Roma Katolik Kilisesi

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Roman Catholic Church

  Roman Catholic Church
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, the cathedral for the Diocese of Rome

📹 POPE says Personal Relationship with Jesus VERY DANGEROUS & HARMFUL (VİDEO)

POPE says personal relationship with Jesus is very dangerous and harmful (LINK)


📹 How Much Power Does The Vatican Have? (VİDEO)

📹 How Much Power Does The Vatican Have? (LINK)


📹 Most Evil Pope in History — Alexander VI The Devil Pope (VİDEO)

📹 Most Evil Pope in History — Alexander VI The Devil Pope (LINK)

Alexander VI bought his way to the top of the Papacy and reigned as the most evil Pope in history. He was a symbol of evil and corruption in the Catholic Church, and disgraced the high honor of the Pope. In today's video we're going back in time to see how Alexander VI used his power for evil and will go down in history as being a devil of a Pope.


📹 The Genocidal Pope — The Life and Times of Innocent III (VİDEO)

📹 The Genocidal Pope — The Life and Times of Innocent III (LINK)

Leading his followers into war, then switching sides to fight the people he just helped win, leading one Crusade that accidentally destroyed Christian cities and another that did so intentionally,

Pope Innocent III honestly did way more harm than good for the Catholic Church. But hey, he helped put an end to trial by ordeal and apparently preserved remnants of Roman law so now he overlooks the U.S. House of Representatives.


Footnotes: 00:00 See pinned comment for arguments for/against calling Innocent III genocidal

0:17 This is the popular figure for how many people died at the Massacre at Beziers. It's possible the town didn't have this many people, although considering Raymond Roger, one of the local nobility, promised he would defend the city it's possible that people from the countryside flocked there before Raymond ran away to Carcassonne and left Beziers completely defenseless. Either way, it was thousands upon thousands and Raymond Roger was more helpful than Raymond VI of Toulouse who went from "Cathar independence!" to "Kill them all!" in two years.

"Full Habsburg" in this case referring to the union of the HRE and Kingdom of Sicily that would have (and ultimately did) happen under Frederick II.

1:17 You'd think maybe it was a political assassination, but no, it was because a political marriage fell through. Funnily enough, the man who killed Philip Hohenstaufen was also named Otto.

1:33 If you don't get this reference, go watch my video on Machiavelli. The League of Cambrai is one of my all time favorite wars and I got to work with Blue from OSP on that one so it has a special place in my heart.

1:56 Not sure why France was all buddy-buddy with the Church more than everyone else. But this behavior would have later ramifications because something something the Church relying on France led to the Avignon Papacy.

2:49 Couldn't find out definitively whether it would be pronounced "volo" or "wolo" at this point in history, so I figured the elite Dandolo would say it closer to the Classical pronunciation and the soldiers would be a little more contemporary

I believe this is an overestimation, as upon looking for the exact numbers for this footnote. However, some 20,000 people were left homeless out of a city whose population was within a handful of hundreds of thousands.

4:12 In contrast to the more popular crusades, where there was usually some goal like "retake the Holy Land", the object of this Crusade was simply "kill the Cathars, wipe out Catharism", though it also had a political angle as the Cathars were pushing for political as well as religious independence.

4:36 If you're looking for more info, you should've taken my advice and gone to watch Religion for Breakfast's Gnosticism video.

4:57 It's worth noting that the crusaders actually tried to have all the Catholics leave the town and be spared (which would've been equally silly, if less deadly) but the Catholics living in Beziers got along with the Cathars quite well and refused to leave. At one point the bishop of the town tried to bring out 222 Cathars to spare the town, but couldn't bring them out because they were too supported by the town. So he tried to get all the Cathars in town to leave and save themselves, but all except a handful refused. It's entirely possible that this has all been exaggerated to make for a compelling story, but the point remains that the whole "kill everybody" thing only happened because inside Beziers, the Cathars weren't seen as enemies.

The quote attributed to Arnaud Amalric, the legate sent to besiege Beziers, is "Kill them all! God will know his own." It's doubtful that he said those words exactly, but it was certainly the vibe of the whole crusade.

5:13 See the footnote at 0:17 for info on the exact death toll, but basically every man, woman, and child was killed, people were slaughtered in the cathedral, which itself burned down, it was a mess.

I'm sure this is a wild misrepresentation of how napalm works, but the 20th century is a cold, dark place shrouded in mystery that I seldom dare to enter.

5:24 Both things that Innocent III did in the Fourth Lateran Council, canons 68 and 69

5:43 "But how did they get their ships?" I hear you ask. Well let's just say there were a lot of Genoese with smug grins on their faces in 1217.


Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) (W)


(W) Pope Innocent III (LatinInnocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.

Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential of the medieval popes. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. He was central in supporting the Catholic Church's reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and the Fourth Lateran Council. This resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. He is furthermore notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not uniformly successful.

Innocent greatly extended the scope of the crusades, directing crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. He organized the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204, which ended in the disastrous sack of Constantinople. Although the attack on Constantinople went against his explicit orders, and the Crusaders were subsequently excommunicated, Innocent reluctantly accepted this result, seeing it as the will of God to reunite the Latin and Orthodox Churches.

