I. Murad
CKM 2019-20 / Aziz Yardımlı






I. Murad


  Murad I 1326-1389 1362-1389

Ottoman conquest during Murad I reign.

Murad I

Murad I 1326-1389 1362-1389 (W)

Murad I
Born: 1326 Died: 1389
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ottoman Sultan
1362 – 15 June 1389
Succeeded by
Bayezid I



3rd Ottoman Sultan
Reign March 1362 – 15 June 1389
Predecessor Orhan
Successor Bayezid I
Born 29 June 1326
Bursa, in present-day Turkey
Died 15 June 1389 (aged 62)
Kosovo Field (near Prishtina), Branković District, in present-day Kosovo[a]
Consorts Gülçiçek Hatun
Thamara Hatun
Paşa Melek Hatun
Issue See below
Full name
Murad bin Orhan
Ottoman Turkish مراد اول
Turkish Murad-ı Hüdavendigâr
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Orhan
Mother Nilüfer Hatun
Religion Islam



Family (W)


He was the son of Orhan and the Valide Hatun Nilüfer Hatun, daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar, who was of ethnic Greek descent.

  • Yahşi Bey;
  • Şehzade Savcı Bey – son. He and his ally, Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus' son Andronicus, rebelled against their fathers. Murad had Savcı killed. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was imprisoned and blinded at Murad's insistence.
  • Sultan Bayezid I (1354–1402) – son of Gülçiçek Hatun;
  • Şehzade Yakub Çelebi (? – d. 1389) – son. Bayezid I had Yakub killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed.
  • Şehzade Ibrahim;



📹 Murad I (LINK)


Murat I.

Murad I (Ottoman Turkish: مراد اول‎; Turkish: I. Murad, Murad-ı Hüdavendigâr (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of Orhan and the Valide Nilüfer Hatun {Holofira, the daughter of a Christian Byzantine Prince}.

Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, and in 1363 made it the new capital of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Then he further expanded the Ottoman realm in Southeast Europe by bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule, and forced the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria as well as the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos to pay him tribute.

Murad I administratively divided his sultanate into the two provinces of Anatolia Asia Minor) and Rumelia (the Balkans). Murad's death against the Serbs would cause the Ottomans to halt their expansion into the territory temporarily and focus their attention once more on the ailing Byzantine Empire.


The conquests of Murad I.

Murad fought against the powerful beylik of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, Albanians, Bulgarians and Hungarians in Europe. In particular, a Serb expedition to expel the Turks from Adrianople led by the Serbian brothers King Vukašin and Despot Uglješa, was defeated on September 26, 1371, by Murad's capable second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa, the first governor (beylerbey) of Rumeli. In 1385, Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated an Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik. The Ottoman army suffered heavy casualties, and was unable to capture Niš on the way back.

Savcı Bey rebellion

While Murad I was at this time, his son, Savci Bey, who was "deputy throne", launched a prince riot. Among the comparator candidates for the Byzantine Empire in Istanbul [ The Byzantine Civil War (1373-1379) were a combination {!} Murad I the Byzantine Emperor. {!} His eldest son Andronikos in Constantinople (and then Andronikos IV And his younger brother Manuil (then Manuel II) Continued. {!} Taking advantage of his father's departure from the capital, Andronikos conspired and declared his empire. The Ottoman prince Prosecutor Bey, who was 14 years old for some reason, declared this {!} rebellion to be a ruler instead of his father Murad I in folding Rumelia and had the sermon read in his name. When Murad I moved to Rumelia, he passed with the Ottoman forces under his command. There was a clash in the location of an "Apicridium" in Istanbul with the troops under the command of Prince Savci Bey and Byzantine Gaspci Andronikos, and the army under Murad I dismissed the army of Savci Bey and Andronikos. The prosecutor fled to Dimetoka and was arrested there. His father, prosecutor Bey was very affected by the rebellion, first of his eyes had to apply for miles. Feridun Bey Münşeati term Prosecutor Bey "nur-ı basır mechur (lack of light of vision)" The same punishment was applied to Byzantine Emperor Ioannis V, as well as his rebellious son. However, historians report that the Byzantine Emperor was half-blinded by pouring angry vinegar into his son's eyes by applying this punishment more lightly. After Murad I had blinded his son, he could not defeat his anger and had the Prosecutor in Bursa strangled and executed. When the story of the Savci Bey ended, there was a tragic situation that began in Bursa and ended there.


