Mezopotamya — Kentler

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı





Mezopotamya — KENTLER


  Mezopotamya Kentleri

🗺️ Ancient cities of Mesopotamia (MAP)

Ancient cities of Mesopotamia

City-states in Mesopotamia    
The five "first" cities, said to have exercised pre-dynastic kingship "before the flood" Other principal cities: Minor cities (from south to north):
  1. Eridu (Tell Abu Shahrain)
  2. Bad-tibira (probably Tell al-Madain)
  3. Larsa (Tell as-Senkereh)
  4. Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah)
  5. Shuruppak (Tell Fara)
  1. Uruk (Warka)
  2. Kish (Tell Uheimir and Ingharra)
  3. Ur (Tell al-Muqayyar)
  4. Nippur (Afak)
  5. Lagash (Tell al-Hiba)
  6. Girsu (Tello or Telloh)
  7. Umma (Tell Jokha)
  8. Hamazi 1
  9. Adab (Tell Bismaya)
  10. Mari (Tell Hariri) 2
  11. Akshak 1
  12. Akkad 1
  13. Isin (Ishan al-Bahriyat)
  1. Kuara (Tell al-Lahm)
  2. Zabala (Tell Ibzeikh)
  3. Kisurra (Tell Abu Hatab)
  4. Marad (Tell Wannat es-Sadum)
  5. Dilbat (Tell ed-Duleim)
  6. Borsippa (Birs Nimrud)
  7. Kutha (Tell Ibrahim)
  8. Der (al-Badra)
  9. Eshnunna (Tell Asmar)
  10. Nagar (Tell Brak) 2


📹 UR — Sumerian city, 2300 BC (VİDEO)

UR — Sumerian City, 2300 BC (LINK)


🎨 The City-State of Ur

The City-State of Ur


  Mezopotamya Kentleri
At the end of the day, the Radiant Star, the Great Light that fills the sky,
The Lady of the Evening appears in the heavens.
The people in all the lands lift their eyes to her...
There is great joy in Sumer.
The young man makes love with his beloved.
My Lady looks in sweet wonder from heaven.
The people of Sumer parade before the holy Inanna.
Inanna, the Lady of the Evening, is radiant. I sing your praises,
holy Inanna. The Lady of the Evening is radiant on the horizon.



Eridu (W)

Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world.

In Sumerian mythology, it was said to be one of the five cities built before the Deluge occurred.

Founded Approximately 54th century BC
Abandoned Approximately 6th century BC

is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia. Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world. Located 12 km southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of Sumerian cities that grew around temples, almost in sight of one another. These buildings were made of mud brick and built on top of one another. With the temples growing upward and the village growing outward, a larger city was built. In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was originally the home of Enki, later known by the Akkadians as Ea, who was considered to have founded the city. His temple was called E-Abzu, as Enki was believed to live in Abzu, an aquifer from which all life was believed to stem.

Uruk ve Eridu arasında sefer yapan teknelerden biri Eridu'da rıhtımda. (W)

In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was the home of the Abzu temple of the god Enki, the Sumerian counterpart of the Akkadian god Ea, god of deep waters, wisdom and magic. Like all the Sumerian and Babylonian gods, Enki/Ea began as a local god who, according to the later cosmology, came to share the rule of the cosmos with Anu and Enlil. His kingdom was the sweet waters that lay below earth (Sumerian ab=water; zu=far).




Ur (W)

Founded c. 3800 BC
Abandoned after 500 BC
Periods Ubaid period to Iron Age
Cultures Sumerian

(Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: 𒋀𒀕𒆠 URIM2KI or 𒋀𒀊𒆠 URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia. Although Ur was once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, the coastline has shifted and the city is now well inland, on the south bank of the Euphrates, 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) from Nasiriyah in modern-day Iraq.

The Streets of Ur, the world's first city, in Ancient Mesopotamia.

The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a city-state from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being Mesannepada. The city's patron deity was Nanna (in Akkadian, Sin), the Sumerian and Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) moon god, and the name of the city is in origin derived from the god's name, URIM2KI being the classical Sumerian spelling of LAK-32.UNUGKI, literally "the abode (UNUG) of Nanna (LAK-32)".