In the event, the sack of Constantinople and the subsequent period of Frankokratia led to an increase in the hostility between the Latin and Greek churches. The Byzantine empire was restored in 1261 but it never regained its former strength. Its final destruction occurred in 1453.




“Frankokratia” (W)

The Frankokratia (GreekΦραγκοκρατία, sometimes anglicized as Francocracylit. "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Greek: Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (GreekΒενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French {!} and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).

The term derives from the name given by the Orthodox Greeks to the Western European Latin Church Catholics: "Latins". Most Latins had French (Frankish), Norman, or Venetian origins. The span of the Frankokratia period differs by region: the political situation proved highly volatile, as the Frankish states fragmented and changed hands, and the Greek successor states re-conquered many areas.

With the exception of the Ionian Islands and some isolated forts which remained in Venetian hands until the turn of the 19th century, the final end of the Frankokratia in the Greek lands came with the Ottoman conquest, chiefly in the 14th to 16th centuries, which ushered in the period known as "Tourkokratia" ("rule of the Turks"; see Ottoman Greece).


  • Bugün 1,3 milyar insanın İsa ile iletişiminde Roma Katolik Kilisesi aracıdır.
  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi Batı uygarlığının tarih ve gelişiminde belirgin bir rol oynadı.

(W: “It has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.”)

(W: “The Catholic Church was for centuries at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws and institutions which constitute Western civilization.”)

Roma Katolik Kilisesinin Batı uygarlığının tarihinde oynadığı rol Batıda uygarlığın gelişimini engellemek oldu. Bilimler, felsefe, duyunç özgürlüğü ve modern, politik bilincin gelişimi Roma Katolik Kilisesinin sonu demekti. Galileo durdurulurken, felsefe "skolastizm" olarak köleleştirildi. Öte yandan, Roma Katolik Kilisesi tüm boşinancı ile tarihin bildiği en sanatsever kurumlardan biri, aslında birincisi idi. Katolik dinadamları sınıfı duyunç ve düşünceden dehşete düşerken, görgül-duyusal olandan haz duyuyordu. Rönesans başlıca Katolik Kilise ile ilişki içinde ve onun desteği ile büyüdü.


God the Father on a throne, with Virgin Mary and Jesus
(Anonymous painter from Westphalia, late 15th century)

Bütün bir Orta Çağlar boyunca Germenler neye inandıklarını ya da inanmaları gerektiğini anlamadılar. Boşinanç ve sefillik, aptallık ve acımasızlık lordların ve serflerin yaşamının normal durumunu tanımladı. Hıristiyanlık İznik Konseyinde (325) neo-Platonist keşişlerin nüfuzları yoluyla onaylan Üçlülük İlkesi zemininde insanın saltık özgürlüğünü ve değerini tanır ve doğal bilinci insanlığın evrensel etik yaşam idealine doğru yönlendirir. Orta Çağlarda Klasik Paganizmin erdem etiğinden de yoksun kalan kurumsal Kilise kitlesel bir güç aygıtına çevrildi.


Birinci İznik Konseyi (325)

Konstantin tarafından 325 yılında İznik’te düzenlenen piskoposlar toplantısı İsa’nın tanrısal doğasını ve Baba ile ilişkisini belirledi. İsa Tanrının Oğlu idi. Tanrı tarafından yaratılmış, bedensel, sonlu bir insan olmasına karşın, aynı zamanda Tanrı ile aynı tözü paylaştığı için kendisi Tanrı, ilksiz-sonsuz ve Baba ile Bir idi. Dinsel tasarımsal bilinçte İsa sonsuz Tanrı ile karşıtlık içinde yaratılan sonlu Doğayı temsil eder. Tanrı ancak kendinde olanı yaratabildiği için ve onda saltık tanrısallaktan başka hiçbirşey olamayacağı için, Babanın başkası olan Oğul aynı zamanda Baba ile birdir. Karşıtların birliği özdeşlik ilkesine sarılan anlak tarafından her durumda yadsınmasına karşın, tasarımsal dinsel bilinç ona sonluluğun ötesini açan bu çelişkili kavramı onaylamada Arianizm dışında bir sorun çıkarmadı. Ne yaptığını hiçbir zaman anlamayan bir moronluk başyapıtı olarak Katolik Kilisesi bu kavramı da çiğneyerek onayladı.



🛑 Batı Kültüründe Özsel Bir Öğe Olarak Katolik Kilisesi

Post-1990 Huntington's major civilizations (Western is colored dark blue.

Avrupa bir coğrafya değil, bir kültürler çoğulluğudur

Batı Kültürü tarihsel bir birikimdir ve salt bir “kıtanın” kültürü değildir. Birden çok “kıtada” üretilen kültürler ile etkileşim içinde biçimlendi.

Avrupa kültürü türdeş değildir.

Avrupa bir kültürler çoğulculuğudur

Kıta henüz dinsel ve etnik karakterlere göre parçalanan bir kültürel çoğulculuk alanıdır.

Avrupa kültürlerinin kökleri Yunan-Roma kültüründen çok daha başka kültürlere iner. Köken olarak ileri sürülen Yunan-Roma kültürünün kendisi benzer olarak kendi kökleri olan tarihsel bir birikimdir.

