Roma İmparatorluğu

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı


Roma İmparatorluğu

  Roman Empire
Roma from 264 BC (first Punic War) to 180 AD (Marcus Aurelius)

  • Krallık — İÖ 753-509.
  • Cumhuriyet — İÖ 509-İÖ 27
  • İmparatorluk — İÖ 27-İS 1453 (395-476/480 Batı; 395-1453 Doğu).


  • İmparatorluk İÖ 27-İS 285 arasında Roma’dan yönetildi.
  • İmparatorluk Diocletian (h. 284-305) tarafından Doğu ve Batı yönetimleri olarak iki bölgeye ayrıldı.

📹 Overview of the Roman Empire (VİDEO)

Overview of the Roman Empire (LINK)

Conquering armies, monumental architecture, and beautiful art: how did Rome achieve all of this?


📹 Ancient Rome in 20 minutes (VİDEO)

Ancient Rome in 20 minutes (LINK)

Caesar, The Colosseum, Republic, Nero, geese, plebeians, legions — everything that you once knew, but forgot — in a crash course video by Arzamas.

Narrated by Brian Cox.

"Ancient Rome in 20 minutes" is a Russian version of a Russian video by Arzamas.


  Empire 27-1453 — Overview

Roman Empire (W)

Roman Empire 27-476/480 — Overview (W)

The Roman Empire (LatinImperium RōmānumClassical Latin[ɪmˈpɛrɪ.ũː roːˈmaːnũː]Koinē GreekΒασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Basileía tōn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in EuropeNorth Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital (27 BC - 286 AD). Although fragmented briefly during the military crisis, the empire was forcibly reassembled, then ruled by multiple emperors who shared rule over the Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople (Byzantium in Ancient Greek) following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus. The fall of the Western Roman Empire {!} to Germanic kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

The previous Roman Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict. In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively making him the first emperor.

The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan (98-117 AD). A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West. Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD. The Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire. survived for another millennium until the Empire's last remains collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453.

Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of languagereligionarchitecturephilosophylaw, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe. The Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire. Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle AgesGreek and Roman art had a profound impact on the Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of later republics such as the United States and France. The corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture.


Byzantine {!} Empire (W)

Byzantine {!} Empire 395-1453) (W)

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe. “Byzantine Empire” is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (GreekΒασιλεία Ῥωμαίωνtr. Basileia RhōmaiōnLatinImperium Romanum), or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as “Romans.”

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. In the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was


The borders of the empire fluctuated through cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527–565), the empire reached its greatest extent, after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy and Rome, which it held for two more centuries.

İS 565.

The Byzantine-Sasanian War of 602-628 exhausted the empire's resources and during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration and by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. The Byzantine Empire was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

‘Latin’ Empire, 1214.

Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans in the Byzantine–Ottoman wars over the 14th and 15th centuries. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire. The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond.


Roman Empire (B)

Roman Empire — ANCIENT STATE [27 BC-476 AD] — Overview (B)

Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 BCE following the demise of the  Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century CE. A brief treatment of the Roman Empire follows. For full treatment, see ancient Rome.

Imperial Rome

Saturn, Temple ofThe Temple of Saturn, among the ruins of the Roman Forum, Rome.


A period of unrest and civil wars in the 1st century BC marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire. This period encompassed the career of Julius Caesar, who eventually took full power over Rome as its dictator. After his assassination in 44 BCE, the triumvirate of Mark AntonyLepidus, and Octavian, Caesar’s nephew, ruled. It was not long before Octavian went to war against Antony in northern Africa, and after his victory at Actium (31 BCE) he was crowned Rome’s first emperor,   Augustus. His reign, from 27 BCE to 14 CE, was distinguished by stability and peace.

Augustus established a form of government known as a principate, which combined some elements from the republic with the traditional powers of a monarchy. The Senate still functioned, though Augustus, as princeps, or first citizen, remained in control of the government. Under Augustus, Rome began to prosper once again, and the emperor came to be looked upon as a god. Thereafter, all good emperors were worshiped as gods after death. Among the beloved rulers of Rome were Trajan (reigned 98–117), Hadrian (117-138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), and Marcus Aurelius (161–180). Decadent, cruel men also rose to power: Caligula (37–41) and Nero (54–68) were so loathed that their reigns were struck from the official Roman records.

