IV. Mehmed
CKM 2019-20 / Aziz Yardımlı







IV. Mehmed

  Mehmed IV 1642-1693 1648-1687

Mehmed IV (W)

Mehmed IV 1642-1693 1648-1687 (W)

Mehmed IV
Born: 2 January 1642 Died: 6 January 1693 [aged 51]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
with Kösem Sultan (1648–1651)
Turhan Hatice Sultan (1651–1656)
Succeeded by
Suleiman II
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
Succeeded by
Suleiman II


19th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign 8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
Predecessor Ibrahim
Successor Suleiman II
Regents Kösem Sultan
(8 August 1648 – 2 September 1651)
Turhan Hatice Sultan
(3 September 1651 – 1656)
Born 2 January 1642
Topkapı PalaceConstantinopleOttoman Empire
(present day IstanbulTurkey)
Died 6 January 1693 (aged 51)
Edirne, Ottoman Empire
(present day Edirne, Turkey)
Tomb of Turhan SultanNew Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey
Consort Gülnuş Sultan
Afife Kadın
Issue see below
Full name
Mehmed bin Ibrahim
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Ibrahim
Mother Turhan Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam




Mehmed had two consorts:

  • Mustafa II (6 February 1664 – 30 December 1703) – son with Gülnuş Sultan;
  • Ahmed III (30 December 1673 – 1 July 1736) – son with Gülnuş Sultan;
  • Şehzade Bayezid (15 December 1678 – 18 December 1678, buried in Sultan Mustafa I Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia);

  • Hatice Sultan (1668 – Edirne, 5 July 1743, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul), daughter with Gülnuş Sultan, married firstly on 9 July 1675 to Musahip Mustafa Pasha, married secondly on 13 March 1691 to Moralı Hasan Pasha;
  • Fatma Sultan (1672 – Eyüp Palace, 5 December 1700, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul), daughter with Gülnuş Sultan, married firstly on 9 July 1675 to Kara Mustafa Pasha, married secondly on 19 January 1696 to Tırnakçı Çerkes Ibrahim Pasha, married thirdly to Vezir Mısırlı Mehmed Pasha;
  • Ümmi Sultan (died of smallpox, 21 December 1700, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul), married on 13 January 1694 in the Edirne Palace to Silahdar Çerkes Osman Pasha;



Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of six after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history after Suleiman the Magnificent. While the first and last years of his reign were characterized by military defeat and political instability, during his middle years he oversaw the revival of the empire’s fortunes associated with the Köprülü era. Mehmed IV was known by contemporaries as a particularly pious ruler, and was referred to as gazi, or "holy warrior" for his role in the many conquests carried out during his long reign.

Under his reign the empire reached the height of its territorial expansion in Europe. From a young age he developed a keen interest in hunting, for which he is known as avcı (translated as "the Hunter"). In 1687 Mehmed was overthrown by soldiers disenchanted by the course of the ongoing War of the Holy League. He subsequently retired to Edirne, where he resided until his natural death in 1693.


Early life

Early life

Early life (W)

Born at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, in 1642, Mehmed was the son of Sultan Ibrahim (r. 1640-48) by Valide Sultan Turhan Hatice, a concubine of Ukrainian origin, and the grandson of Kösem Sultan of Greek origin. Soon after his birth, his father and mother quarreled, and Ibrahim was so enraged that he tore Mehmed from his mother's arms and flung the infant into a cistern. Mehmed was rescued by the harem servants. However, this left Mehmed with a lifelong scar on his head.


Mehmed IV as a teenager, on procession from Istanbul to Edirne in 1657 (from the Swedish Ralamb collection of paintings).




Accession (W)

Mehmed ascended to the throne in 1648 at the age of six, during a very volatile time for the Ottoman dynasty. On 21 October 1649, Mehmed along with his brothers Suleiman and Ahmed were circumcised. The empire faced palace intrigues as well as uprisings in Anatolia, the defeat of the Ottoman navy by the Venetians outside the Dardanelles, and food shortages leading to riots in Constantinople. It was under these circumstances that Mehmed's mother granted Köprülü Mehmed Pasha full executive powers as Grand Vizier. Köprülü took office on 14 September 1656. Mehmed IV presided over the Köprülü era, an exceptionally stable period of Ottoman history. Mehmed is known as Avcı, "the Hunter", as this outdoor exercise took up much of his time.