Kültürel etkilenme ardıllık ya da süreklilik demek değildir

Bir kültürün başka kültürlerden “etkilenmesi” o kültürü başka kültürler ile “süreklilik” ya da “köken” bağıntısı içine sokmaz. Germanik krallıklar yıktıkları Roma İmparatorluğunun arta kalanlar tarafından etkilendiler ve uzun bir süredir onunla ilişki içinde idiler. Ama bu ilişkiler “Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu” adı verilen feodal federasyonu Roma İmparatorluğunun ardılı, gelişimi ya da ilerlemesi yapmak için yeterli olmadı.

Germenler Romalılardan yeterli olarak “etkilenmediler”

“Batı” ya da “Avrupa” terimi ile tanımlanan kültür birincil olarak Roma Katolik Kilisesi tarafından belirlendi.

“Feodalizm,“ “Orta Çağlar” ya da “Karanlık Orta Çağlar” Avrupa uygarlığının başlangıcını tanımlayan terimlerdir.

Rönesans başlıca Roma Katolik Kilisesi tarafından desteklendi ve geliştirildi ve birincil olarak sanatsal bir karakterde idi.

Modern Avrupa tini ancak başlangıcı tanımlayan Roma Katolik Kilisesinden kopuş ile doğuş sürecine girdi.

Roma Katolik Kilisesi “Hıristiyan” mıdır?

Hıristiyanlığın kavramı (Üçlülük) dikkate alındığında, Roma Katolik Kilisesi kendisini din kavramına ekleyerek bir Dörtlülük öğretisi geliştirmiş görünür.
Katolik Kilise kendini İnsan ve Tanrı arasında zorunlu bir aracı olarak kabul eder.

Avrupa ve Hıristiyanlık

“Roma Katolik İnancı” (ve onunla birlikte “Ortodoks Katolik” inancı) bütün Orta Çağlar boyunca “boşinanç” olarak tanımlanan ve gerçek inancın doğuşunu engelleyen bir inançsızlık türü olarak insanları sefilleştirdi ve aptallaştırdı. Bir tür Katolik Reformasyon olması gereken “Karşı-Reformasyon” bile Katolik Kilisenin aşırılıklarını bir ölçüde yatıştırmanın ötesinde bir değişime yol açmadı.

Avrupa “Hıristiyan” olarak karakterize edilir. Ama bu inanç her biri birbiri ile bağdaşmaz kendi tikel “gerçekliği” ile, birbiri ile bağdaşmaz “tek Tanrısı” ile karşıt ya da düşman bölüngülerden oluşan bir kültür biçimidir.

Roma Katolik Kilisesinin ‘Hıristiyanlık’ dediği şeyi yaymada başlıca yöntemi Haçlı Seferleri idi. İlkin Güney Fransa’da Albigensian heretikler yok edildi. Sonra Müslümanlara yönelik Haçlı Seferleri başlatıldı. Ve bu arada Kuzeyin paganları için bir üçüncü Haçlı Seferleri kampanyası başlatıldı. Papa tarafından atanan Charlemagne Hıristiyan olmadıkları ve baş kaldırdıkları için 4.500 kadar putperest Germen önderinin kellesini uçurarak başladı ve bu tür kitle kıyımları paganları Hıristiyanlığa dönmeye ikna etmek için birincil araç olarak kullanıldı. Okuma-yazmaları olmayan Germanik paganların Hıristiyanlığa dönmek ve esenliği yakalamak için yapmaları gereken tek şey başlarından aşağı dökülen bir miktar su ile vaftiz edilmeyi kabul etmekti. Paganlar kendi boşinançlarının daha köklü ve daha iyi olduğuna inanmada yanılmadıklarını düşünüyorlardı.

Üçlülük Tasarımı

Batı kültürü insanın ve Tanrının birliği düşüncesinden doğan evrensel özgürlük kavramını Hıristiyanlık yoluyla neo-Platonizmden aldı. Neo-Platonist piskoposlar İznik Konseyinde (İS 325) İsaˆnın tanrısal doğasını yadsıyan Arianizmin reddedilmesini ve İsa’nın Tanrı ile eş-tözlü (homoousias) olduğu ilkesinin Konsey tarafından onaylanmasını sağladı. Bu bağıntı Üçlülük Kavramını boş bir söz olmaktan çıkardı ve Tanrıyı, İnsanı ve İnsanlığı ilkede özdeşleştirdi. Roma Katolik Kilisesi bir kurum olarak Tanrı ve İnsan arasına girdi ve dinsel inancın bu bozulması sonuçta insanı putperestlikte de taşıdığı duyunç özgürlüğünden yoksun bıraktı. Roma Katolik Kilisesinin bütün bir tarihi sürekli bir duyunçsuzluk ve dile gelmez moral düşüklük tarihidir. Bu kültür büyük Roma İmparatorluğunun kalıtı ya da ardılı değil, barbar Germanik halkların Roma Tinini Avrupa’nın batısından bütünüyle silmelerinin sonucudur ve Batı kültürü denilen şeyin gerçek başlangıcını oluşturur. Orta Çağlar Avrupasının kültürünü betimlemek için “karanlık” sözcüğü hiçbir biçimde yeterli değildir.