Battle of Kosovo, 1389 (W)

In 1389, Murad's army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo.

“Kosovo Maiden,” Uroš Predić, 1919.
The Kosovo Maiden or Maiden of the Blackbird Field is the central figure of a poem with the same name. In it, a young beauty searches the battlefield for her betrothed husband and helps wounded Serbian warriors with water, wine and bread after the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire. (W)

There are different accounts from different sources about when and how Murad I was assassinated. The contemporary sources mainly noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle. The existing evidence of the additional stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and later, decades after the actual event. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman and knight Miloš Obilić by knife. Most Ottoman chroniclers (including Dimitrie Cantemir) state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin who was admitted to ask a special favour. His older son Bayezid, who was in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. His other son, Yakub Bey, who was in charge of the other wing, was called to the Sultan's command center tent by Bayezid, but when Yakub Bey arrived he was strangled, leaving Bayezid as the sole claimant to the throne.

The Battle of Kosovo, a battle between the army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr. Dated 14th Century (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images).

In a letter from the Florentine senate (written by Coluccio Salutati) to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad I's (and Jakub Bey's) killing was described. A party of twelve Serbian lords slashed their way through the Ottoman lines defending Murad I. One of them, allegedly Miloš Obilić, had managed to get through to the Sultan's tent and kill him with sword stabs to the throat and belly.

Sultan Murad's internal organs were buried in Kosovo field and remains to this day on a corner of the battlefield in a location called Meshed-i Hudavendigar which has gained a religious significance by the local Muslims. It has been vandalized between 1999-2006 and renovated recently. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city, and were buried in a tomb at the complex built in his name.

Death of the Ottoman Sultan Murad I at the Battle of Kosovo, 1389. Illustration for Weltgeschichte Fur Das Volk by Otto von Corvin and Wilhelm Held (Verlag und Druck von Otto Spamer, 1880). (L)

Establishment of sultanate

He established the sultanate by building up a society and government in the newly conquered city of Adrianople (Edirne in Turkish) and by expanding the realm in Europe, bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and forcing the Byzantine emperor to pay him tribute. It was Murad who established the former Osmanli tribe into an sultanate. He established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system. He also organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders (timariots) and the military judge, the kazasker. He also established the two provinces of Anadolu (Anatolia) and Rumeli (Europe).


  Ottoman conquest of Adrianople 1360s

The Second Byzantine Civil War (1352-1357).

Ottoman conquest of Adrianople

Ottoman conquest of Adrianople 1360s (W)

"Edirne" was originally founded as Hadrianopolis (Ἁδριανούπολις), named after the Roman emperor Hadrian.
Adrianople, a major Byzantine {!} city in Thrace, was conquered by the Ottomans sometime in the 1360s, and eventually became the Ottoman capital, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.


Following the capture of Gallipoli by the Ottomans in 1354, Turkish expansion in the southern Balkans was rapid. Although they had to halt their advance during the Kidnapping of Şehzade Halil between 1357-59, after Halil's rescue they resumed their advance. Main target of the advance was Adrianople, which was the third most important Byzantine city (after Constantinople and Thessalonica). Whether under Ottoman control or as independent ghazi or akinji warrior bands, the Turks seized Demotika (Didymoteicho) in 1360 or 1361 and Philippopolis in 1363. Despite the recovery of Gallipoli for Byzantium by the Savoyard Crusade in 1366, an increasing number of Turcoman warriors crossed over from Anatolia into Europe, gradually acquiring control of the plains of Thrace and pushing to the Rhodope Mountains in the west and the Bulgarian principalities in the north.

Capture of Adrianople

The date of Adrianople's fall to the Turks has been disputed among scholars due to the differing accounts in the source material, with the years 1361 to 1362, 1367 and 1371 variously proposed. Following sources dating from long after the events, earlier scholarship generally placed the conquest between 1361 and 1363, in accordance with the report in Ottoman sources that a solar eclipse occurred in the year of Adrianople's fall. Thus later Turkish sources report that Lala Shahin Pasha defeated the Byzantine ruler (tekfur) of the city at a battle in Sazlıdere southeast of the city, forcing him to flee secretly by boat. The inhabitants, left to their fate, agreed to surrender the city in July 1362 in exchange for a guarantee of freedom to continue to live in the city as before.

