II. Mustafa
CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı



II. Mustafa


  Mustafa II 1664-1703 1695-1703

Mustafa II (W)

Mustafa II 1664-1703 1695-1703 (W)

Mustafa II
Born: February 6, 1664 Died: December 29, 1703[aged 39]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III



22nd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign 6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703
Predecessor Ahmed II
Successor Ahmed III
Born 6 February 1664
Edirne PalaceEdirneOttoman Empire
Died 29 December 1703 (aged 39)
Topkapı PalaceIstanbul, Ottoman Empire
Consorts Saliha Sultan
Şehsuvar Sultan
Alicenab Kadın
Afife Kadın
Ivaz Kadın
Bahtiyar Kadın
Şahin Kadın
Issue see below
Full name
Mustafa bin Mehmed
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Mehmed IV
Mother Gülnuş Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam



Family (W)



  • Mahmud I (2 August 1696 – 13 December 1754), son with Saliha Sultan;
  • Şehzade Suleiman (25 December 1697 – 25 December 1697, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;
  • Şehzade Mehmed (22 November 1698 – 5 June 1703, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;
  • Osman III (2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757), son with Şehsuvar Sultan;
  • Şehzade Hasan (16 April 1699 – 25 May 1733), became heir apparent from 1730.
  • Şehzade Hüseyn (7 May 1699 – 24 August 1700, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque);
  • Şehzade Selim (16 May 1700 – 8 June 1701, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in New Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;
  • Şehzade Ahmed (3 March 1703 – 7 September 1703, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque), son with Afife Kadın;

  • Ayşe Sultan (30 April 1696 – 26 September 1752, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Emine Sultan (1 September 1696 – c. 1739, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Safiye Sultan (13 December 1696 – 15 May 1778, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Rukiye Sultan (13 November 1697 – 28 March 1698, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Hatice Sultan (14 February 1698 – died young, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Fatma Sultan (8 October 1699 – 20 May 1700, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Ismihan Sultan (23 April 1700 – 1 June 1700);
  • Ümmügülsüm Sultan (10 June 1700 – 1 May 1701, Edirne Palace, Edirne, buried in Darülhadis Mosque);
  • Zeyneb Sultan (10 June 1700 – 18 December 1705, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);
  • Emetullah Sultan (22 June 1701 – 12 April 1727, Istanbul, buried in New Mosque);


Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانىMuṣṭafā-yi sānī; 6 February 1664 – 29 December 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.




He was born at Edirne Palace on 6 February 1664. He was the son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648-87) and Gülnuş Sultan, originally named Evmenia, who was of Greek Cretan descent. Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III (1703-30) in 1703.

In 1675, He and his brother Ahmed were circumcised and his sister Hatice Sultan was married. The celebration lasted 15 days.

Military campaigns


During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far as Nis, modern-day Serbia, before being pushed back across the Danube by 1690. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories in Hungary and therefore he personally commanded his armies.

First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695.

In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirne for his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 the Venetian Navy was again defeated in the naval victory of Zeytinburnu. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile, the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.

In April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops captured Timişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.

In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.

The most traumatic event of his reign was the loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.

Yet even if Ottoman power seemed to wane on one side of the empire, this did not mean that Ottoman efforts at expansion ceased. In 1700, for example, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a recalcitrant tribe residing in swamps near Baghdad that they ought to abide by the sultan's rule, since his grasp extended even to their marshy redoubts. The Grand Vizier added that, after all, Mustafa II was "the Lord of Water and Mud."

At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.

The strategem failed, the disaffected troops bound to a Georgian campaign mutinied in the capital (called the Edirne event” by historians), and Mustafa II was deposed on 22 August 1703. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.


Mustafa II (B)

Mustafa II 1664-1703 1695-1703 (B)

Mustafa II, in full Mustafa Oglu Mehmed Iv, (born June 5, 1664, EdirneOttoman Empire [now in Turkey]—died Dec. 31, 1703, Constantinople [now Istanbul]), Ottoman sultan from 1695 to 1703, whose determination to regain territories lost after the unsuccessful attempt to take Vienna in 1683 led to the continuation of the war against the  Holy League (Austria, Poland, and Venice).

Mustafa’s military campaigns met with early success. After recovering the island of Chios from Venice, he made gains against Austria in 1695 and 1696. The Russians occupied Azov (at the mouth of the Don River) in 1696, however, and he was defeated by the Austrians at Senta (see  Zenta, Battle of) in 1697. The  Treaty of Carlowitz (1699) radically reduced Turkey’s Balkan holdings, and the Treaty of Constantinople (1700) confirmed Russia’s gains.