It was during the rule of Tiberius (14-37) that Jesus Christ was crucified. Thereafter,  Christians were tolerated at best—but often tortured or killed—until the reign of  Constantine I (312–337). In 313 an edict of toleration for all religions was issued, and from about 320 Christianity was favoured by the Roman state rather than persecuted by it. But the empire was dying. {!} The last of Constantine’s line,  Theodosius I (379-395), was the last emperor to rule over a unified Roman Empire. The Western Empire, suffering from repeated invasions and the flight of the peasants into the cities, had grown weak compared with the East, where spices and other exports virtually guaranteed wealth and stability. When Theodosius died, in 395, Rome split into Eastern and Western empires.

The West was severely shaken in 410, when the city of Rome was sacked by the Visigoths, a wandering nation of Germanic peoples from the northeast. The fall of Rome was completed in 476, when the German chieftain Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus. The East, always richer and stronger, continued as the Byzantine Empire through the European Middle Ages.




Alternative Titles: Byzantium, East Rome, Eastern Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire, the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in 1453.


The Byzantine
{!} Empire at the death of Justinian I in 565 CE. (Link B)

The Byzantine
{!} Empire in 1025. (Link B)

The remnants of the Byzantine
{!} Empire in 1265. (Link B)

The Byzantine
{!} Empire in 1355. (Link B)

Schism of 1054. (Link B)


The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s history has often been subject, for its inhabitants would hardly have considered the term appropriate to themselves or to their state. Theirs was, in their view, none other than the Roman Empire, founded shortly before the beginning of the Christian era by God’s grace to unify his people in preparation for the coming of his Son. Proud of that Christian and Roman heritage, convinced that their earthly empire so nearly resembled the heavenly pattern that it could never change, they called themselves Romaioi, or Romans. Modern historians agree with them only in part. The term East Rome accurately described the political unit embracing the Eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire until 476, while there were yet two emperors. The same term may even be used until the last half of the 6th century, as long as men continued to act and think according to patterns not unlike those prevailing in an earlier Roman Empire. During those same centuries, nonetheless, there were changes so profound in their cumulative effect that after the 7th century state and society in the East differed markedly from their earlier forms. In an effort to recognize that distinction, historians traditionally have described the medieval empire as Byzantine.

The latter term is derived from the name Byzantium, borne by a colony of ancient Greek foundation on the European side of the Bosporus, midway between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The city was, by virtue of its location, a natural transit point between Europe and Asia Minor (Anatolia). Refounded {!} as the “new Rome” by the emperor  Constantine I in 330, it was endowed by him with the name  Constantinople, the city of Constantine. The derivation from Byzantium is suggestive in that it emphasizes a central aspect of Byzantine civilization: the degree to which the empire’s administrative and intellectual life found a focus at Constantinople from 330 to 1453, the year of the city’s last and unsuccessful defense under the 11th (or 12th) Constantine. The circumstances of the last defense are suggestive too, for in 1453 the ancient, medieval, and modern worlds seemed briefly to meet. The last Constantine fell in defense of the new Rome built by the first Constantine. Walls that had held firm in the early Middle Ages against GermanHunAvarSlav, and Arab were breached finally by modern artillery, in the mysteries of which European technicians had instructed the most successful of the Central Asian invaders: the Ottoman Turks.

The fortunes of the empire were thus intimately entwined with those of peoples whose achievements and failures constitute the medieval history of both Europe and Asia. Nor did hostility always characterize the relations between Byzantines and those whom they considered “barbarian.” Even though the Byzantine intellectual firmly believed that civilization ended with the boundaries of his world, he opened it to the barbarian, provided that the latter (with his kin) would accept baptism and render loyalty to the emperor. Thanks to the settlements that resulted from such policies, many a name, seemingly Greek, disguises another of different origin: Slavic, perhaps, or Turkish. Barbarian illiteracy, in consequence, obscures the early generations of more than one family destined to rise to prominence in the empire’s military or civil service. Byzantium was a melting-pot society, characterized during its earlier centuries by a degree of social mobility that belies the stereotype, often applied to it, of an immobile caste-ridden society.

A source of strength in the early Middle Ages, Byzantium’s central geographical position served it ill after the 10th century. The conquests of that age presented new problems of organization and assimilation, and those the emperors had to confront at precisely the time when older questions of economic and social policy pressed for answers in a new and acute form. Satisfactory solutions were never found. Bitter ethnic and religious hostility marked the history of the empire’s later centuries, weakening Byzantium in the face of new enemies descending upon it from east and west. The empire finally collapsed when its administrative structures could no longer support the burden of leadership thrust upon it by military conquests.