Based on Elisabeth Zachariadou's examination of previously unregarded Byzantine sources, most modern scholars have moved to the view that the city was captured in 1369. Thus a poem from the city's metropolitan bishop to Emperor John V Palaiologos shows Adrianople to have still been in Byzantine hands in Christmas 1366, while a series of Byzantine short chronicles place the date of its capture in 1369. In addition, modern scholars opine that the capture of Adrianople may not have been carried out by Ottoman Turks, but by others among the many independently operating akinji groups in the region.


The city, now renamed Edirne, was taken over and continued for some time to be administered by Lala Shahin Pasha, while Sultan Murad I held court at the old capital at Bursa and only entered the city in the winter of 1376/7, when Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos ceded Gallipoli to Murad in exchange for his help in a dynastic civil war.

Edirne did not immediately become the Ottomans’ capital; Murad's court continued to reside in Bursa and in nearby Demotika, as well as Edirne. Nevertheless, the city quickly became the main Ottoman military centre in the Balkans, and it was there that Süleyman Çelebi, one of the contenders for the Ottoman throne during the Ottoman Interregnum of 1402-13, moved the state treasury.

The conquest of Adrianople was a turning point in the history of the Ottomans in Europe: prior to this the Balkan peoples had regarded them as transient raiders, like so many that came before them in centuries prior. Instead, the transformation of Adrianople into the new Ottoman capital of Edirne signalled to the local populace that the Ottomans intended to settle permanently in Europe.


  Battle of Sırp Sındığı

Battle of Sırp Sındığı

Battle of Sırp Sındığı (W)



Battle of Sırp Sındığı
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe
Serbian–Ottoman Wars
Date 1364
Maritsa River, Sarayakpınar village near Adrianople
Result Decisive Ottoman Victory
Adrianople Becomes a Capital
Serbian Empire Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Vukašin Mrnjavčević Hacı İlbey
30,000 to 60,000 5,000-10,000
Casualties and losses
Over thousands died and the rest fled Unknown


Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396) after the death of Ivan Alexander (1331-1371).


Sırp Sındığı was a sudden night raid by an Ottoman force led by Hacı İlbey on a Serbian contingent at the banks of the Martisa river about 15 kilometres from the city of Adrianople. It occurred in 1364 between an expeditionary force of the Ottomans and a Serbian army that also included crusaders, sent by the Pope. The Ottomans destroyed the Serbian army, which is why the battle was known as “sırp sındığı” (destruction of Serbs). The battle was the first attempt to throw the Ottomans from the Balkans with an allied army.

Definition of “Sırp Sındığı” (W)


In Old Turkish sındık means "destruction", hence sırp sındığı means "destruction of Serbs" or 'Rout of the Serbs' that symbolises the casualties of Serbian soldiers in this battle.

Confusion and disambiguation

  • According to some sources, this battle and Battle of Maritsa (Battle of Chernomen) was one and the same battle.
  • According to Turkish sources, Sirp Sindiği and the Battle of Maritsa were two separate battles, and that the Serbian loss in Sırp sındığı was one of the main reasons for the Battle of Maritsa, where the Serbs avenged the earlier battle. The Battle of Maritsa occurred at Ormenio (tr. Çirmen) in Greece, while this battle occurred at Sarayakpınar village in Turkey; two different places which are both located at the banks of Maritsa river. Because of this situation some sources use the terms "First Battle (of Maritsa)" for Sırp Sındığı and "Second Battle (of Maritsa)" for the one at Ormenio. The commanders of these two battles were different; the Ottoman forces in the Battle of Maritsa were led by Lala Şahin Paşa, while Sırp Sındığı was led by Hacı Ilbey, who had in fact been killed by Lala Şahin Paşa in 1365.
  • According to some other sources there were two big battles in 1364 and 1371, but that the "Sırp Sındigi" (destruction of Serbs) was the Battle of Maritsa (at Ormenio), while the battle in 1364 might have been called by a different name.