Internally, the continued warfare caused social and economic dislocations. Heavy taxes drove many cultivators off the land; and the government’s exclusive preoccupation with Europe resulted in local revolts in eastern Anatolia and among the Arab tribes of Syria and Iraq. Disillusioned by the defeat at Senta, Mustafa left most matters of state to the leader of the Muslim hierarchy,  Feyzullah, while he himself devoted his last years to hunting. A military mutiny deposed Mustafa on Aug. 22, 1703.


  Edirne event 1703

Edirne event

Edirne event 1703 (W)

The Edirne Event (Ottoman TurkishEdirne Vaḳʿası) was janissary revolt that began in Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1703. The revolt was a reaction to the consequences of the Treaty of Karlowitz and Sultan Mustafa II'z absence from the capital. The rising power of the sultan’s former tutor, Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi and the empire's declining economy caused by tax farming were also causes of the revolt. As a result of the Edirne Event, Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi was killed, and Sultan Mustafa II was ousted from power. The sultan was replaced by his brother, Sultan Ahmed III. The Edirne Event contributed to the decline of the power of the sultanate and the increasing power of the janissaries and kadis.


Causes (W)

Three causes of the Edirne Event were the Treaty of Karlowitz, the rise of Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi and the Ottoman practice of tax farming.

The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on January 16, 1699. This treaty was signed in response to the Ottoman wars with the Habsburgs, the Venetians, the Poles and the Russians. The Treaty of Karlowitz ended a fifteen-year period of war in the aftermath of the Ottomans' failed siege of Vienna in 1683. The peace negotiations began only after numerous and urgent Ottoman requests for peace and diplomatic efforts by England and the Dutch Republic. The Ottomans had been desperate to end the war after “the army under the sultan was annihilated by Eugene of Savoy in open field confrontations.”  (Battle of Zenta). The treaty outlines the post-war agreements between the Ottomans, the Venetians, the Poles and the Habsburgs. (A peace treaty with Russia was not signed until July 1700). The Treaty of Karlowitz forced the Ottomans to surrender a significant amount of territory to the Habsburgs and the Venetians. The Habsburgs gained Hungary, Croatia and Transylvania from the Ottomans. The Venetians received Dalmatia and Morea. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth gained Podolia. These territorial losses had drastic effects on the geopolitical power of the Ottoman Empire. “With the Treaty of Karlowitz, the Ottoman Empire ceased to be a dominating power in Central and Eastern Europe and began to take a defensive position to its Christian neighbors.”

After the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz, Sultan Mustafa II retreated to Edirne and “left political and administrative affairs to Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi.” The Sultan’s move to Edirne in 1701 was a political attempt to shield the effects of the treaty from the public. The Sultan’s absence and the leadership of Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi were not supported by the janissaries. Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi’s “corruption and nepotism, excessive even for the time, and his influence over the sultan [were] considered too great. Furthermore, he overstepped the boundaries of his position as head of the religious arm of the household, establishing corporate relationships traditionally the domain and prerogative of the vizierial and pasha households.”

Tax farming: Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha's 1695 economic reform led to the existence of lifetime tax farming. For centuries, there had been yearly auctions to determine who would be allowed to collect regional taxes for that year. This was detrimental to the provinces because tax farmers would use their brief power to bleed their area dry. By auctioning of the ability to collect taxes from a region for a lifetime, the central government maintained regional support because the regional elite became dependent on the central government. “Very quickly, by 1703, these lifetime tax farms had spread and came into wide use in the BalkanAnatolian, and Arab provinces alike” (Ottoman Empire 1700–1922 48). Nonetheless, the transition from yearly to lifetime terms did not benefit the economy. Only about one-fifth of the taxes collected by tax farmers ever made it to the central government. Consequently, the central government did not have sufficient funds to pay its military.