  Roman Emperors

“The first emperor, Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch.”

Roman emperor

Roman emperor (W)

The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title Princeps Civitatis (‘first citizen’). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatusconsul and pontifex maximus.

The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both. The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors would sometimes rule with co-emperors and divide administration of the empire between them.

The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successors, Tiberius and Nero, could not convincingly make the same claim. Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic.

From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms also divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. Elements of the republican institutional framework (senate, consuls, and magistrates) were preserved even after the end of the Western Empire.

The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century after multiple invasions of imperial territory by Germanic barbarian tribesRomulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480. Following Nepos' death, the Eastern Emperor Zeno abolished the division of the position and proclaimed himself as the sole Emperor of a reunited Roman Empire. Emperor Heraclius made diplomatic relations with the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, but lost many territories after successful Islamic conquests. The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople (“New Rome”); they continued to style themselves as Emperor of the Romans (later βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων in Greek), but are often referred to in modern scholarship as Byzantine emperorsConstantine XI Palaiologos was the last Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire's Mehmed II in 1453. The Muslim rulers then claimed the title of Caesar of Rome.

The "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus (βασιλεύς), which had originally meant king in Greek but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Other kings were then referred to as rēgas.

In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. With the eventual hegemony of Christianity, the emperor came to be seen as God's chosen ruler, as well as a special protector and leader of the Christian Church on Earth, although in practice an emperor's authority on Church matters was subject to challenge.

Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman Emperor. From 1453, one of the titles used by the Ottoman Sultans was “Caesar of Rome” (Turkish: Kayser-i Rum), part of their titles until the Ottoman Empire ended in 1922. A Byzantine group of claimant Roman emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461, though they had used a modified title since 1282.

Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, and by the Papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797. Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would then create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between 800 and 1806. These Emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople.


  Roman Emperors
🕑 Timeline of Roman Emperors

Timeline of Roman Emperors


📜 List of Roman Emperors (B)
The Imperial Index: The Rulers of the Roman Empire From Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus  

Roman emperors (B)

Roman emperors (B)

Roman emperors

Augustus (Augustus Caesar) 27 BC–AD 14
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Augustus) 14–37
Caligula (Gaius Caesar Germanicus) 37–41
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 41–54
Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 54–68
Galba (Servius Galba Caesar Augustus) 68–69
Otho (Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus) 69
Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius) 69
Vespasian (Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) 69–79
Titus (Titus Vespasianus Augustus) 79–81
Domitian (Caesar Domitianus Augustus) 81–96
Nerva (Nerva Caesar Augustus) 96–98
Trajan (Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus) 98–117
Hadrian (Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus) 117–138
Antoninus Pius (Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius) 138–161
Marcus Aurelius (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 161–180
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus) 161–169
Commodus (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus) 177–192
Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax) 193
Didius Severus Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Julianus) 193
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax) 193–211
Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus) 198–217
Septimius Geta (Publius Septimius Geta) 209–212
Macrinus (Caesar Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus) 217–218
Elagabalus (Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 218–222
Alexander Severus (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander) 222–235
Maximinus (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus) 235–238
Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus) 238
Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus) 238
Pupienus Maximus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus) 238
Balbinus (Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus) 238
Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus) 238–244
Philip (Marcus Julius Philippus) 244–249
Decius (Gaius Messius Quintus Trianus Decius) 249–251
Hostilian (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus) 251
Gallus (Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus) 251–253
Aemilian (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus) 253
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus) 253–260
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) 253–268
Claudius (II) Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus) 268–270
Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus) 269–270
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) 270–275
Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus) 275–276
Florian (Marcus Annius Florianus) 276
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus) 276–282
Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus) 282–283
Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus) 283–285
Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus) 283–284
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) East only 284–305
Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) West only 286–305
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) East only 305–311
Constantius I Chlorus (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius) West only 305–306
Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus) West only 306–307
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius) West only 306–312
Licinius (Valerius Licinianus Licinius) East only 308–324
Constantine I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) 312–337
Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) 337–340
Constans I (Flavius Julius Constans) 337–350
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius) 337–361
Magnentius (Flavius Magnus Magnentius) 350–353
Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus) 361–363
Jovian (Flavius Jovianus) 363–364
Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus) West only 364–375
Valens (Flavius Valens) East only 364–378
Procopius East only 365–366
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus) West only 375–383
Valentinian II (Flavius Valentinianus) West only 375–392
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius) 379–395
Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius) East only 395–408
Honorius (Flavius Honorius) West only 395–423
Theodosius II East only 408–450
Constantius III West only 421
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus) West only 425–455
Marcian (Marcianus) East only 450–457
Petronius Maximus (Flavius Ancius Petronius Maximus) West only 455
Avitus (Flavius Maccilius Eparchius Avitus) West only 455–456
Leo I (Leo Thrax Magnus) East only 457–474
Majorian (Julius Valerius Majorianus) West only 457–461
Libius Severus (Libius Severianus Severus) West only 461–467
Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius) West only 467–472
Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius) West only 472
Glycerius West only 473–474
Julius Nepos West only 474–475
Leo II East only 474
Zeno East only 474–491
Romulus Augustulus (Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustulus) West only 475–476