Üçlülük Kavramı

Kavramın kendisinin mantığının sonucu olan Üçlülük doğal bilince sayısal bir sorun olarak ve gizemli olarak görünür. Kavram belirlidir, karşıtı tarafından belirlenir, ve kendinde saltık olarak kendi karşıtı ile ayrılmaz bir birlik içindedir. Ama burada bir ve iki sayıları ilgisizdir. Karşıtların birliğinin kendisi onu oluşturan iki kıpıdan ayrı bir üçüncü olarak başlangıçtaki soyut, dolaysız görünüşlü kavramın somut gerçekliğidir. Logos karşıtı olan Doğa tarafından, onunla karşıtlığı tarafından belirlenir, ve ancak ve ancak Doğa olmadığı için Logostur. Bu olumsuzlama Logosun belirliliğini oluşturan bağıntıdır, ve Logosun ve Doğanın birliği kendini Tin olarak yeni bir kavrama yükseltir. Farabi’nin toparladığı gibi, “felsefe zamnanda dine önseldir,” ve “din felsefeye bir öykünmedir.” Doğal bilinç kavramların yerine tasarımları geçirir, ve bunlar onun imgeleminde Tanrı, Oğul ve Kutsal Tin olarak anlaşılırlık kazanır. Tasarımsal bilinç Üçlülüğe ancak inanabilir, ya da karşıtlığı, gerçekten ussal olanı usdışı sayarak onu yadsıyabilir. İnsanın ve İnsanlığın Tanrı ile birliği düşüncesi insanın sonsuz ölçüde değerli olduğu vargısına götürür. Onu kendinde sonsuz estetik değeri, sonsuz etik değeri ve sonsuz bilişsel değeri olan bir varlık olarak tanıtlar.

Modernleşme ve Roma Katolik tutuculuk

Katolik Tin papalık önderliğindeki bir dinadamları sınıfının dünyasal egemenlik alanıdır. Papalığın moral yetkesi altında, Katolik üyelerin duyunç özgürlüğü yoktur. Bu kültür despotiktir ve bireysel özgürlüğü yadsıdığı için değişime kapalı ve tutucudur.

Değişime ve yenileşmeye kapalı olması Kurumu her zaman ön-modern yapar.

Avrupa’da modernleşme süreci özgür istencin önünde duran Katolik Kilisesinin moral yetkesininn reddedilmesi ile başladı.

Modernleşme sürekli değişim ve gelişim olduğu için, modernleşme için gerekli olan tek şey başlangıçtır — özgürlük bilincinin kazanılması.

Reformasyon Katolikliği hem coğrafya hem de kültür açısından ancak bölümsel olarak yenebildi ve özgürlük özürlü Katolik kültür göreli ve sınırlı değişimlerinde Protestan modele öykünmek ve onu izlemek zorunda kaldı.

Modern dönemi tanımlayan etmen özgürlüktür — ve özgürlük ilkin dolaysız, duyunçsuz tüzel özgürlük ya da mülkiyet özgürlüğüdür. Hak kavramı ancak duyuncun yargısı tarafından aklanarak etik karakter kazanabilir. Batı Reformasyon ile duyunç özgürlüğünü bütünüyle kazanmadı ve yalnızca onu kazanma sürecine girdi.

Katolik— Anglikan — Püritan

Batı Hıristiyanlığının “Katolik-Protestan” olarak tanımlanması (W) Anglikan Kilisesi açısından bütünüyle geçerlidir çünkü bu kurum bir via mediadır.

Ama Reformasyon bir kurumsal kilise çevresinde örgütlenen ve kültürü ve yaşamı bütününde bozan Katolikliğin reddedilmesi ile tanımlanır.

Pilgrim-Püritanlar tarafından kurulan ve büyütülen Birleşik Devletler ve Katolikliğe bağlı kalmada direten Anglikan Birleşik Krallık arasındaki ayrım modern tarih sürecinde kendini demokratikleşen Cumhuriyet ve despotik kalan İmparatorluk arasındaki ayrım olarak gösterdi. İngiltere despotik olanı aristokratik saydı ve despotik-arkaik İmparatorluk politikasını modernleşme dönemine taşıdı.

Bugün de ülkenin tikel egemenliğine Avrupa Birliği’ne devretmede duraksama içinde olması bu ön-modern tikellik istencinin gücünün sürmekte olduğunu ve simgesel ‘Kraliyetin’ yeterince simgesel olmadığını gösterir.

‘Batı’ entellektüalizminin pozitif karakteri

Batı felsefesini ve bilimini tanımlayan terim rasyonalizm değil ama empirisizmdir ve bu felsefe Klasik Helenik felsefenin kazanılmasını önler.

Batı felsefesini Hume, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Popper, Sartre vb. gibi irrasyonalistler tanımlar ve Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz ve Hegel’in rasyonalizmi Batı felsefeciliği için tıpkı Platon-Aristoteles gibi yabancı bir kültürdür.

“Bilimsel Yöntem” ve “Bilimsel Devrim” terimleri görgücülüğün terminolojisini belirler ve Aydınlanma adın ışıltısına karşın özgür düşünceyi çocuksu materyalizme gömer.

Politik olarak Aydın Despotizminde sonlanan Aydınlanma “yararcı etiğinde” etik-dışıdır. Tüzel olarak aynı görgücü kökler kendini legal pozitvizm olarak gösterir.

