IV. Murad
CKM 2019-20 / Aziz Yardımlı






IV. Murad

  Murad IV 1612-1640 1623-1640


Murad IV (W)

Murad IV 1612-1640 1623-1640 (W)

Murad IV
Born: July 27, 1612 Died: February 8, 1640
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mustafa I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
10 September 1623 – 9 February 1640
with Kösem Sultan (1623–1632)
Succeeded by
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mustafa I
Ottoman Dynasty
10 September 1623 – 9 February 1640
Succeeded by


17th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign 10 September 1623 – 8 February 1640
Predecessor Mustafa I
Successor Ibrahim
Regent Kösem Sultan (1623–1632)
Born 27 July 1612
Topkapi PalaceConstantinopleOttoman Empire
(present day IstanbulTurkey)
Died 8 February 1640 (aged 27)
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
(present day Istanbul, Turkey)
Spouse Ayşe Sultan
Issue see below
Full name
Murad bin Ahmed
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Ahmed I
Mother Kösem Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam



Family (W)


Very little is known about the concubines of Murad IV, principally because he did not leave sons who survived his death to reach the throne, but many historians consider Ayşe Sultan as his only consort until the very end of Murad's seventeen-year reign, when a second Haseki appeared in the records. It is possible that Murad had only a single concubine until the advent of the second, or that he had a number of concubines but singled out only two as Haseki. Another consort of his may have been Sanavber Hatun, though certainly not of the Haseki rank, whose name can be found on the deed of a charitable foundation as "Sanavber bint Abdülmennan".

  • Şehzade Ahmed (21 December 1628 – 1639, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Numan (1628 – 1629, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Orhan (1629 – 1629, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Hasan (March 1631 – 1632, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Suleiman (2 February 1632 – 1635, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Mehmed (11 August 1633 – 11 January 1640, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Osman (9 February 1634 – 1635, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Alaeddin (26 August 1635 – 1637, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Selim (1637 – 1640, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)
  • Şehzade Mahmud (15 May 1638 – 1638, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul)


Murad had three daughters:

  • Kaya Sultan alias Ismihan (1633-1659, buried in Mustafa I Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque, Istanbul), married August 1644, Melek Ahmed Pasha;
  • Safiye Sultan (buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul), married 1659, Sarı Hasan Pasha;
  • Rukiye Sultan (died 1696, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul), married firstly 1663, Şeytan Divrikli Ibrahim Pasha, Vizier, married secondly 1693 Gürcü Mehmed Pasha.


Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع‎, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603-17) and Kösem Sultan. He was brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, and he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I (r. 1617-18, 1622-23). He was only 11 when he ascended the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-39), of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current TurkeyIranIraq borders.



Early life

Early life (W)

Murad IV was born on 27 July 1612 to Ahmed I (reign 1603-1617) and his consort and later wife Kösem Sultan. After his father’s death when he was six years he was confined in the Kafes with his brothers, Suleiman, Kasim, Bayezid and Ibrahim.

Grand Vizier Kemankeş Ali Pasha and Şeyhülislam Yahya Efendi were deposed from their position. They did not stop their words the next day the sultan, the child of the age of 6, was taken to the Eyüp Sultan Mausoleum. The swords of Muhammad and Yavuz Sultan Selim were besieged to him. Five days later he was circumcised.


Ottoman miniature painting depicting Murad IV during dinner.



Early reign (1623-32)

Early reign (1623-32) (W)

Murad IV was for a long time under the control of his relatives and during his early years as Sultan, his mother, Kösem Sultan, essentially ruled through him. The Empire fell into anarchy; the Safavid Empire invaded Iraq almost immediately, Northern Anatolia erupted in revolts, and in 1631 the Janissaries stormed the palace and killed the Grand Vizier, among others. Murad IV feared suffering the fate of his elder brother, Osman II (1618-22), and decided to assert his power.

At the age of 16 in 1628, he had his brother-in-law (his sister Fatma Sultan's husband, who was also the former governor of Egypt), Kara Mustafa Pasha, executed for a claimed action "against the law of God".

