ Germanik Avrupa’nın ‘karanlık’ da denilen feodal dönemini anlatan bir terimdir ve Dünya Tarihine ilgisizdir.
  • 5’inci yüzyıl sonlarında Roma İmparatorluğunun Batı bölümü barbar Germanik kabileler tarafından yıkıldı, yasa egemenliği zamanla bütünüyle ortadan kalktı, Latince dili silindi, Klasik Roma tini yok edildi.
  • Roma İmparatorluğunun 1453 tarihine kadar sürmesine karşın, etnik Germanik tarihçilik “Roma İmparatorluğu” adı yerine aşağılayıcı bir ‘Bizans İmparatorluğu’ terimini kullanmaya başladı (Germanik tin henüz tarihsel büyüklüğü anlama yeteneğinde değildi).
  • Barbar Germanik kabileler tüm uygar kültürü dışarıdan ödünç almak zorunda olan bir barbarlık kültürünü yaşıyorlardı.
  • ‘Kutsal İmparatorluğun’ adı bile yoktu (“Germania” terimi Julius Sezar’a aittir) ve onu da dışarıdan aldı.
  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi Hıristiyanlığın Hıristiyan olmayan bir biçimini geliştirdi (papalar, kardinaller, bağışlama belgeleri, kutsal kemikler, azizler, manastırlar ve keşişler, odun yığınları, Mass ayinleri vb. Hıristiyanlığa ait değildir).
  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi Katolik inancı haçlı seferlerinin şiddeti ve terörü yoluyla yaymaya çalıştı (Albingensian haçlı seferleri, Kuzey haçlı seferleri, Filistin’e haçlı seferleri).


  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi Roma İmparatorluğunu Roma İmparatorluğu olarak tanımadı.
  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu”nu Roma İmparatorluğunun biricik yasal ardılı olarak gördü.
  • Her zaman bir Katolik olan Kutsal ‘İmparator’ hiçbir zaman bir tekerk değildi, onu egemen olarak tanımayan prensler tarafından seçiliyordu, ve ‘devleti’ feodal bir devlet, uyrukları serfler idi.
  • Kutsal İmparator V. Karl’ın başlıca işi Protestanlığın yayılmasını durdurmaya çalışmak oldu.
  • Papalık ile simbiosis içinde yaşayan “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu” Avrupa’nın moral gelişimini engellemede sorumluluğu serflerin esenliğinden sorumlu olan Katolik Kilise ile paylaştı.
  • Bu feodal ‘kutsal’ ‘imparatorluk’ 1806’da Napoleon tarafından çöpe atıldı.

Wikipedia kurguyu olgu olarak sunar.

Holy Roman Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor (W)

The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (Latin: Imperator Romanorum), and also the German-Roman Emperor (German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, lit. 'Roman-German emperor'), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. The Empire was considered by the Roman Catholic Church to be the only legal successor of the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was held in conjunction with the title of King of Italy (Rex Italiae) from the 8th to the 16th century, and, almost without interruption, with the title of King of Germany (Rex Teutonicorum, lit. ‘King of the Germans’) throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

In theory, the Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other European Catholic monarchs. In practice, an emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him.

From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800-924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy, with the Emperor chosen by the Prince-Electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962-1024) and the Salians (1027-1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440-1740. The final emperors were from the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, from 1765-1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

The Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. The Holy Roman Empire never had an empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa exerted strong influence. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until Maximilian I in 1508, the Emperor-elect (Imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation, the elected Emperor was always a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.


From the time of Constantine I (r. 306-337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity. The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church. Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, and after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, {!} and uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern {!} Roman Empire throughout the medieval period (in exile {!} during 1204-1261). The ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern {!} Roman Emperors.

In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms {!} continued to recognize the authority of the Eastern {!} Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. In 797, the Eastern Emperor Constantine VI was deposed and replaced as monarch by his mother, Irene. The Papacy, which up until this point had continued to recognize the rulers in Constantinople as Roman Emperors, viewed the imperial throne as vacant since in their mind, a woman could not rule the empire.

For this reason, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans {!} (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of translatio imperii. On his coins, the name and title used by Charlemagne is Karolus Imperator Augustus and in his own documents he used Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium (“August Emperor, governing the Roman Empire”) {!} and serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanorum gubernans Imperium (“most serene Augustus crowned by God, great peaceful emperor governing the empire of the Romans”). The Eastern Empire eventually relented to recognizing Charlemagne and his successors as emperors, but as "Frankish" and "German emperors", at no point referring to them as Roman, a label they reserved for themselves.

The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.

After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924. The comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.

Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers. The King of the Germans would then be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962-1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, and his successor, Ferdinand I, merely adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558. The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.

The term sacrum (i.e., “holy”) in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa.

The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). When Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.

The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii (or in this case restauratio imperii) that regarded the (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.

In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e., the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor"; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" gained currency in the interbellum period (1920s to 1930s); formerly the title had also been rendered "German-Roman emperor" in English.



Reverie 1897 is considered to be one of the most outstanding masterpieces of Alphonse Mucha.

Habsburg culture is back in vogue (The Economist)



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