Byzantine {!} emperors

Zeno 474–491
Anastasius I 491–518
Justin I 518–527
Justinian I 527–565
Justin II 565–578
Tiberius II Constantine 578–582
Maurice 582–602
Phokas 602–610
Heraclius 610–641
Constantine III 641
Heraclonas 641
Constans II 641–668
Constantine IV 668–685
Justinian II 685–695
Leontius 695–698
Tiberius III 698–705
Justinian II (restored) 705–711
Philippikos Vardan 711–713
Anastasios II 713–715
Theodosios III 715–717
Leo III 717–741
Constantine V Copronymus 741–775
Leo IV 775–780
Constantine VI 780–797
Irene 797–802
Nikephoros I 802–811
Stauracius 811
Michael I Rhangabe 811–813
Leo V 813–820
Michael II 820–829
Theophilus 829–842
Michael III 842–867
Basil I 867–886
Leo VI 886–912
Alexander 912–913
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus 913–959
Romanus I Lecapenus 920–944
Romanus II 959–963
Nicephorus II Phocas 963–969
John I Tzimisces 969–976
Basil II 976–1025
Constantine VIII 1025–28
Romanos III Argyros 1028–34
Michael IV 1034–41
Michael V 1041–42
Zoe and Theodora 1042
Constantine IX Monomachos 1042–55
Theodora 1055–56
Michael VI 1056–57
Isaac I Komnenos 1057–59
Constantine X Doukas 1059–67
Romanos IV Diogenes 1067–71
Michael VII Doukas 1071–78
Nikephoros III Botaneiates 1078–81
Alexios I Komnenos 1081–1118
John II Komnenos 1118–43
Manuel I Komnenos 1143–80
Alexios II Komnenos 1180–83
Andronikos I Komnenos 1183–85
Isaac II Angelos 1185–95
Alexios III Angelos 1195–1203
Isaac II Angelos (restored) and Alexios IV Angelos (joint ruler) 1203–04
Alexios V Murtzouphlos 1204
Latin {!} emperors {!} of Constantinople {!}
Terminoloji tuhaftır; sözde imparatorlar Latin değil ama Germendir; "imparatorlar" olsa olsa prens ya da kraldır; ve ‘Constantinopolis’ bir devlet ya da kent-devleti değil, bir kenttir.

Byzantine Empire after the 4th crusade.
Baldwin I {!} (Germanik feodal kont; Flanders (Belçika) kökenli) (LINK) 1204–06
Henry {!} (Baldwin I'in kardeşi; Flanders (Belçika) kökenli) (LINK) 1206–16
Peter {!} A grandson of the French king Louis VI) (LINK) 1217
Yolande (empress) {!} (of Flanders) 1217–19
Robert [of Courtenay] {!} (of Flanders) 1221–28
Baldwin II 1228–61
John [of Brienne] {!} (Bir Fransız kontununu "beş parasız" oğlu.) 1231–37
Nicaean emperors {!}
Bir yanlışı düzeltmek için ikinci bir yanlış.
Constantine (XI) Lascaris 1204–05?
Theodore I Lascaris 1205?–22
John III Ducas Vatatzes 1222–54
Theodore II Lascaris 1254–58
John IV Lascaris 1258–61
Greek {!} emperors restored
Michael VIII Palaeologus 1261–82
Andronicus II Palaeologus and Michael IX Palaeologus (joint ruler 1295–1320) 1282–1328
Andronicus III Palaeologus 1328–41
John V Palaeologus 1341–76
John VI Cantacuzenus 1347–54
Andronicus IV Palaeologus 1376–79
John V Palaeologus (restored) 1379–90
John VII Palaeologus 1390
John V Palaeologus (restored) 1390–91
Manuel II Palaeologus and John VIII Palaeologus (joint ruler 1421–25) 1391–1425
John VIII Palaeologus 1425–48
Constantine XI Palaeologus 1449–53