After the death of the Grand Vizier Çerkes Mehmed Pasha in the winter of Tokat, Diyarbekir Beylerbeyi Hafez Ahmed Pasha became a vizier and an emperor on 8 February 1625.

The epidemic, which started in the summer of 1625 and called the plague of Bayrampaşa, spread to a threat to the population of Istanbul. On average, a thousand people died every day. The people went to the Okmeydanı, to regent themselves from this plague. The situation was worse in the countryside, but there is no one who sees what looks out of Istanbul.


Absolute rule and imperial policies

Absolute rule and imperial policies (1632-1640) (W)

Murad IV tried to quell the corruption that had grown during the reigns of previous Sultans, and that had not been checked while his mother was ruling through proxy.

Executions were issued to the states, and those who came to Istanbul under the pretext of Jelals and executed were ordered. Murad IV shivering and brutal sultan started with this shaking.

Ilyas Pasha, who took advantage of the confusion in Istanbul and dominated the Manisa and Balikesir sides, who was taught Şehname, Timurname at night and was caught in the sultan's dreams, was finally caught and brought to Istanbul and executed in front of the Sultan.

Murad IV banned alcohol, tobacco, and coffee in Constantinople. He ordered execution for breaking this ban. He would reportedly patrol the streets and the lowest taverns of Constantinople in civilian clothes at night, policing the enforcement of his command by casting off his disguise on the spot and beheading the offender with his own hands. Rivaling the exploits of Selim the Grim, he would sit in a kiosk by the water near his Seraglio Palace and shoot arrows at any passerby or boatman who rowed too close to his imperial compound, seemingly for sport. He restored the judicial regulations by very strict punishments, including execution, he once strangled a grand vizier for the reason that the official had beaten his mother-in-law.


Fire of 1633

Fire of 1633 (W)

On 2 September 1633, the big Cibali fire broke out, burning a fifth of the city. The fire that started during that day when a caulker burned the shrub and the ship caulked into the walls. The fire, which spread from three branches to the city. One arm lowered towards the sea. He returned from Zeyrek and walked to Atpazan. Other kollan Büyükkaraman, Küçükkaraman, Sultanmehmet (Fatih), Saraçhane, Sangürz (Sangüzel) districts have been ruined. The sultan could not do anything other than watching sentence viziers, Bostancı and Yeniçeri. The most beautiful districts of Istanbul have been ruined, from the Yeniodas, Mollagürani districts, Fener gate to Sultanselim, Mesihpaşa, Bali Pasha and Lutfi Pasha mosques, Şahı buhan Palace, Unkapam to Atpazarı, Bostanzade houses, Sofular Bazaar. The fire that lasted for 30 hours could be extinguished after the wind sectioned. {!}


War against Safavid Iran

War against Safavid Iran (W)

War against Safavid Iran

Murad IV's reign is most notable for the Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-39) against Persia (today Iran) in which Ottoman forces managed to conquer Azerbaijan, occupying Tabriz, Hamadan, and capturing Baghdad in 1638. The Treaty of Zuhab that followed the war generally reconfirmed the borders as agreed by the Peace of Amasya, with Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Dagestan staying Persian, while Western Armenia, and Western Georgia stayed Ottoman. Mesopotamia was irrevocably lost for the Persians. The borders fixed as a result of the war, are more or less the same as the present border line between Turkey, Iraq and Iran.

During the siege of Baghdad in 1638, the city held out for forty days but was compelled to surrender.

Murad IV himself commanded the Ottoman army in the last years of the war.


Relations with the Mughal Empire

Relations with the Mughal Empire (W)

While he was encamped in Baghdad, Murad IV is known to have met ambassadors of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armor. Murad IV gave them the finest weapons, saddles and Kaftans and ordered his forces to accompany the Mughals to the port of Basra, where they set sail to Thatta and finally Surat.