“At the instigation of Pope Urban V, a crusading army of Hungarians, Serbians, Bosnians and Wallachians was formed and in 1364 it set forth to recapture Adrianople. It marched undisturbed to the Maritsa, but there it was surprised by a night attack and cut to pieces. ...Nevertheless the Serbs resolved to stop Turks in the valley of the Maritsa and marched as far as "Chernomen" between Philippolis and Adrianople. There at dawn on September 26, 1371, a greatly inferior Turkish force surprised them and slaughtered large numbers...” (L.S Stavrianos, The Balkan since 1453, p.43-44.)



When the Ottomans captured Adrianople in 1362; a strategic main road from Constantinople to Europe was cut. A large number of Turkish immigrants began to settle in Thrace very quickly. Also the Ottomans attacked Serbian, Bulgarian and Byzantine Empire lands. The enlargement policy of the Ottomans caused fear and counter reactions of the other nations in the Balkans. When Ottomans captured Plovdiv in 1363, a Byzantine garrison commander in Plovdiv fled to Serbia. He constantly advised and encouraged the Serbians and Bulgarians to attack the outnumbered Ottoman forces quickly with an allied force before the Ottomans fortified their positions. So the Serbians and Bulgarians therefore agreed to send an allied force to push the Ottomans from the Balkans. With the encouragement and efforts of the Pope Urban V, the Principality of Wallachia and the Ban of Bosnia agreed to send some troops to support that allied force. Also the Kingdom of Hungary which was fighting for leadership in the Balkans, also supported that army by sending troops led by Louis I of Hungary.


A crusading army consisting of 30,000-60,000 troops began to move on Adrianople; at that time the Ottoman sultan Murat I was fighting the Catalan mercenaries in the Byzantine army at Biga, (Çanakkale). Also most of the Ottoman army was in Asia Minor. Lala Sahin Pasha who was the first Beylerbey of Rumelia, demanded Sultan to send him some reinforcements. Also Lala Şahin Paşa appointed “Hacı İlbey” to be the commander of an expeditionary force that was supposed to monitor and slow down the allied army.

Despite all efforts, the allied army crossed the Maritsa river very easily without any important resistance; and made a camp in Sarayakpinar (old name: Sirpsindiği) village in Edirne near the banks of Maritsa river. They were very near to Adrianople. The army leaders made an early feast that night. They hoped to take Adrianople with ease. They neglected to take any measures that might protect the camp, but the camp was being monitored by expeditionary forces. Hacı Ilbey decided to make a surprise attack without waiting for any reinforcements. Ottoman akinjis attacked the allied camp in the darkness of night, and they carried 2 torches for the purpose of deceiving the enemy into thinking that they had double their actual numbers. This trick worked. This surprise attack threw the allied army into a panic that they were drunk or asleep because of the feast. They supposed that the Ottoman Sultan Murat I had arrived there with a large army. Most of the alliance troops tried to retreat back to the road from whence they came. Many of them were drowned in the Maritsa river while trying to swim to the opposite side. Most of the soldiers were Serbians.


Despite his victory, Hacı İlbey lived only one year after that battle, in 1365 he was poisoned by Lala Sahin Pasha who was jealous of his victory. Adrianople became a capital of the Ottomans. The Bulgarians agreed to pay tribute to the Ottomans and this battle hastened the fall of Bulgaria because the Turks started to occupy upper Bulgaria. Also Serbian casualties in this battle was one of the main reasons for the Battle of Maritsa, a battle where the Serbs and their allies would attempt to avenge the loss for this battle.


  Battle of Maritsa

Battle of Maritsa

Battle of Maritsa (W)



Battle of Maritsa
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe
Serbian-Ottoman Wars

Domain of King Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Despot Jovan Uglješa before the Battle of Maritsa (in 1371).

Date 26 September 1371
Result Decisive Ottoman victory
Serbian Empire Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Vukašin Mrnjavčević
Uglješa Mrnjavčević
Gojko Mrnjavčević
Lala Şâhin Paşa

20,000-70,000 men

800 men

Casualties and losses

heavy combat losses
thousands drowned



The Battle of Maritsa, or Battle of Chernomen (Serbian: Marička bitka/ Маричка битка, Bulgarian: Битката при Марица, битката при Черномен, Turkish: Çirmen Muharebesi, İkinci Meriç Muharebesi in tr. Second Battle of Maritsa) took place at the Maritsa River near the village of Chernomen (today Ormenio in Greece) on 26 September 1371 between Ottoman forces commanded by Lala Shahin Pasha and Evrenos, and Serbian forces commanded by King Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brother Despot Jovan Uglješa, who also wanted to get revenge after the First Battle of Maritsa.