  Roman Empire Timeline (44 BC - AD 1377)

🕑 History of Rome

History of Rome (W)

Rome Timeline
Roman Empire
44 BC – AD 14 Augustus establishes the Empire.
AD 64 Great Fire of Rome during Nero's rule.
69–96 Flavian Dynasty. Building of the Colosseum.
3rd century Crisis of the Roman Empire. Building of the Baths of Caracalla and the Aurelian Walls.
284–337 Diocletian and Constantine. Building of the first Christian basilicas. Battle of Milvian Bridge. Rome is replaced by Constantinopleas the capital of the Empire.
395 Definitive separation of Western and Eastern Roman Empire.
410 The Goths of Alaric sack Rome.
455 The Vandals of Gaiseric sack Rome.
476 Fall of the west empire and deposition of the final emperor Romulus Augustus.
6th century Gothic War (535–554). The Goths cut off the aqueducts in the siege of 537, an act which historians traditionally regard as the beginning of the Middle Ages in Italy[38]
608 Emperor Phocas donates the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV, converting it into a Christian church. Column of Phocas (the last addition made to the Forum Romanum) is erected.
630 The Curia Julia (vacant since the disappearance of the Roman Senate) is transformed into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro.
663 Constans II visits Rome for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome for two centuries. He strips buildings of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople.
751 Lombard conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Duchy of Rome is now completely cut off from the empire.
754 Alliance with the Franks, Pepin the Younger, declared Patrician of the Romans, invades Italy. Establishment of the Papal States.

Medieval Rome
772 The Lombards briefly conquer Rome but Charlemagne liberates the city a year later.
800 Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperorin St. Peter's Basilica.
846 The Saracens sack St. Peter.
852 Building of the Leonine Walls.
962 Otto I crowned Emperor by Pope John XII
1000 Emperor Otto III and Pope Sylvester II.
1084 The Normans sack Rome.
1144 Creation of the commune of Rome.
1300 First Jubilee proclaimed by Pope Boniface VIII.
1303 Foundation of the Roman University.
1309 Pope Clement V moves the Holy Seat to Avignon.
1347 Cola di Rienzo proclaims himself tribune.
1377 Pope Gregory XI moves the Holy Seat back to Rome.



  • Cumhuriyetin son yüzyılında bölüngüler arasındaki iç savaş gücün tek bir erkte yoğunlaşması sonucuna götürdü (Sezar, ve yeğeni Oktavian).
  • Politik erk en sonunda tek-erktir, çünkü İstenç kavramı gereği Birdir (bir ‘istençler türlülüğü’ istençsizlik yaratır).
  • İmparatorlukta erk tekil bir bireyin istencidir ve devletin yazgısı tekerkin özencine bağımlıdır.
  • Demokrasi — istençsiz halkın tersine — özgür yurttaş toplumunun evrensel hak, duyunç özgürlüğü ve yasa egemenliği temelindeki türdeş istencidir.


Roman provinces during Trajan’s reign (98-117 AD)


📹 History of Rome — 3 — The Rise of An Empire (VİDEO)

History of Rome — 3 — The Rise of An Empire (LINK)


  • Politik olarak, Helenik tikellik tini ile karşıtlık içinde, Roma soyut evrensellik tinidir: Onda bireysel kent-devletlerinin atomik türlülüğü yerini katı evrensel Yasanın gücüne bırakır.
  • Roma İmparatoru tek-erk olarak yasanın saltık belirleyicisidir.
  • Roma İmparatoru Senatonun, Sensorun, Konsülün ve Tribünün gücünü kendi istencinde birleştirir ve bu kurumları salt birer görünüşe indirger.
  • Bütün bir askeri güç onun istenci altındadır ve onun istenci önünde herkes politik haktan yoksun ve herkes eşittir.


The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period

The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period (W)

The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period.

Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).