Architecture (W)

Murad IV put emphasis on architecture and in his period many monuments were erected. The Baghdad Kiosk, built in 1635, and the Revan Kiosk, built in 1638 in Yerevan, were both built in the local styles. Some of the others include the Kavak Sarayı pavilion; the Meydanı Mosque; the Bayram Pasha Dervish Lodge, Tomb, Fountain, and Primary School; and the Şerafettin Mosque in Konya.


Music and poetry

Music and poetry

Music and poetry (W)

Murad IV wrote many poems. He used "Muradi" penname for his poems. He also liked testing people with riddles. Once he wrote a poemic riddle and announced that whoever came with the correct answer would get a generous reward. Cihadi Bey who was also a poet from Enderun School gave the correct answer and he was promoted.

Murad IV was also a composer. He has a composition called "Uzzal Peshrev".



Başlık (W)




Başlık (W)





Başlık (W)




Murad IV (B)

Murad IV (1612-1640) (1623-1640) (B)

Oil on canvas, depicting the favourite consort of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603-1617), known as Kösem or Mahpeyker Sultan, breastfeeding her son the future Sultan Murad IV (r.1623-1640) or Sultan Ibrahim (r.1640-1648), both figures wear extensive hardstone studded jewellery and large rounded cloth turbans, Kösem Sultan also wears golden brocade garments, fine white lace and jewel-studded pointed shoes, above the pair hangs a European-style red velvet curtain, in thin wood frame. (L)

Murad IV, in full Murad Oglu Ahmed I, (born July 27, 1612, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] — died February 8, 1640, Constantinople), Ottoman sultan from 1623 to 1640 whose heavy-handed rule put an end to prevailing lawlessness and rebelliousness and who is renowned as the conqueror of Baghdad.

Murad, who came to the throne at age 11, ruled for several years through the regency of his mother, Kösem, and a series of grand viziers. Effective rule, however, remained in the hands of the turbulent spahis (from Turkish sipahiyan, quasi-feudal cavalries) and the Janissaries, who more than once forced the execution of high officials. Corruption of government officials and rebellion in the Asiatic provinces, coupled with an empty treasury, perpetuated the discontent against the central government.

Embittered by the excesses of the troops, Murad was determined to restore order both in Constantinople and in the provinces. In 1632 the spahis had invaded the palace and demanded (and got) the heads of the grand vizier and 16 other high officials. Soon thereafter Murad gained full control and acted swiftly and ruthlessly. He suppressed the mutineers with a bloody ferocity. He banned the use of tobacco and closed the coffeehouses and the wineshops (no doubt as nests of sedition); violators or mere suspects were executed.

In his foreign policy Murad took personal command in the continuing war against Iran and set out to win back territories lost to Iran earlier in his reign. Baghdad was reconquered in 1638 after a siege that ended in a massacre of garrison and citizens alike. In the following year peace was concluded.

A man of courage, determination, and violent temperament, Murad did not follow closely the precepts of the Sharīʿah (Islamic law) and was the first Ottoman sultan to execute a shaykh al-islām (the highest Muslim dignitary in the empire). He was able to restore order, however, and to straighten out state finances. Murad’s untimely death was caused by his addiction to alcohol.


  📥 🗺 The Turkish Empire. Newly Augmented by John Speed. 1626 (L)

The Turkish Empire. Newly Augmented by John Speed. 1626. (L)



The Turkish Empire. Newly Augmented by John Speed. 1626.

One of the most decorative maps of the region issued in the 17th Century and the first map of the region published in England. Includes 8 views of Turkish Cities and 10 costumed figures.

John Speed Biography


John Speed (1551 or '52 - 28 July 1629) was the best known English mapmaker of the Stuart period. Speed came to mapmaking late in life, producing his first maps in the 1590s and entering the trade in earnest when he was almost 60 years old.

John Speed's fame, which continues to this day, lies with two atlases, The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine (first published 1612), and the Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World (1627). While The Theatre ... started as solely a county atlas, it grew into an impressive world atlas with the inclusion of the Prospect in 1627. The plates for the atlas passed through many hands in the 17th century, and the book finally reached its apotheosis in 1676 when it was published by Thomas Bassett and Richard Chiswell, with a number of important maps added for the first time.