Wars (W)

Mehmed’s reign is notable for a revival of Ottoman fortunes led by the Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed and his son Fazıl Ahmed. They regained the Aegean islands from Venice, and Crete, during the Cretan War (1645-1669). They also fought successful campaigns against Transylvania (1660) and Poland (1670-1674). When Mehmed IV accepted the vassalage of Petro Doroshenko, Ottoman rule extended into Podolia and Right-bank Ukraine. His next vizier, Köprülü Mehmed's adopted son Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa, led campaigns against Russia, conquering Chyhyryn in 1678. He next supported the 1683 Hungarian uprising of Imre Thököly against Austrian rule, marching a vast army through Hungary and besieged Vienna. At the Battle of Vienna on the Kahlenberg Heights, the Ottomans suffered a catastrophic rout by Polish-Lithuanian forces famously led by King John III Sobieski (1674-96), and his allies, notably the Imperial army.

In 1672 and 1673, the sultan, who embarked on two Polish campaigns with serdar-ı ekrem and Grand Vizier Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, and the acquisition of the Kamaniçi Castle, returned to Edirne after the signing of the Bucaş Treaty.


Fire of 1660

Fire of 1660 (W)

The fire that spread from Unkapanı to Süleymaniye in the fire that broke out at the Ayazma gate in Istanbul on 4 July 1660, turned the city into a destiny. 2700 people died. 120 palaces and mansions, 100 cellars, 360 mosques, 40 baths. The house burned down with madrasahs, inns, hankah and thousands. After the fire, a famine and plague epidemic started in the city. 


Great Turkish War

Great Turkish War (W)

On 12 September 1683 the Austrians and their Polish allies under King John III Sobieski won the Battle of Vienna with a devastating flank attack led by Sobieski's Polish cavalry. The Turks retreated into Hungary, however this was only the beginning of the Great Turkish War, as the armies of the Holy League began their successful campaign to push the Ottomans back to the Balkans.


The siege of united Christian forces in Buda, 1686, by Frans Geffels.

Die Einnahme von Buda 1686.
The Holy League took Buda after a long siege in 1686 (painting, anonymous, c. 1700).

Reprise château Buda 1686.
Reoccupation of Buda castel in 1686. Benczúr Gyula (1896), oil on canvas.

Painting depicting the Battle of Vienna of 1683 by Gonzales Franciscus Casteels.

Siege of Candia by the Ottoman army.


Later life and death

Later life and death (W)

In May 1675 his sons Mustafa II and Ahmed III were circumcised and her daughter Hatice Sultan was married. The empire celebrated it with Famous Edirne Festival to mark the occasion. Silahdar Findikli Mehmed Aga, He described Mehmed as a medium-sized, stocky, white-skinned, sun-burnt face, sparse beard, leaning forward from the waist up because he rides a lot.

After the second Battle of Mohács (1687), the Ottoman Empire fell into deep crisis. There was a mutiny among the Ottoman troops. The commander and Grand Vizier, Sarı Süleyman Pasha, became frightened that he would be killed by his own troops and fled from his command, first to Belgrade and then to Istanbul. When the news of the defeat and the mutiny arrived in Istanbul in early September, Abaza Siyavuş Pasha was appointed as the commander and soon afterward as the Grand Vizier. However, before he could take over his command, the whole Ottoman Army had disintegrated and the Ottoman household troops (Janissaries and sipahis) started to return to their base in Istanbul under their own lower-rank officers. Sarı Süleyman Pasha was executed, and Sultan Mehmed IV appointed the commander of Istanbul Straits, Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha, as the Grand Vizier's regent in Istanbul. Fazıl Mustafa made consultations with the leaders of the army that existed and the other leading Ottoman statesmen.