Görgül yönteme göre realite

“A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life, especially religion, developed by Hellenistic philosophy, scholasticism and humanism. The Catholic Church was for centuries at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws and institutions which constitute Western civilization. Empiricism later gave rise to the scientific method, the scientific revolution, and the Age of Enlightenment.” (W)

Batı düşüncesi bütününde henüz “rasyonalist” değildir.

Roma Katolik Kilisesi “yüzyıllar boyunca Batı uygarlığını oluşturan değerlerin, düşüncelerin, bilimin, yasa ve kurumların gelişiminin özdeğinde idi” tümcesi bir skandaldır.

“Görgücülük daha sonra bilimsel yöntemi, bilimsel devrimi ve Aydınlanma Çağını doğurdu” anlatımı ikinci bir skandaldır. Görgücülük bilgiye değil kuşkuya götüren görgül yöntemi oluşturdu.

“Bilimsel Devrim” etnik Avrupa görgücülüğünü Klasik ve İslamik etkilerden soyutlamaya yarayan bir terimdir. Batı Avrupa’da özgür bilimsel etkinlik ilk kez Galileo, Descartes, Leibniz, Kepler gibi adların Klasik Rasyonalizme dayalı çalışmaları ile başladı ve gelişti.

Görgücülük kabul edildiği gibi “Aydınlanma” denilen şeyin yaratcısıdır, çünkü Aydınlanma Locke, Hume, Bentham gibi kuşkucu düşünürleri temsil eder ve daha sonra Kıtada materyalizm ve pozitivizm olarak revize edildi. Politik olarak, Aydınlanma hiçbir zaman özgürlük istencini tanımadı ve Aydın Despotizmini destekleyerek demokrasiyi yadsıdı.

Felsefi olarak görgücülük daha sonra “pozitivizm“ ve “analitik gelenek” olarak biçimlendi ve Felsefenin aşağı yukarı bütün bir akademik dünyayı tutsak etmeyi başaran en etkili karşıtı oldu.

Platon ve Batı

Plato, along with Socrates and Aristotle, helped to establish Western philosophy. (W)
Platon ve Aristoteles felsefenin ve bilimlerin gelişiminde birincil adlardır ve Çinlilerin ve Hintlilerin de minnettarlığını hak ederler. Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz ve Hegel adları ve birkaç yakın felsefeci dışında, Batı ‘felsefesi’ bütününde felsefenin yadsınmasına adanmış bir kültürdür. Locke ve Hume İngiliz görgücüleri olarak aşağı yukarı etnik bir felsefenin önde gelen adlarıdır ve kendine “Analitik Gelenek” diyen bir Anglo-Saxon geleneğin etnik önderleri olmanın ötesine geçtiler ve Kıtada Viyana Çevresinin pozitivistleri tarafından izlendiler. Wittgenstein, Heidegger gibi adlar popüler bilincin gözde yazarlarıdır ve ikisi de Platonik felsefeyi bir yanılsama, yanlışlık, saçmalık olarak kabul eder.



  • Din bir inanç sorunu olarak duyunç özgürlüğü üzerine dayanır.
  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi için duyunç özgürlüğü bir kurum olarak Kilisenin sonu demektir.
  • Katolik Kilisesi Reformdan geçemez.
  • Katolik Kilisenin birincil karakteri inanan insan ve Tanrı arasında zorunlu aracı olmaktır.
  • Katolikler Tanrı ile ancak Katolik Kilisesi aracılığıyla iletişim kurabilirler.


  • “Orta Çağlar”da Katolik Kilisesi kitlelerin İncil’i okumalarını engellendi.
  • İnanan serf kitleleri boşinançlı rahiplerin yorumları ile yetindiler.
  • Sola scriptura İncil’in anadillere çevirisi anlamına geliyordu.
  • İncil çevirmenlerini odun yığını bekliyordu.
  • Sola fide duyunç özgürlüğü anlamına geliyordu.
  • Katolik Kilise için duyunç özgürlüğü heretiklik idi.


  • Katolik Tanrıbilim İznik İnanç Bildirgesi
    {N} The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called ‘Nicene’ because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik, Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325.

    İS 325’te toplanan İznik Konseyi İsa’nın Tanrının Oğlu olduğu inancını onayladı ve üçlülüğü reddederek monoteistik bir inanç anlayışını ileri süren Arianizmi heretik olarak mahkum etti.
    üzerine dayanır.
  • Katolik Kilise İsa tarafından kurulduğunu ileri sürer.
  • Hıristiyan öğretide İsa Tanrı’nın peygamberi değil, elçisi değil, oğludur (ki pekala kızı da olabilirdi).

  Katolik Kilise —
— Üçlülüğü kabul ettiğini ileri sürer (ve buna karşın bir dördüncü öğe olarak kendine ek bir yer açar);
bir kurum olarak Kilisenin İsa tarafından kurulduğunu ileri sürer;
{N} Great Commission

Matthew 28:16-20, where on a mountain in Galilee Jesus calls on his followers to make disciples of and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

— piskoposların İsa’nın havarilerinin ardılları olduğunu ileri sürer; (ki ne ardıllığın zemini geçerlidir, ne de ardıllığın bir önemi vardır)

John Wesley came to believe that ancient church and New Testament evidence did not leave the power of ordination to the priesthood in the hands of bishops but that other priests could perform ordinations. (W)

— papanın St. Peter’in ardılı olduğunu ve Peter’in birincilliğinin İsa tarafından verildiğini ileri sürer (ki ne ardıllık ne de birincillik din kavramı ile ilgilidir);

Saint Peter (Greek: Πέτρος; Latin: Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church. (W)

  Roman Catholic Church
  • Roma Katolik Kililesi Batı uygarlığının tarih ve gelişiminde belirgin bir rol oynadı.
    (W: “It has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.”)
  • Katolik Tanrıbilim İznik İnanç Bildirgesi
    {N} The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called ‘Nicene’ because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik, Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325.