Ur City Plan, 600 BC

The site is marked by the partially restored ruins of the Ziggurat of Ur, which contained the shrine of Nanna, excavated in the 1930s. The temple was built in the 21st century BC (short chronology), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, the Assyrian-born last king of Babylon. The ruins cover an area of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) northwest to southeast by 800 metres (2,600 ft) northeast to southwest and rise up to about 20 metres (66 ft) above the present plain level.

Aerial photograph of Ur in 1927.

Ur, about 2800 BC.

Ur was a major Sumero-Akkadian urban center on the Mesopotamian plain. Especially the discovery of the Royal Tombs have confirmed its splendour. These tombs, which date to the Early Dynastic IIIa period (approximately in the 25th or 24th century BC), contained immense amounts of luxury items made out of precious metals, and semi-precious stones, all of which would have required importation from long distances (Ancient Iran, Afghanistan, India, Asia Minor, the Levant and the Persian Gulf). This wealth, unparalleled up to then, is a testimony of Ur's economic importance during the Early Bronze Age.

It is thought that Ur had a stratified social system including slaves (captured foreigners), farmers, artisans, doctors, scribes, and priests. High-ranking priests apparently enjoyed great luxury and lived in mansions.

Tens of thousands of cuneiform texts, including contracts, business records, and court documents, record the city's complex economic and legal systems. These texts have been recovered from temples, the palace, and individual houses.

The Standard of Ur mosaic, from the royal tombs of Ur, is made of red limestone, bitumen, lapis lazuli, and shell. The "peace" side shows comfort, music, and prosperity.

The "war" side of the Standard of Ur shows the king, his armies, and chariots trampling on enemies.

What remains of the Ziggurat of Ur today

The ziggurat was a piece in a temple complex that served as an administrative center for the city, and which was a shrine of the moon god Nanna, the patron deity of Ur. The construction of the ziggurat was finished in the 21st century BCE by King Shulgi, who, in order to win the allegiance of cities, proclaimed himself a god. During his 48-year reign, the city of Ur grew to be the capital of a state controlling much of Mesopotamia. Many ziggurats were made by stacking mud-bricks up and using mud to seal them together.

The structure was built during the Early Bronze Age (21st century BCE) but had crumbled to ruins by the 6th century BCE of the Neo-Babylonian period, when it was restored by King Nabonidus.

The ziggurat was built by King Ur-Nammu who dedicated the great ziggurat of Ur in honour of Nanna/Sîn, in approximately the 21st century BCE (short chronology) during the Third Dynasty of Ur. The massive step pyramid measured 64 m in length, 45 m in width and over 30 m in height. The height is speculative, as only the foundations of the Sumerian ziggurat have survived.

Ram in the Thicket

This ancient Mesopotamian sculpture known as the ‘ram in the thicket’ is actually a ‘goat in a tree’. The goat is rendered in impressive detail, as it reaches up to eat leaves on high branches – a common sight along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The sculpted furnishing was found during the 1928-1929 season of Leonard Woolley’s excavations of the ancient city of Ur. Both lay in the west corner of the ‘Great Death Pit’, a c.2450 BC grave containing the remains of 74 people, most of them bejewelled women.

After 4,500 years deep in the soil, the wooden sculpture had decayed and the decorated outer shell had been crushed flat. At first, it was consolidated as found but then, after much conservation, stabilised and displayed in its original glory. (LINK)



Uruk (W)

Founded 4th millennium BC
Abandoned Approximately 700 AD
Periods Uruk period to Early Middle Ages

In myth and literature, Uruk was famous as the capital city of Gilgamesh, hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Gılgamısh and Uruk.