After these, on 8 November 1687 it was decided to depose Sultan Mehmed IV and to enthrone his brother Suleiman II as the new Sultan. Mehmed was deposed by the combined forces of Yeğen Osman and the Janissaries. Mehmed was then imprisoned in Topkapı Palace. However, he was permitted to leave the Palace from time to time, as he died in Edirne Palace in 1693. He was buried in Turhan Hatice Sultan's tomb, near his mother's mosque in Constantinople. In 1691, a couple of years before his death, a plot was discovered in which the senior clerics of the empire planned to reinstate Mehmed on the throne in response to the ill health and imminent death of his successor, Suleiman II.

His favourite harem girl was Gülnuş Sultan, a slave girl and later his wife. She was taken prisoner at Rethymno (Turkish Resmo) on the island of Crete. Their two sons, Mustafa II and Ahmed III, became Ottoman Sultans during 1695-1703 and 1703-1730 respectively.





Mehmed IV, byname Avcı (“The Hunter”), (born Jan. 2, 1642, Constantinople—died Jan. 6, 1693, Edirne, Ottoman Empire), Ottoman sultan whose reign (1648–87) was marked first by administrative and financial decay and later by a period of revival under the able  Köprülü viziers. Mehmed IV, however, devoted himself to hunting rather than to affairs of state.

Mehmed succeeded his mentally ill father, İbrahim, at the age of six. Power was exercised by factions led by his grandmother and mother while the chiefs of the Janissary corps dominated the state administration. During this period revolts broke out in Constantinople and Anatolia, and a series of grand viziers sought in vain to solve the empire’s financial crisis. The emergence of the Köprülüs as grand viziers offered temporary domestic relief and ushered in a period of victories against Venice in the Mediterranean and against Austria and Poland in the Balkans.

Mehmed IV participated in the military campaigns against Austria (1663) and Poland (1672); his primary interest, however, remained the pursuit of new hunting grounds. He opposed his grand vizier  Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa’s grandiose scheme to conquer Vienna but was unable to prevent him from entering into a disastrous war with Austria. The subsequent Ottoman defeats led to Mehmed’s deposition (Nov. 7, 1687). He spent the last three years of his life in retirement in Edirne.


  🗺 Nicolas Sanson / Estats de l’Empire du Grand Seigneur des Turqs ou Sultan des Ottomans en Asie, en Afrique, et en Europe, 1654 (L)

📥 🗺 🔎 Nicolas Sanson / Estats de l’Empire du Grand Seigneur des Turqs ou Sultan des Ottomans en Asie, en Afrique, et en Europe, 1654



Nicolas Sanson
Estats de l'Empire du Grand Seigneur des Turqs ou Sultan des Ottomans en Asie, en Afrique, et en Europe, 1654

The Ottoman Empire by Nicolas Sanson.

Sanson's map shows the powerful Ottoman Empire of the mid-seventeenth century, extending from Italy to the Straits of Hormuz. There is excellent detail from Italy to the Caspian Sea and the Arabian Peninsula. The colored portions denote Ottoman possession, with an inset in inland Africa depicting Algeria.

In the upper right corner is a cartouche encasing the title. Two women in supposedly Ottoman headdress flank the two sides, while a male Ottoman head is at center, between the title and scale. The man, who may be the Sultan, looks out at the reader solemnly. As Brummett explains, this cartouche is not a martial call to defeat Ottomans, as previous cartouches of European maps of Ottoman territory were, but rather an acknowledgment of Ottoman power in a world of empires.

Nicholas Sanson (1600-1667) is considered the father of French cartography in its golden age from the mid-seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth. Over the course of his career, he produced over 300 maps. His influence is shown particularly with this map, as it would be taken up and re-issued by William Berry and Hubert Jaillot, among others.

Nicolas Sanson Biography

Nicholas Sanson (1600-1667) is considered the father of French cartography in its golden age from the mid-seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth. Over the course of his career he produced over 300 maps. His success can be chalked up to his geographic and research skills, but also to his partnership with Pierre Mariette. Previously, Sanson had worked primarily with the publisher Melchior Tavernier. Mariette purchased Tavernier’s business in 1644. Sanson worked with Mariette until 1657, when the latter died. Mariette’s son, also Pierre, helped to publish the Cartes générales de toutes les parties du monde.



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