  • Augustus, Trajan, Hadrian gibi İmparatorlar Roma görkemini doruğuna yükselttiler. Nero, Caligula gibi İmparatorlar tekerki tikelliğin olumsallığına bozdular.



📹 The Digital Hadrian’s Villa Project: State vs. Reconstruction (VİDEO)

The Digital Hadrian’s Villa Project: State vs. Reconstruction (LINK)






  • 212’de Caracalla’nın egemenliği sırasında imparatorluğun tüm özgür doğan uyruklarına yurttaşlık hakları tanındı.


A Roman wedding.


“The Roman Bath,” Emmanuel Oberhausen.

  • Hıristiyan ve Müslüman dünyalarda etik yaşam biçimi dinsel inak tarafından verilidir ve insana yalnızca onu yorumlamak düşer.
  • Helenik ve Romanik dünyalarda mitolojik dinin moral bağlamı yoktur ve etik yaşam problemini çözmek bütünüyle insan duyuncuna düşer.
  • İlk kez Roma Dünyasında insanın salt insan olarak sonsuz değerinin bilinci doğdu (neo-Platonizm ve İznik Konseyi yoluyla).
  • İnsanın bu saltık büyüklüğü insanlığı evrensel eşitlik bilincine doğru güdüler ve insanın özsel olarak Logos (Us) olması ya da Tanrı ile Birliği düşüncesi onu saltık özgürlük bilincine doğru yönlendirir.
  • İstençsiz kitleler Katolik ve Ortodoks Hıristiyanlık başlıkları altında ve sonu gelmeyen teolojik çekişmeler ortasında mitolojik inançlarına bağlı kalmayı sürdürdüler.
  • Roma Dünyası bir evrensel gelişim süreci olan Modern Dünyanın öncülüdür ve aradaki tüm zaman insanlığın tüzel, moral ve törel büyümesi için, evrensel hak, duyunç özgürlüğü ve politik eşitlik bilincine doğru eğitimi için gereken zamandır.

The so-called Five Good Emperors (from left to right): Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

Roman provinces during Trajan’s rule (98-117 AD).

Roman Empire at the time of Hadrian (117-138 AD).

📹 The History of Rome (Every Year) (VİDEO)

The History of Rome (Every Year) (LINK)

The city of Rome originated as a village of the Latini in the 8th century BC. It was initially ruled by kings, but the Roman Republic was established in 509 BC. During the 5th century BC, Rome gained regional dominance in Latium, and eventually the entire Italian peninsula by the 3rd century BC.


📹 History of Rome and the Roman Empire / The Map as History (VİDEO)

History of Rome and the Roman Empire / The Map as History (LINK)

This animated map describes the history of the city of Rome. It is one of the videos in our series "Rome and its Empire" and is provided as a demo to let you discover our concept.


📹 HISTORY IN 3D - ANCIENT ROME 320 AD - Walking around Colosseum_1 (VİDEO)

Walking around Colosseum 1 (LINK)

Here is the 3rd video trailer, illustrating our project dedicated to reconstruction of the whole center of ancient Rome city as it was in 320 AD. Also this is the last trailer before the release of 3d walkthrough, where you will be able to enjoy this reconstruction by yourself using modern and innovative 3D technologies.


  Pax Romana


📹 Ara Pacis (VİDEO)

📹 Ara Pacis (LINK)
.Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 13-9 B.C.E.Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.


Ara Pacis (W)

Ara Pacis (W)

The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia, it stood in the northeastern corner of the Campus Martius, the former flood plain of the Tiber River and gradually became buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of silt deposits. It was reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis, in 1938.

Ara Pacis Augustae, the "Altar of Augustan Peace", as reassembled.


The altar reflects the Augustan vision of Roman civil religion. The lower register of its frieze depicts vegetal work meant to communicate the abundance and prosperity of the Roman Peace (LatinPax Augusta), while the monument as a whole serves a civic ritual function whilst simultaneously operating as propaganda for Augustus and his regime, easing notions of autocracy and dynastic succession that might otherwise be unpalatable to traditional Roman culture.





Bust of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa from the Forum of Gabii, currently in the Louvre, Paris.

This incomparable circular edifice, originally intended by Agrippa to form the conclusion of his thermæ [Warm baths which were destined for public use only], with which it is intimately connected, is one of the noblest and most perfect productions of that style of architecture specifically denominated Roman. When the first wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the founder of this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to have felt that it was not adapted to be the every-day residence of men, but to be a habitation for the gods.