In addition to being one of the first cities, Uruk was the main force of urbanization and state formation during the Uruk period, or ‘Uruk expansion’ (4000-3200 BC). This period of 800 years saw a shift from small, agricultural villages to a larger urban center with a full-time bureaucracy, military, and stratified society.


was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq

Uruk is the type site for the Uruk period. Uruk played a leading role in the early urbanization of Sumer in the mid-4th millennium BC. At its height c. 2900 BC, Uruk probably had 50,000-80,000 residents living in 6 km2 (2.32 sq mi) of walled area; making it the largest city in the world at the time. The legendary king Gilgamesh, according to the chronology presented in the Sumerian king list, ruled Uruk in the 27th century BC. The city lost its prime importance around 2000 BC, in the context of the struggle of Babylonia against Elam, but it remained inhabited throughout the Seleucid (312-63 BC) and Parthian (227 BC to 224 AD) periods until it was finally abandoned shortly before or after the Islamic conquest of 633-638.

The White Temple

The White Temple

Uruk (modern Warka in Iraq)—where city life began more than five thousand years ago and where the first writing emerged—was clearly one of the most important places in southern Mesopotamia. Within Uruk, the greatest monument was the Anu Ziggurat on which the White Temple was built. Dating to the late 4th millennium B.C.E. (the Late Uruk Period, or Uruk III) and dedicated to the sky god Anu, this temple would have towered well above (approximately 40 feet) the flat plain of Uruk, and been visible from a great distance—even over the defensive walls of the city. (LINK)



‘Uruk – 5000 years of the megacity’

‘Uruk – 5000 years of the megacity’ (LINK)

Eanna Sanctuary of the 21st century BC. (VIDEO LINK)

Uruk/Warka, situated in modern-day Iraq, is one of the first cities in the world and was populated almost without interruption for over 5,000 years – from the 4th millennium BCE to the 1st millennium CE. In the so called 3rd dynasty of Ur (21st century BCE), the centre of Uruk was dominated by a ziggurat, that was dedicated to the goddess Inanna.

The probably three-storey ziggurat was surrounded by a complex system of walls and courts, which separated the holy district from the rest of the city. Archaeological records document various installations like a big oven, pedestals or canals. Texts inform us that various activities were conducted in different courtyards.

In an extensive process, a range of secondary sources were consulted to create an image of Uruk of over 4000 years ago. In this loose reconstruction you can see the early morning of an akitu festival. Over 4000 human models and 300 buildings were used in this view. The geography is a result of the latest topographical data.

📹 Eanna Ziggurat of Uruk, 21st century BCE on Vimeo (VİDEO)

Eanna Ziggurat of Uruk, 21st century BCE on Vimeo (LINK)

This short video shows a circular, looped animation around the Eanna Ziggurat of Uruk of the 21st century BCE, the so-called Ur III Period. The two-stepped tower had a tripartite main staircase and a temple on top, which probably looked like the one depicted in the animation. The surrounding structures are framing different courts. The white space is unknown territory.

Please visit our website at:


📹 (Re-)Constructing the Stone-Cone building in Uruk on Vimeo (VİDEO)

(Re-)Constructing the Stone-Cone building in Uruk on Vimeo (LINK)

Together with Prof. Dr. Eichmann, who has been studying the “Stone-Cone Building” for many years, we reconstructed the building process on the basis of the archaeological evidence. The results were visualised in an animation showing the building's entire construction process, from its complex foundation design to reflections about its inner installations. Each step of the building process is shown in detail in order to give an informative overview of the construction of this outstanding building.

The video explains the construction of the Stone-Cone building in over six minutes. It was made as a visual aid during a conference talk. We therefore did not add any sound, labels or explanations.

For more information visit our website at:


📹 Anu Ziggurat and the White Temple of Uruk, 4th millennium BC (VİDEO)

Anu Ziggurat and the White Temple of Uruk, 4th millennium BC (LINK)

This short video shows a circular, looped animation around the Anu Ziggurat of Uruk of the 4th millennium BCE, the so-called Late Uruk Period. On top of the Ziggurat, the White Temple is situated. The reconstruction is based upon a temple model found within the ruins.

Please visit our website at:


📹 Uruk The Late Uruk Period on Vimeo (VİDEO)

Uruk The Late Uruk Period on Vimeo (LINK)

The animation explains the different areas of the palace and offers an insight into the palace economy and the everyday life. Small-finds that were found in the palace and texts that refer to it were included in our animation. Every detail was researched to create a reconstruction that gives an insight into the world of Old Mesopotamia.
The video was made as a visual aid during the exhibition "Uruk - 5.000 years of the megacity". We therefore did not add any sound.