Before the Battle of Maritsa, Vukašin intended to recapture Skadar (now Shkodër) for the Serbian Empire. The army led by King Vukašin and his son Prince Marko approached Skadar in June 1371, but when they were informed about a large Ottoman army advancing from the east they headed east to prepare for the Battle of Maritsa.



The Christian army numbered 20,000-70,000 men. Most sources agree on the higher number. Despot Uglješa wanted to make a surprise attack on the Ottomans in their capital city, Edirne, while Murad I was in Asia Minor. The Ottoman army was much smaller, Byzantine Greek scholar Laonikos Chalkokondyles and other sources give the number of 800 men, but due to superior tactics, by conducting a night raid on the Christian camp, Şâhin Paşa was able to defeat the Christian army and kill King Vukašin and despot Uglješa. Thousands of Christians were killed, and thousands drowned in the Maritsa river when they tried to flee. After the battle, the Maritsa ran scarlet with blood.


Parts of Macedonia and Thrace fell under Ottoman power after this battle. The battle was a part of the Ottoman campaign to conquer the Balkans and was preceded by the Ottoman capturing of Sozopol in modern Bulgaria and succeeded by the capture of the cities of Drama, Kavála, and Serrai in modern Greece. The battle preceded the later 1389 Battle of Kosovo, and was one of many in the Serbian–Turkish wars.


  Byzantine {and Ottoman} civil war of 1373-1379; Savcı Bey

Byzantine civil war of 1373-1379

Byzantine {and Ottoman} civil war of 1373-1379 {between Fathers and Sons} (W)

Byzantine civil war of 1373–1379
Part of the Byzantine civil wars
Date 1373–1379
Result Victory of John V Palaiologos and Murad I
Byzantines cede Gallipoli to the Ottomans; Tenedos is depopulated and made neutral territory
John V Palaiologos
Ottoman Empire
Republic of Venice
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Savcı Bey
Republic of Genoa
Commanders and leaders
John V Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos
Murad I
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Savcı Bey (POW)

Emperor John V Palaiologos, from a 15th-century manuscript.

The Byzantine civil war of 1373-1379 was a military conflict fought in the Byzantine Empire between Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos and his son, Andronikos IV Palaiologos, also growing into an Ottoman civil war as well, when Savcı Bey, the son of Ottoman Emperor Murad I joined Andronikos in a joint rebellion against their fathers. It began when Andronikos sought to overthrow his father in 1373. Although he failed, with Genoese aid, Andronikos was eventually able to overthrow and imprison John V in 1376. In 1379 however, John V escaped, and with Ottoman help, regained his throne. The civil war further weakened the declining Byzantine Empire, which had already suffered several devastating civil wars earlier in the century. The major beneficiary of the war were the Ottomans, whose vassals the Byzantines had effectively become.



When John V assumed sole rule of the Empire in 1354, he pursued a clearly pro-Western foreign policy. He gave Lesbos and his sister's hand in marriage to a Genoese, Pontic Heraclea, Byzantium's last Anatolian port, was sold to the Venetians, and he himself converted to Roman Catholicism, an action that alienated him from his subjects and gained little in return. By the 1360s, the Byzantine Empire was a shadow of its former self. Its last domains in Thrace were being overrun by the Ottomans, who in 1365 captured Adrianople (modern Edirne). Seeking aid from the West, in 1369 John V visited Pope Urban V that summer, and following that he sailed to Venice, where he negotiated a treaty in which the Venetians would cancel the emperor's debt in return for the island of Tenedos. On leaving Byzantine soil he left his two sons, Andronikos IV and Manuel, to manage Constantinople and Thessalonica respectively. Andronikos IV, the elder son and co-emperor, however refused to hand over Tenedos to the Venetians as agreed, and the Emperor was detained by the Venetians for two years until Manuel intervened on his behalf.