    İS 325’te toplanan İznik Konseyi İsa’nın Tanrının Oğlu olduğu inancını onayladı ve üçlülüğü reddederek monoteistik bir inanç anlayışını ileri süren Arianizmi heretik olarak mahkum etti.
    üzerine dayanır.
  • Katolik Kilise İsa tarafından kurulduğunu ileri sürer.
    Hıristiyan öğretide İsa Tanrı’nın peygamberi değil, elçisi değil, oğludur (ki pekala kızı da olabilirdi).

  Katolik Kilise —
— Üçlülüğü kabul ettiğini ileri sürer (ve buna karşın bir dördüncü öğe olarak kendine ek bir yer açar);
bir kurum olarak Kilisenin İsa tarafından kurulduğunu ileri sürer;
{N} Great Commission

Matthew 28:16-20, where on a mountain in Galilee Jesus calls on his followers to make disciples of and baptize all nations in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

— piskoposların İsa’nın havarilerinin ardılları olduğunu ileri sürer; (ki ne ardıllığın zemini geçerlidir, ne de ardıllığın bir önemi vardır)

John Wesley came to believe that ancient church and New Testament evidence did not leave the power of ordination to the priesthood in the hands of bishops but that other priests could perform ordinations. (W)

— papanın St. Peter’in ardılı olduğunu ve Peter’in birincilliğinin İsa tarafından verildiğini ileri sürer (ki ne ardıllık ne de birincillik din kavramı ile ilgilidir);

Saint Peter (Greek: Πέτρος; Latin: Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church. (W)

Catholic Church

Catholic Church (W)

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Catholic theology is based on the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ’s apostles, and that the pope is the successor to Saint Peterupon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ. It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition. The Latin Church, the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church.

Of its seven sacramentsthe Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, honoured in dogmas and devotions. Its teaching includes Divine Mercy, sanctification through faith and evangelisation of the Gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.

The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, art, and science. Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions. Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East.

The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East-West Schismin 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the pope, as well as with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over differences in Christology. The Reformation of the 16th century resulted in Protestants breaking away.

From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has received criticism from some for its teaching on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women, as well as the handling of sexual abuse cases involving clergy.


Catholic (from Greek: καθολικός, romanized: katholikos, lit. ‘universal’) was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century. The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" (καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία he katholike ekklesia) occurred in the letter written about 110 AD from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans. In the Catechetical Lectures (c. 350) of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name "Catholic Church" was used to distinguish it from other groups that also called themselves "the church". The "Catholic" notion was further stressed in the edict De fide Catolica issued 380 by Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire, when establishing the state church of the Roman Empire.

Since the East-West Schism of 1054, the Eastern Church has taken the adjective “Orthodox” as its distinctive epithet (however, its official name continues to be the “Orthodox Catholic Church”) and the Western Church in communion with the Holy See has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants".

While the “Roman Church” has been used to describe the pope's Diocese of Rome since the Fall of the Western Roman Empireand into the Early Middle Ages (6th-10th century), the “Roman Catholic Church” has been applied to the whole church in English language since the Protestant Reformation in the late 16th century. "Roman Catholic" has occasionally appeared also in documents produced both by the Holy See, notably applied to certain national episcopal conferences, and local dioceses.

The name "Catholic Church" for the whole church is used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1990), and the Code of Canon Law (1983). The names "Catholic Church" and "Roman Church" we also used in the documents of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), the First Vatican Council (1869-1870), the Council of Trent (1545-1563), and numerous other official documents.


The Catholic Church follows an episcopal polity, led by bishops who have received the sacrament of Holy Orders who are given formal jurisdictions of governance within the church. There are three levels of clergy, the episcopate, composed of bishops who hold jurisdiction over a geographic area called a diocese or eparchy; the presbyterate, composed of priests ordained by bishops and who work in local diocese or religious orders; and the diaconate, composed of deacons who assist bishops and priests in a variety of ministerial roles. Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the Holy See. In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both. Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services.


  • 1 milyarın üzerindeki üyesi ile Katolik Kilisesi homo sapiensin moral gelişiminde eriştiği düzeyin bir ölçüsünü sunar.

  • Üçlülük Din Kavramı —

  • Tanrı,
  • Tanrının kızı ya da oğlu olarak homo sapiens, ve
  • Kutsal Tin olarak İnsanlık

— kıpılarından oluşur.


  • Din Kavramında kurumsal kilise, papalık, kardinallik, rahiplik, azizler, ikonlar, tütsüler, imgeler vb. gibi dışsallıkların yeri yoktur.