Please visit our website at:



🎨 The archaeological site of Uruk

The archaeological site of Uruk

The archaeological site of Uruk.

Pre-dynastic architecture (LINK)

Architectural Layer 8 (LINK)

The palace of Sin-kashid (LINK)

Stone Building of Uruk (LINK)


📹 Uruk 5000 B.C. Historical Simulation (VİDEO)

Uruk 5000 B.C. Historical Simulation (LINK)

Historical simulation showing everyday life of Uruk in Ancient Mesopotamia through the use of virtual reality and Artificial Intelligence. The historical site was reconstructed based on the results of archaeological excavations, settlement maps, museum exhibits, history books and in consultation with subject matter experts.

This works is published in A. Bogdanovych, T. Trescak: To Plan or Not to Plan: Lessons Learned from Building Large Scale Social Simulations . In proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 2017), Springer, 2017. pp. 53-62. The paper is available at:

Uruk: the first city on Earth comes alive with A.I.


📹 Uruk (VİDEO)

Uruk (LINK)





Lagash (W)

Lagash (cuneiform: 𒉢𒁓𒆷𒆠 LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about 22 kilometres (14 mi) east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq. Lagash (modern Al-Hiba) was one of the oldest cities of the Ancient Near East. The ancient site of Nina (modern Surghul) is around 10 km (6.2 mi) away and marks the southern limit of the state. Nearby Girsu (modern Telloh), about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Lagash, was the religious center of the Lagash state. Lagash's main temple was the E-Ninnu, dedicated to the god Ningirsu.

At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was located near the shoreline of the gulf.

Founded 3rd millennium BC

From inscriptions found at Girsu such as the Gudea cylinders, it appears that Lagash was an important Sumerian city in the late 3rd millennium BC. It was at that time ruled by independent kings, Ur-Nanshe (24th century BC) and his successors, who were engaged in contests with the Elamites on the east and the kings of Kienĝir and Kish on the north.


With the Akkadian conquest Lagash lost its independence, its ruler or ensi becoming a vassal of Sargon of Akkad and his successors; but Lagash continued to be a city of much importance and above all, a centre of artistic development.

Relief of Ur-Nanshe. At the top he creates the foundation for a shrine, at the bottom he presides over the dedication (Louvre).

From inscriptions found at Girsu such as the Gudea cylinders, it appears that Lagash was an important Sumerian city in the late 3rd millennium BC. It was at that time ruled by independent kings, Ur-Nanshe (24th century BC) and his successors, who were engaged in contests with the Elamites on the east and the kings of Kienĝir and Kish on the north. Some of the earlier works from before the Akkadian conquest are also extremely interesting, in particular Eanatum's Stele of the Vultures and Entemena's great silver vase ornamented with Ningirsu's sacred animal Anzu: a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each talon. With the Akkadian conquest Lagash lost its independence, its ruler or ensi becoming a vassal of Sargon of Akkad and his successors; but Lagash continued to be a city of much importance and above all, a centre of artistic development.

After the collapse of Sargon's state, Lagash again thrived under its independent kings (ensis), Ur-Baba and Gudea, and had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia, while his armies were engaged in battles with Elam on the east. His was especially the era of artistic development. We even have a fairly good idea of what Gudea looked like, since he placed in temples throughout his city numerous statues or idols depicting himself with lifelike realism, (Statues of Gudea). At the time of Gudea, the capital of Lagash was actually in Girsu. The kingdom covered an area of approximately 1,600 square kilometres (620 sq mi). It contained 17 larger cities, eight district capitals, and numerous villages (about 40 known by name). According to one estimate, Lagash was the largest city in the world from c. 2075 to 2030 BC.

(W) Statues of Gudea

Approximately twenty-seven statues of Gudea, a ruler (ensi) of the state of Lagash have been found in southern Mesopotamia.

Seating diorite statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash, dedicated to the god Ningishzida, neo-Sumerian period.

Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Kopenhagen. Sumerische Statue des Gudea von Lagash.

Soon after the time of Gudea, Lagash was absorbed into the Ur III state as one of its prime provinces. There is some information about the area during the Old Babylonian period. After that it seems to have lost its importance; at least we know nothing more about it until the construction of the Seleucid fortress mentioned, when it seems to have become part of the Greek kingdom of Characene.

Conflict with Umma

In c. 2450 BC, Lagash and the neighbouring city of Umma fell out with each other after a border dispute. As described in Stele of the Vultures the current king of Lagash, Eannatum, inspired by the patron god of his city, Ningirsu, set out with his army to defeat the nearby city. Initial details of the battle are unclear, but the Stele is able to portray a few vague details about the event. According to the Stele's engravings, when the two sides met each other in the field, Eannatum dismounted from his chariot and proceeded to lead his men on foot. After lowing their spears, the Lagash army advanced upon the army from Umma in a dense Phalanx. After a brief clash, Eannatum and his army had gained victory over the army of Umma. Despite having been struck in the eye by an arrow, the king of Lagash lived on to enjoy his army's victory. This battle is one of the earliest organised battles known to scholars and historians.

Lagash dynasty (LINK)

The dynasty of Lagash is well known through important monuments, and one of the first empires in recorded history was that of Eannatum of Lagash, who annexed practically all of Sumer, including Kish, Uruk, Ur, and Larsa, and reduced to tribute the city-state of Umma, arch-rival of Lagash. In addition, his realm extended to parts of Elam and along the Persian Gulf. He seems to have used terror as a matter of policy - his stele of the vultures has been found, showing violent treatment of enemies.



Nippur (W)

Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as 𒂗𒆤𒆠, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;" Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities. It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the "Lord Wind", ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone.

Nippur never enjoyed political hegemony in its own right, but its control was crucial, as it was considered capable of conferring the overall "kingship" on monarchs from other city-states. It was distinctively a sacred city, important from the possession of the famous shrine of Enlil.

Map of the site

Ruins from a temple in Naffur (ancient Nippur).

It was said to be the site for the meeting of Sumerian gods, as well as the place that man was created (the brick structure on top was constructed by American archaeologists around 1900).


According to the Tummal Chronicle, Enmebaragesi, an early ruler of Kish, was the first to build up this temple. His influence over Nippur has also been detected archaeologically. The Chronicle lists successive early Sumerian rulers who kept up intermittent ceremonies at the temple: Aga of Kish, son of Enmebaragesi; Mesannepada of Ur; his son Meskiang-nunna; Gilgamesh of Uruk; his son Ur-Nungal; Nanni of Ur and his son Meskiang-nanna. It also indicates that the practice was revived in Neo-Sumerian times by Ur-Nammu of Ur, and continued until Ibbi-Sin appointed Enmegalana high priest in Uruk (c. 1950 BC).

Inscriptions of Lugal-Zage-Si and Lugal-kigub-nidudu, kings of Uruk and Ur respectively, and of other early pre-non-Semitic rulers, on door-sockets and stone vases, show the veneration in which the ancient shrine was then held, and the importance attached to its possession, as giving a certain stamp of legitimacy. On their votive offerings, some of these rulers designate themselves as ensis, or governors.



Kish (W)
Founded approximately in 3100 BC.

(Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform: 𒆧𒆠; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir. .

The Sumerian king list states that Kish was the first city to have kings following the deluge,

Founded Approximately 3100 BC
Periods Jemdet Nasr to Hellenistic



Umma (W)

Sumerian king Lugal-Zage-Si of Umma's domains (red), c. 2350 BC

Umma (Sumerian: 𒄑𒆵𒆠 umm a) was an ancient city in Sumer. There is some scholarly debate about the Sumerian and Akkadian names for this site. Traditionally, Umma was identified with Tell Jokha. More recently it has been suggested that it was located at Umm al-Aqarib, less than 7 km to its northwest or was even the name of both cities.