First conflict — Failed revolt of Andronikos IV, 1373

Andronikos IV resented his father's acceptance of tributary and vassal status to the Ottoman Empire in 1373, and in the same year, he joined Savcı Bey, a son of the Ottoman Sultan Murad I, in a joint open rebellion against their fathers. Both revolts were suppressed, although Byzantine military weakness meant that this was largely carried out by Turkish troops. Murad blinded (and later executed) Savcı and demanded that John V in turn blind both Andronikos and the latter’s son, John, as well. John V did so only partially, leaving Andronikos IV with one eye and his grandson only partially blinded, but he did imprison Andronikos. The younger John greatly resented his grandfather's action and would rebel against him in 1390, reigning for five months. In the aftermath of Andronikos' failure, Manuel was raised to co-emperor and heir to John V as Manuel II.

Second conflict — Andronikos’ usurpation, 1376-1379

Shortly after Andronikos was imprisoned, John V sold Tenedos to the Venetians on similar terms to previous failed agreement. The Genoese however did not take kindly to the island being in the hands of the Venetians, with whom they were embroiled in a war. Thus, in 1376, the Genoese, based in their colony in Galata, helped free Andronikos and procure Ottoman troops for him. Andronikos assumed control of Constantinople and imprisoned the Emperor John V and his younger brother Manuel. In return for their help, Andronikos IV now gave Tenedos to the Genoese and Gallipoli to the Ottomans.

These acts in turn embroiled him, shortly after his accession, in a war with Venice. Together with his son, John VII, who was crowned as co-emperor in 1376, there were now no less than four emperors and one Despot in Byzantium, all of them more or less pawns in the policies of the Ottomans and the Italian city-states. Andronikos IV ruled until 1379, when John V and Manuel II escaped and fled to the court of Murad I. After apparently agreeing to cede the virtually independent Byzantine exclave of Philadelphia to the Ottomans, John V was reestablished on the throne with the help of Venetian ships and Ottoman soldiers.



After John V entered the capital, Constantinople, Andronikos IV fled to Genoese Galata and stayed there two years. However he held hostage for a time his mother, Helena Kantakouzene, and her father, the former emperor John VI Kantakouzenos. However, in 1381 a treaty was signed in which allowed him to return. Later on the Venetians and Genoese ended their war and agreed to depopulate Tenedos and raze its fortifications, hence transforming it to a neutral territory. This conflict further weakened the Byzantine Empire, which was surrounded by the massive and ever-expanding Ottoman Empire.


Savcı Bey

Savcı Bey (W)

Savcı Bey was a 14th-century Ottoman prince who participated in a joint rebellion with the Byzantine prince Andronikos against both of their fathers, the Ottoman emperor Murat I and the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos, respectively, in the 1370s. Savcı was the youngest of Murat I's three sons. The name of his mother and birth year are unknown. In Ottoman tradition, all princes (Turkish: şehzade) were required to serve as provincial (sanjak) governors as a part of their training. Savcı's sanjak was Bursa, the co-capital of the empire (along with Edirne).



When Ottoman Turks captured Edirne (Adrianopolis), Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos appealed to the West for help. Instead, he was detained as a debtor in Venice. Andronikos (later Andronikos IV Palaiologos), his son and regent in Constantinople (modern İstanbul, Turkey), refused to pay the ransom for his father, and John had to give up the island Tenedos (modern Bozcaada, Turkey) to buy his freedom. After that event, John assigned his younger son Manuel (later Manuel II Palaiologos) as his crown prince and accepted the suzerainty of Ottomans in 1373. Thus, when the Ottoman sultan asked for his services against some rebellions in Ottoman lands, he had to leave his capital. This absence gave Andronikos a chance to rebel.

On the Ottoman side, Savcı Bey, who was the youngest of three brothers, saw that under the shadow of his older brothers, he had almost no chance to be enthroned in the future and faced a probable death under the traditional policy of fratricide in Ottoman succession. (This fear was not unreasonable; later when Murat I died older brother Beyazit I immediately killed the other brother). He prepared to rebel to gain the post. While his father was occupied with suppressing the rebellions, Savcı saw his chance to revolt. Using the royal treasury under his disposal, he formed an army. The two rebellious princes, well aware of one another's interests, decided to collaborate and combined their forces.


End of the rebellion

After learning about their sons' joint rebellion, Murat and John returned from Anatolia. The armies of the fathers and the sons met in Apikridion (an ambiguous location probably southwest of Constantinople), where Murat persuaded Savcı's soldiers to switch sides. Although the princes escaped to Didymoteicho (in modern Greece), they soon surrendered. After a short exchange, enraged Murat blinded Savcı. However, he changed his mind and had him executed. Although he asked John V to also blind his son, John was more merciful towards Andronikos and only blinded him in one eye. Andronikos went on to become the Byzantine emperor as Andronikos IV Palaiologos.