Revolt (W)

The Ottoman Empire was backing a candidate to the throne during a civil war in the Kingdom of Imereti in Georgia. The Porte decided to send an army to be effective in the area. However, the salaries of the army members had been delayed, and the subunit of the janissaries responsible for logistics, named Cebeci, revolted on 19 July 1703 demanding full payment before the operation. The Edirne Event, also called the Revolt of 1703, broke out in Constantinople. This revolt began among the janissaries “who complained of overdue pay, and of the sultan’s absence.” (Aksan, Virginia H. (2007). Ottoman Wars: 1700-1870. Harlow: Longman/Pearson) Although the revolt began with the janissaries, it soon grew to include civilians, lower-ranking soldiers, artisans as well as members of the ulema. These groups were frustrated with the sultan's attempt to mask the loss political legitimacy and the rise of Seyhulislam Feyzullah Efendi. With the support of other army units as well as some Constantinople citizens and most ulema (religious leaders), the rebels plundered the houses of the senior government officers and began controlling the capital for several weeks. Although they sent a group of representatives to Edirne, Feyzullah Efendi jailed them. This provoked the rebels, and they began to march to Edirne. The sultan announced that he had deposed Feyzullah Efendi. But it was too late and the rebels decided to dethrone Mustafa II. The sultan tried to form a defense line at the outskirts of Edirne. But even the sultan’s soldiers joined the rebels. "Military confrontation outside of Edirne was avoided as the imperial loyalists, mostly troops recruited from the Balkan countryside, deserted Mustafa and joined the ranks from Constantinople."

The demands of the rebels were articulated by the ulema through the kadi judges who were “the most consistent representation of Ottoman rule in the provinces.” The kadis posed and answered four questions regarding the situation at hand. “The first concerned Mustafa II's neglect of his ‘trust’ in looking after his subjects, ‘allowing injustice and inequity to reign’ while he went hunting, wasting the public treasury. The second legitimated the right of a Muslim community to stand up to an unjust ruler. The third condemned those who sided with an unjust ruler. The fourth charged Mustafa II ‘… with having compromised his mandate by accepting the peace treaties and conceding so much territory to the Christian powers.” The kadi judiciary essentially declared Mustafa II unfit for the sultanate. This style of Islamic judicial ruling is called fetva.

On 22 August 1703, Mustafa II was deposed, and his brother Ahmed III became the new sultan. Feyzullah Efendi was killed by the rebels.

Although Mustafa II was replaced as the sultan, the revolt continued in Constantinople. The violence continued for three problematic reasons: “the lack of discipline and control over the disorder and destruction; the dissolution of rebel unity, amidst rivalries concerning the balance of power; and finally competition for the coronation accession gifts, the traditional reward for the janissary pledge of allegiance to a new sultan." This final demand was a means through which the janissaries exerted direct control over the sultan. The janissaries were essentially emphasizing their ability to remove a sultan from power or to reinstate a new sultan. When the violence ended, “the ceremony of submission by which the Janissaries swore allegiance to the new sultan was a theatrical gesture masking the real power of the corps to control events in the imperial capital.” (Aksan, Virginia H. (2007). Ottoman Wars: 1700-1870. Harlow: Longman/Pearson)




Aftermath (W)

As a result of the Edirne Event, Mustafa II was removed from power. Mustafa II was not physically harmed by the rebels. After he was removed from the sultanate, he “spent the remainder of his life seclusion in the palace”. Mustafa II was replaced by his brother Ahmed III. After he was declared sultan, Ahmed III went on the hajj and did not return home to Constantinople until 1706. Sultan Ahmed III reestablished the capital of the empire in Constantinople. Economically, the Ottomans were still in trouble. “Sari Mehmed Pasha, Chief Financial Officer six times between 1703 and 1716, was said to have melted the palace silver to make up the accession payment for Ahmet III. The accession payment was the payment that the new sultan had to pay to the janissaries as part of their confirmation of his sultanate. This payment that the sultan was required to make to the janissaries]was simply another addition to the financial troubles that the empire was already experiencing.




Legacy (W)

The defeat of Mustafa II in battle, the detrimental conditions of the Treaty of Karlowitz and his expulsion from power all contributed to the general decline of the sultanate as an institution. “While in the sixteenth century or even the early seventeenth century, the power of the sultans had been respected and even feared, this was no longer true after the numerous Ottoman defeats in the wars of 1683-1718.” The economic manipulation of Sultan Ahmed III also demonstrated a decline of the power of the sultanate. The continued weakening of the sultanate contributed to the strengthening of provincial powers.

The Edirne Event strengthened the power of both the janissaries and the kadis. The janissaries’ power over the sultan was demonstrated not only through their attack, but also through their ability to economically manipulate Sultan Ahmed III. The kadis’ revealed their power over the sultan through their interpretation of Islamic law. As the kadis were the most accessible Ottoman leaders in the provinces, their growing power over the sultanate contributed to the increasing decentralization of power within the Ottoman Empire.





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