Best known for its long frontier conflict with Lagash, the city reached its zenith c. 2275 BC, under the rule of Lugal-Zage-Si who also controlled Ur and Uruk. Under the Ur III dynasty, Umma became an important provincial center. Over 30,000 tablets recovered from the site are administrative and economic texts from that time. They permit an excellent insight into affairs in Umma. The Umma calendar of Shulgi (c. 21st century BC) is the immediate predecessor of the later Babylonian calendar, and indirectly of the post-exilic Hebrew calendar. Umma appears to have been abandoned after the Middle Bronze Age.

Plan of a real estate of the city of Umma, with indications of the surfaces of the parts. Third Dynasty of Ur, Le Louvre.



📹 Mesopotamian City State Layout (VİDEO)

Mesopotamian City State Layout (LINK)


📹 Eridu and the First Cities of Ancient Sumer and Mesopotamia (VİDEO)

Eridu and the First Cities of Ancient Sumer and Mesopotamia (LINK)


📹 Ancient Nineveh (VİDEO)

Ancient Nineveh (LINK)


📹 Babylon (VİDEO)

Babylon (LINK)

Babylon reconstruction made for the Mesopotamia exhibition of the Royal Ontario Museum & British Museum at ROM, Toronto.

📹 Digital Reconstruction of the Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Assyria (VİDEO)

Digital Reconstruction of the Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Assyria (LINK)

This video reconstructs the Nortwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud (near modern Mosul in northern Iraq) as it would have appeared during his reign in the ninth century B.C. The video moves from the outer courtyards of the palace into the throne room and beyond into more private spaces, perhaps used for rituals. The video also shows the original location and painted colors of the relief depicting the winged, eagle-headed figure included in the exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the Dawn of the Classical Age (on view September 22, 2014–January 4, 2015).


📹 The Great Ziggurat of Ur-Ancient Architects (VİDEO)

The Great Ziggurat of Ur-Ancient Architects (LINK)



List of the most populous cities or urban areas in history

List of the most populous cities or urban areas in history (W)