📥 🗺 🔎 The Turkish Empire. Newly Augmented by John Speed. 1626


  Ottoman-Safavid War 1623-1639

Map of the Safavid state. The area of Mesopotamia, permanently lost to the Ottomans in 1639 is shaded.

Ottoman-Safavid War 1623-1639

Ottoman-Safavid War 1623-1639 (W)

The Ottoman-Safavid War of 1623-1639 was the last of a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, then the two major powers of Western Asia, over control of Mesopotamia. After initial Persian success in recapturing Baghdad and most of modern Iraq, having lost it for 90 years, the war became a stalemate as the Persians were unable to press further into the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottomans themselves were distracted by wars in Europe and weakened by internal turmoil. Eventually, the Ottomans were able to recover Baghdad, taking heavy losses in the final siege, and the signing of the Treaty of Zuhab ended the war in an Ottoman victory. Roughly speaking, the treaty restored the borders of 1555, with the Safavids keeping Dagestan, eastern GeorgiaEastern Armenia, and the present-day Azerbaijan Republic, while western Georgia and Western Armenia decisively came under Ottoman rule. The eastern part of Samtskhe (Meskheti) was irrevocably lost to the Ottomans as well as Mesopotamia. Although parts of Mesopotamia were briefly retaken by the Iranians later on in history, notably during the reigns of Nader Shah (1736–1747) and Karim Khan Zand (1751–1779), it remained thenceforth in Ottoman hands until the aftermath of World War I.



Background (W)

Starting in 1514, for over a century the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia were engaged in almost constant warfare over control of the South Caucasus and Mesopotamia. The two states were the greatest powers of West Asia, and the rivalry was further fueled by dogmatic differences: the Ottomans were Sunnis, while the Safavids were staunchly Shia Muslims of the Qizilbash sect, and seen as heretics by the Ottomans.

After the Battle of Chaldiran eliminated Safavid influence in Anatolia, during the war of 1532–55 the Ottomans conquered Arab Iraq, taking Baghdad in 1534 and securing recognition of their gains by the Treaty of Amasya in 1555. Peace lasted for two decades before another war began in 1578. The Persians were hard pressed, as the Ottoman advances were combined with an attack by the Shaybanids into Persian Khorasan. The war ended with the Treaty of Constantinople in 1590, with a clear Ottoman victory: the Ottomans occupied GeorgiaRevan, and even the former Safavid capital, Tabriz.

The new Persian Shah, Abbas I (reigned 1588–1629), reorganized his army, raising the new ghulam infantry in imitation of the Janissaries, conscripted from tens of thousands of mostly Circassians and Georgians armed with the best equipment and training, and bided his time. In 1603, he launched an offensive that retook Tabriz, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the same year. The Ottomans, distracted by wars with the Habsburg Monarchy in Europe, failed to offer effective resistance. By 1622, following a successful conclusion of the war against the Mughals, and encouraged by the internal turmoil within the Ottoman Empire that followed the murder of Sultan Osman II (r. 1618–22), Abbas resolved to attack the Ottoman possessions in Iraq.


The war

The war

The war (W)

The Shah's opportunity came with a series of rebellions in the Ottoman Empire: Abaza Mehmed Pasha, the governor of Erzurumrose in rebellion, while Baghdad had been since 1621 in the hands of an officer of the Janissaries, the subashi Bakr, and his followers. Bakr had sought his recognition as the local pasha from the Porte, but the Sultan had ordered Hafız Ahmed Pasha, the governor of Diyarbakir, to intervene. Bakr then turned to Abbas, who sent troops to Bakr's aid. To forestall a Persian capture of Baghdad, Hafız Ahmed quickly restored relations with Bakr, who returned to Ottoman allegiance. In response, the Persians besieged Baghdad and took it on 14 January 1624, with the aid of Bakr's son, Muhammad. The fall of the city was followed by the massacre of a large part of its Sunni inhabitants, as the Shah endeavored to transform Baghdad into a purely Shiite city.