Savcı's son Davut fled to Hungary. His name was mentioned in 1411 (during the Ottoman Interregnum) as an unsuccessful candidate to Ottoman throne and much later as an ally of John Hunyadi in his struggles against the Ottoman Empire.


  Battle of Kosovo 1389

Battle of Kosovo

Battle of Kosovo 1389 (W)

“Battle of Kosovo, Adam Stefanović, 1870. (W)

The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr. The army under Prince Lazar consisted of his own troops, a contingent led by Serbian nobleman Vuk Branković, and a contingent sent from Bosnia by King Tvrtko I, commanded by Vlatko Vuković. Prince Lazar was the ruler of Moravian Serbia and the most powerful among the Serbian regional lords of the time, while Vuk Branković ruled District of Branković located in Kosovo and other areas, recognizing Lazar as his overlord. The battle was fought on the Kosovo field in the territory ruled by Branković, in what is today Kosovo. Its site is about 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) northwest of the modern city of Pristina. Both Leaders were killed in action

Reliable historical accounts of the battle are scarce. The bulk of both armies were wiped out in the battle, and both Lazar and Murad were killed. Although the Ottomans managed to annihilate the Serbian army, they also suffered huge casualties that delayed their progress. The Serbs were left with too few men to effectively defend their lands, while the Turks had many more troops in the east. Consequently, one after the other, the Serbian principalities that were not already Ottoman vassals became so in the following years.



The Battle of Kosovo is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.

The day of the battle, known in Serbian as Vidovdan (St. Vitus' day), is an important part of Serb ethnic and national identity, with notable events in Serbian history falling on that day: in 1876 Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire (Serbian-Ottoman War (1876–78); in 1881 Austria-Hungary and the Principality of Serbia signed a secret alliance; in 1914 the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was carried out by the Serbian Gavrilo Princip (although a coincidence that his visit fell on that day, Vidovdan added nationalist symbolism to the event); in 1921 Serbian King Alexander I proclaimed the Vidovdan Constitution; in 1989, on the 600th anniversary of the battle, Serbian political leader Slobodan Milošević delivered the Gazimestan speech on the site of the historic battle.

The Tomb of Sultan Murad, a site in Kosovo Polje where Murad I's internal organs were buried, has gained a religious significance {?} for local Muslims. A monument was built by Murad I's son Bayezid I at the tomb, becoming the first example of Ottoman architecture in the Kosovo territory.


📹 Battle of Kosovo 1389 — Serbian-Ottoman Wars (VİDEO)

📹 Battle of Kosovo 1389 — Serbian-Ottoman Wars (LINK)

The Ottoman invasion of Europe was truly challenged for the first time during the Battle of Kosovo of 1389. The Serbs and other Balkan peoples alongside their allies from Western and Eastern Europe fought valiantly against overwhelming odds and although they lost, the foundation of the future resistance, that continued until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, was set. This battle was also remarkable due to the fact that leaders of both armies were killed during it. Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović died in the battle and Sultan Murad I was assassinated by the Serbian knight Miloš Obilić, who was killed shortly after. All three are considered martyrs by their people and the spirit of this battle is still part of the bitter animosity…


📹 Battle of Kosovo (1389) (VİDEO)

📹 Battle of Kosovo (1389) (LINK)

After receiving the Eucharist, Prince Lazar and several other Serbian nobles, including a contingent of the Knights Hospitaller, set out to fight the turks under Sultan Murad. When the battle was over, both armies were shattered, and the Ottoman Empire had to halt its advance further into Europe.


📹 KOSOVO — Why Is It So Important To Serbs? (VİDEO)

📹 KOSOVO — Why Is It So Important To Serbs? (LINK)

.***Why is Kosovo so important to Serbs and why Kosovo should actually be part of Serbia***


📹 Serbian Warriors I battle of kosovo 1389 (VİDEO)

📹 Serbian Warriors I battle of kosovo 1389 (LINK)

.Serbian Warriors I battle of kosovo 1389.


  📥 Growing up in Kosovo: I’ve never met a Serb — BBC Stories

📥 Growing up in Kosovo: I’ve never met a Serb - BBC Stories









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