Year Morris (2010)[1] Modelski (2003)[2]
Population Name Present
Population Name Present
8000 BC [5] 500 Mureybet Syria
7000 BC [6] 1,000 Beidha Jordan [7] 1,000–2,000 Jericho West Bank
Basta[8] Jordan
Çatalhöyük Turkey
6500 BC [7][9] 5,000–10,000 Çatalhöyük Turkey
6000 BC [10] 3,000 Çatalhöyük Turkey
5000 BC [5] 4,000 Tell Brak Syria
4000 BC 5,000 Uruk Iraq [7] 4,000 Eridu Iraq
Tell Brak Syria
3800 to
3700 BC
[11] < 10,000 Dobrovody Ukraine
3700 BC 6,000–10,000 Eridu Iraq
3600 to
3500 BC
[11] < 10,000 Maydanets Ukraine
[11] < 10,000 Talianki Ukraine
3500 BC [5] 8,000 Uruk Iraq 14,000 Uruk Iraq
Susa Iran
Tell Brak Syria
3300 BC 40,000 Uruk Iraq
3000 BC [12] 45,000 Uruk Iraq 40,000 Uruk Iraq
2800 BC 80,000 Uruk Iraq
2500 BC [5] 50,000 Uruk Iraq [13] 60,000 Lagash[14] Iraq
[13] 20,000 Nippur Iraq
2400 BC [15] 50,000 Mari Syria
[15] 40,000 Umma Iraq
Girsu[14] Iraq
Mohenjo-daro Sindh
2300 BC [16] 80,000 Girsu Iraq
[16] 50,000 Mari Syria
2250 BC [5] 35,000 Akkad[17] Iraq
Memphis Egypt
2200 BC 50,000 Girsu Iraq
2100 BC 100,000 Ur Iraq
2000 BC [18] 60,000 Memphis Egypt [19] 40,000 Isin Iraq
Larsa Iraq
Ur Iraq Girsu Iraq
1900 BC 40,000 Isin Iraq
Larsa Iraq
1800 BC 60,000 Mari Syria
1750 BC [5] 65,000 Babylon Iraq
1700 BC 60,000 Babylon Iraq
1600 BC 50,000–100,000 Avaris[21] Egypt
1500 BC 75,000 Uruk Iraq 60,000 Thebes Egypt
Thebes Egypt
1400 BC [5] 80,000 Thebes Egypt 80,000 Thebes Egypt
1300 BC [5] 80,000 Thebes Egypt 120,000 Yinxu
1200 BC 80,000 Babylon Iraq 160,000 Pi-Ramses[21] Egypt
Thebes Egypt
1100 BC [5] 50,000 Memphis Egypt 120,000 Pi-Ramses Egypt
Thebes Egypt
Tanis Egypt
1000 BC [24] 50,000 Thebes Egypt [25] 120,000 Thebes Egypt
[24] 35,000 Haojing
China [25] 100,000 Haojing
China Memphis Egypt
Babylon Iraq
900 BC [5] 50,000 Thebes Egypt 125,000 Haojing China
800 BC [5] 75,000 Nimrud
Iraq 125,000 Haojing China
700 BC [5] 100,000 Nineveh Iraq 100,000 Thebes Egypt
Memphis Egypt
Nineveh Iraq
Babylon[29] Iraq
Linzi China
600 BC [5] 125,000 Babylon Iraq 200,000 Babylon Iraq
Luoyi China
500 BC 150,000 Babylon Iraq [30] 200,000 Babylon Iraq
Luoyi China
Linzi China
400 BC [5]150,000 Babylon Iraq 320,000 Xiadu China
300 BC [5] 150,000 Babylon Iraq 500,000 Carthage Tunisia
Alexandria Egypt
200 BC 300,000 Alexandria Egypt 600,000 Alexandria Egypt
100 BC [5] 400,000 Alexandria Egypt 1,000,000 Alexandria Egypt
Rome Italy
1 AD 1,000,000 Rome Italy 800,000 Rome Italy
100 [5] 1,000,000 Rome Italy 1,000,000 Rome Italy
200 [35] 1,000,000 Rome Italy 1,200,000 Rome Italy
300 [5] 800,000 Rome Italy 1,000,000 Rome Italy
400 [36] 800,000 Rome Italy 800,000 Rome Italy
500 [5] 450,000 Constantinople Turkey 500,000 Constantinople Turkey
Luoyang[28] China
600 [38] 600,000 Daxing
China 600,000 Constantinople Turkey
700 [5] 1,000,000 Chang'an[27] China 1,000,000 Chang'an[27] China
800 1,000,000 Chang'an China 800,000 Chang'an China
900 [1] 750,000 Chang'an China 900,000 Baghdad Iraq
1000 1,000,000 Kaifeng China [40] 1,200,000 Baghdad Iraq
1100 [5] 1,000,000 Kaifeng China 1,200,000 Baghdad Iraq
1200 [42] 1,000,000 Hangzhou China 1,000,000 Baghdad Iraq
Hangzhou China
Kaifeng China
1210 600,000 Gurganj Turkmenistan 500,000 Merv Turkmenistan
1300 [5] 800,000 Hangzhou China 1,500,000 Hangzhou China
1400 500,000 Jinling
China 1,000,000 Jinling
1500 [43] 678,000 Beijing China 1,000,000 Beijing China
1600 700,000 Beijing China 1,000,000 Beijing China
1700 650,000 Beijing China 1,000,000 Ayutthaya Thailand
1720 Edo[45] Japan
1800 1,100,000 Beijing China 1,100,000 Beijing China
1900 6,600,000 London United Kingdom 6,500,000 London United Kingdom
2000 [47]26,400,000 Tokyo Japan

Liste İçin Açıklama

This is a table of the most populous cities or urban areas by estimated population in history according to four sources. City names are in bold where all four sources agree. The table does not contain data for cities under Indus Valley civilization for time period 5000 BC to 1000 BC.

  1. Ian Morris, Social Development, Stanford University, October 2010. This contains supporting materials for the following book: (b) Ian Morris, Why the West Rules—For Now, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. ISBN 978-0-374-29002-3.
  2. George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0-9676230-1-4. Figures in main tables are preferentially cited. Part of former estimates can be read at Evolutionary World Politics Homepage Archived 2008-12-28 at the Wayback Machine.


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