  • Roma Katolik Kilisesi Gotik-Germanik kültürün bir ürünüdür ve etik-dışı karakteri Klasik Roma kültürünün yadsınması üzerine temellenir.
  • Roma İmparatorluğu duyunç özgürlüğü nedeniyle yüksek bir etik yaşam biçimi üretti ve Roma Etiği özsel olarak modern politik-etiğe model oldu.


  • Roma Katolikliği özgür insan duyuncunu tanımaz ve ahlaksal doğruyu papanın ve rahiplerin özençlerinin bir işlevi yapar.
  • Ancak özgür duyunç inanca yeteneklidir.
  • Duyunç özgürlüğünü tanımayan kültürde inanç yoktur ve din bütünüyle biçimsel bir görünüştür.
  • Dinsel korku ancak boşinanç yaratabilir.


  • Papalık kurumu kim tarafından, ne zaman ve nerede kurulduğu ile ilgili öyküler, mektuplar, sanılar ve yalanlar üzerine dayanır. (Birinci yüzyılda mı yoksa üçüncü de mi? Peter tarafından mı yoksa Paul tarafından mı?


La Penitente by Pietro Rotari
  • Haçlı Seferleri putperestleri Katolikliğe döndürmek üzere düzenlendi.
  • İlk kitle kıyımları papalık tarafından atanan “Kutsal Roma İmparatoru” Charlemagne tarafından yerine getirildi (Verden kitle kıyımı, 782).
  • Papa III. Innocent güney Fransa’ya karşı Albigensian haçlı seferlerini (1209-1229) başlattı ve heretik olarak görülen Katharlar yok edildi.
  • Kuzey Avrupa’nın Baltık, Finnik ve Kuzey Slavik nüfuslarına karşı kutsal haçlı seferleri 1171’de papa III. Alexander tarafından başlatıldı.
  • Sonra Selçuklulara karşı Katolik Kilisesi önderliğindeki Haçlı Seferleri geldi ve Yahudi, Hıristiyan ve Müslüman nüfuslar hiçbir ayrım gözetilmeksizin kılıçtan geçirildi.
  • IV. Haçlı seferinde (1204) Konstantinopolis Germenler tarafından ele geçirildi, kentin bir bölümü yakıldı ve nüfusu insan için olanaklı her kötülüğü yaşadı.


Pope (W)

The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas, “father”), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Romeand ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See. It is the Holy See that is the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Romeis largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built.

The apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.

The apostolik seeAn apostolic see is an episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus or to one of their close associates. In Catholicism the phrase, with "the" and usually capitalized, refers to the See of Rome.
Saint PeterSaint Peter (r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church.
Paul the Apostle
Saint Paul by Valentin de Boulogne.

Paul the Apostle (Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences.
ApostleAn apostle, in its most literal sense, is an emissary, from Greek ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), literally “one who is sent off,” from the verb ἀποστέλλειν (apostéllein), “to send off.” The purpose of such sending off is usually to convey a message, and thus “messenger” is a common alternative translation; other common translations include “ambassador” and “envoy.”


The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, and intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of human rights.

In some periods of history, the papacy, which originally had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now almost exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been increasingly firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra — literally "from the chair (of Saint Peter)”— to issue a formal definition of faith or morals. Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic, cultural, and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities.


Title and etymology

The Giving of the Keys to Saint Peter painted by Pietro Perugino (1492).

The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning “father.” In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied, especially in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, and later became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century. The earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by then deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria (232-248). The earliest recorded use of the title “pope” in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

Position within the Church

The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus personally appointed Peter as leader of the Church, and the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles.

Some historiansPapalık kurumu kim tarafından, ne zaman ve nerede kurulduğu ile ilgili öyküler, mektuplar, sanılar ve yalanlar üzerine dayanır.

Birinci yüzyılda mı yoksa ikinci ya da üçüncü de mi? Peter tarafından mı yoksa Paul tarafından mı? Roma’da mı yoksa Antakya’da mı?
argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century. The writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter “founded and organized” the Church at Rome. Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine.

First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Gradually, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them. Some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus, Cletus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, but not necessarily monarchical bishops.

Documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the bishop of Rome had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, as even a letter from the bishop, or patriarch, of Antioch acknowledged the Bishop of Rome as "a first among equals", though the detail of what this meant is unclear.


Middle Ages

Gregory the Great (c 540-604) who established medieval themes in the Church, in a painting by Carlo Saraceni, c. 1610, Rome.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the pope served as a source of authority and continuity. Pope Gregory I (c. 540-604) administered the church with strict reform. From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule. Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles, potent relics, demons, angels, ghosts, and the approaching end of the world.

Gregory's successors were largely dominated by the Exarch of Ravenna, the Byzantine emperor's representative in the Italian Peninsula. These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests, and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards, made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V. He appealed to the Franks to protect his lands. Pepin the Short subdued the Lombards and donated Italian land to the papacy. When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a Pope.

The low point of the papacy was 867-1049. This period includes the Saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, and the Tusculan Papacy. The papacy came under the control of vying political factions. Popes were variously imprisoned, starved, killed, and deposed by force. The family of a certain papal official made and unmade popes for fifty years. The official's great-grandson, Pope John XII, held orgies of debauchery in the Lateran Palace. Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor had John accused in an ecclesiastical court, which deposed him and elected a layman as Pope Leo VIII. John mutilated the Imperial representatives in Rome and had himself reinstated as pope. Conflict between the Emperor and the papacy continued, and eventually dukes in league with the emperor were buying bishops and popes almost openly.