The fall of Baghdad was a major blow to Ottoman prestige. Ottoman garrisons and the local tribes began to defect, and the Persians soon captured most of Iraq, including the cities of Kirkuk and Mosul and the Shia holy shrines of Najaf and Karbala, which the Shah visited.  In 1625, Hafız Ahmed Pasha, now Grand Vizier, marched to retake Baghdad. Despite a "scorched earth" policy ordered by the Shah, the Ottoman army reached Baghdad and invested it in November on three sides. The Ottoman assaults on the city managed to penetrate the outer fortifications, but failed to take the city before the arrival of a relief army under Shah Abbas. The Ottomans then withdrew within their strongly fortified camp, and continued to prosecute the siege. In response, Abbas decided to intercept Ottoman supply convoys. This strategy bore fruit: the Ottomans were forced to risk an attack on the Persian army, which was repulsed with heavy losses, and on 4 July 1626, the Ottoman army lifted the siege and withdrew to Mosul.

In 1629, the Ottomans, having secured peace with the Habsburgs, mustered their forces for another offensive under the new and capable Grand Vizier Gazi Hüsrev Pasha. A severe winter and heavy floods made operations in central Iraq impossible, and Hüsrev turned his army east instead, invading Persia proper. On 4 May 1630 he routed the Persians under Zainal Khan Begdeli Shamlu in battle at Mahidasht near Kermanshah and proceeded to sack the city of Hamadan. Hüsrev Pasha then turned back towards Baghdad and besieged it in November. However the siege had to be lifted soon, as the onset of another heavy winter threatened his lines of communication. In the wake of his withdrawal, the Persians re-established their control of Iraq, and subdued the rebellious Kurdish populations. The next few years saw constant raiding and skirmishes, without either side claiming any decisive advantage. Shah Safi (r. 1629–42) sent a peace delegation to the Ottoman court, but the new Grand Vizier, Tabanıyassi Mehmed Pasha, rejected its demands. The Caucasian front of the Persians flared up again in 1633, when the restless Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti, under the rule of King Teimuraz, defied Safavid sovereignty. In 1634, Rustam Khan, a Georgian convert to Islam, was sent by the Shah to subdue them. Teimuraz was defeated, but managed to escape to safety in Imereti. He would nevertheless manage to restore himself on the throne of Kakheti in 1638, and even win Persian recognition of this fact.

In 1635, in a conscious effort to emulate his warrior predecessors, Sultan Murad IV himself took up the leadership of the army. The Ottomans took Revan (on 8 August) and plundered Tabriz. The victorious Sultan returned in triumph to Constantinople, but his victories were short-lived: in the spring of the next year, Shah Safi retook Revan and defeated an Ottoman army. Renewed Persian peace proposals failed, and in 1638, Murad IV again personally led an army against Baghdad. The city fell in December after a siege of 39 days, effectively restoring Ottoman control over Iraq, and peace negotiations began soon after.


The campaign of Yerevan (1635) (Revan on the map) was led by sultan Murad IV and resulted in the capture of Yerevan on 8 August and Tabriz on 11 September.




Aftermath (W)

The Treaty of Zuhab, concluded on 17 May 1639, finally settled the Ottoman–Persian frontier, with Iraq permanently ceded to the Ottomans. Mesopotamia, which had formed an important part of various Persian empires from the time of the Achaemenids, was thereby irrevocably lost. The rest of the borders were restored roughly according to the way they were in 1555, with Eastern ArmeniaDagestan, eastern Georgia, and the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic remaining Persian, while Ottoman gains in Western Georgia and Western Armenia were made decisive. In broad terms, the Treaty of Zuhab reconfirmed the provisions of the 1555 Peace of Amasya. Eastern Samtskhe (Meskheti) was irrevocably lost to the Ottomans as well, making Samtskhe in its entirety an Ottoman possession. The peace established a permanent equilibrium of power in the region, and despite future conflicts and minor adjustments, the frontier postulated by the treaty remains to this day the western border of Iran with Iraq and Turkey.




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