In 1049, Leo IX became pope, at last a pope with the character to face the papacy's problems. He traveled to the major cities of Europe to deal with the church's moral problems firsthand, notably simony and clerical marriage and concubinage. With his long journey, he restored the prestige of the papacy in Northern Europe.

From the 7th century it became common for European monarchies and nobility to found churches and perform investiture or deposition of clergy in their states and fiefdoms, their personal interests causing corruption among the clergy. This practice had become common because often the prelates and secular rulers were also participants in public life. To combat this and other practices that had corrupted the Church between the years 900 and 1050, centres emerged promoting ecclesiastical reform, the most important being the Abbey of Cluny, which spread its ideals throughout Europe. This reform movement gained strength with the election of Pope Gregory VII in 1073, who adopted a series of measures in the movement known as the Gregorian Reform, in order to fight strongly against simony and the abuse of civil power and try to restore ecclesiastical discipline, including clerical celibacy. The conflict between popes and secular autocratic rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Henry I of England, known as the Investiture controversy, was only resolved in 1122, by the Concordat of Worms, in which Pope Callixtus II decreed that clerics were to be invested by clerical leaders, and temporal rulers by lay investiture. Soon after, Pope Alexander III began reforms that would lead to the establishment of canon law.

Since the beginning of the 7th century, the Caliphate had conquered much of the southern Mediterranean, and represented a threat to Christianity. In 1095, the Byzantine emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, asked for military aid from Pope Urban II in the ongoing Byzantine-Seljuq wars. Urban, at the council of Clermont, called the First Crusade to assist the Byzantine Empire to regain the old Christian territories, especially Jerusalem.

  • Batıda Roma Katolik Kilisesi ve Doğuda Ortodoks Kilisesi olarak ikiye bölünme dinsel bir nedene dayanmaz, çünkü iki yandan hiç biri üçlülük din kavramına uygun bir din değildir.
  • ‘Büyük’ Bölünme gerçekte politik nedenlere bağlı bir ‘küçük’ bölünmedir (asıl bölünme Reformasyon ile gelecektir).
  • Doğu-Batı bölünmesinin nedenleri a) papaların Germanik krallardan yana davranmaları; b) hasım bir Roma imparatoruna taç giydirmeleri; c) Ravenna’yı ele geçirmeler ve d) İtalya’daki Doğu Roma’ya ait topraklara girmeleri idi.
  • Papalık 14’üncü yüzyıldan başlamak üzere hırs ve rüşvetçilik niteliklerini kazandı.
  • Daha sonra ‘Bağışlama Belgeleri’ satımına başladı.

East-West Schism to Reformation (1054–1517)

A historical map of the Mediterranean states in 1400. The Western Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417.

With the East-West Schism, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church split definitively
in 1054. This fracture was caused more by political events than by slight divergences of creed. Popes had galled the Byzantine emperors by siding with the king of the Franks, crowning a rival Roman emperor, appropriating the Exarchate of Ravenna, and driving into Greek Italy.

In the Middle Ages, popes struggled with monarchs over power.

From 1309 to 1377, the pope resided not in Rome but in Avignon. The Avignon Papacy was notorious for greed and corruption. During this period, the pope was effectively an ally of the Kingdom of France, alienating France's enemies, such as the Kingdom of England.

The pope was understood to have the power to draw on the Treasury of Merit built up by the saints and by Christ, so that he could grant indulgences, reducing one's time in purgatory. The concept that a monetary fine or donation accompanied contrition, confession, and prayer eventually gave way to the common assumption that indulgences depended on a simple monetary contribution. The popes condemned misunderstandings and abuses, but were too pressed for income to exercise effective control over indulgences.

Popes also contended with the cardinals, who sometimes attempted to assert the authority of Catholic Ecumenical Councils over the pope's. Conciliarism holds that the supreme authority of the church lies with a General Council, not with the pope. Its foundations were laid early in the 13th century, and it culminated in the 15th century. The failure of Conciliarism to gain broad acceptance after the 15th century is taken as a factor in the Protestant Reformation.

Various Antipopes challenged papal authority, especially during the Western Schism (1378-1417). In this schism, the papacy had returned to Rome from Avignon, but an antipope was installed in Avignon, as if to extend the papacy there.

The Eastern Church continued to decline with the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, undercutting Constantinople's claim to equality with Rome. Twice an Eastern Emperor tried to force the Eastern Church to reunify with the West. First in the Second Council of Lyon (1272-1274) and secondly in the Council of Florence (1431-1449). Papal claims of superiority were a sticking point in reunification, which failed in any event. In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople.


📹 How Powerful was The Pope in Medieval Times? (VİDEO)

📹 How Powerful was The Pope in Medieval Times? (LINK)


  Papal States (8th century-1870)

Din kavramında bir yeri olmayan Papalık dünyasal bir devlet idi.

Papal States

Papal States (8th century-1870) (W)

The Papal States (Italian: Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstaːto della ˈkjɛːza; ˈkjeː-]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peterand the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily. In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory.



6) Roman Catholic Church
Papal states
Roman Catholic Church


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