The Church of S. Maria ad Martyres was originally the sudatorium, or sweating-room, of the baths of Agrippa, being similar in construction to all the sweating-rooms now existing, notably one in the Villa of Hadrian at Tivoli. It exactly answers Vetruvius's description of this department of the baths. It seems afterwards to have been dedicated as a temple of the gods, or Pantheon of the Julian line, according to Dion Cassius (liii. 27), when the portico was added in the third consulship of Agrippa.


The straight vertical joint where the Greek portico has been built up to the Roman body can be distinctly seen, and the pediment and entablature can be observed behind the portico. It was burned in the fire under Titus; and was restored, as the inscription on the architrave tells us, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla—


Recent explorations have shown that in front of the Pantheon was a large enclosure surrounded by a covered arcade, somewhat after the manner of the colonnade at S. Peter's, and entered by an arch of triumph. Remains of this arch exist under the houses in front of the Pantheon, which are to be pulled down.

When Agrippa dedicated the Pantheon as a temple, it was consecrated to Jupiter the Avenger. "Some of the finest works that the world has ever beheld ... the roofing of the Pantheon of Jupiter Ultor that was built by Agrippa" (Pliny, "N. H." xxxvi. 24). The repairs commenced by Septimius Severus and Caracalla were completed by Alexander Severus, who built his baths close by. We call attention to a coin of this emperor, which represents the temple and its enclosure on the reverse; on the obverse is the emperor's portrait, and the legend IMP . C . M . AVR . SEV . ALEXANDER . AUG. On the coin the columns are placed close on either flank, and two are omitted, to show the seated statue of Jupiter in the temple, which statue is now in the Hall of Busts in the Vatican Museum, and is a copy of the celebrated Jupiter of Phidias.

The fact that the Pantheon was originally built as a sudatorium has been proved to a certainty by the excavations made in the sudatorium of the Baths of Caracalla. There we have, as it were, the Pantheon in ruins. It is slightly smaller, the diameter being 125 feet—17 less than the Pantheon. Opposite to the entrance is an apse, and on each side there are three recesses, as at the Pantheon, which were used as caldaria, but are now, in the Pantheon, chapels of the saints.

Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom, 1836. (An 1836 view of the Pantheon by Jakob Alt, showing twin bell towers, often misattributed to Bernini.) (W)


The portico is 110 feet long, and 44 feet deep. Sixteen Corinthian columns, 46½ feet high and 5 feet in diameter, support the roof. The Pantheon was converted into a church by Boniface IV. in 609, by permission of the Emperor Phocas, and it was dedicated to the martyrs on November 1st (All Saints' Day), 830. The doors and grating above, of ancient bronze, with the rim round the circular opening in the vault of the interior, are all that is left of the ancient metal work. The interior is 142 feet in diameter, and 143 feet high, and is lighted by an open space of 28 feet in diameter. It is the burial-place of Raphael and of Victor Emanuel II.—right of high altar.

Pliny says ("Nat. Hist." xxxvi. 4): "The Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the caryatides by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence. The same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof, though, in consequence of the height, they have not had an opportunity of being so well appreciated." "The capitals, too, of the pillars which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, were made of Syracusan metal" (ibid., xxxiv. 7). Marcellinus (xvi. x. 14) says: "The Pantheon, with its vast extent, its imposing height, and the solid magnificence of its arches, and the lofty niches rising one above the other like stairs, is adorned with the images of former emperors."

Einblick Panorama Pantheon, Rom.


"It is as difficult to reconcile the statements of different authors respecting the original idea of Agrippa, as it is hazardous to attempt to prove the successive metamorphoses which the plan sketched by the artist has undergone. This much, however, is certain, that with respect to the modern transformation of the whole, the consequences have been most melancholy and injurious. The combination of the circular edifice with the rectilinear masses of the vestibule, notwithstanding all the pains bestowed, and the endless expenditure of the most costly materials, has been unsuccessful; and the original design of the Roman architect has lost much of its significance, or, at all events, of its phrenological expression, by being united with ordinary Grecian forms of architecture, which in this place lose great part of their value. No one previously unacquainted with the edifice could form an idea, from the aspect of the portico, of that wondrous structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest triumphs of the human mind over matter in connection with the law of gravity.

"Conflagrations, earthquakes, sacrilegious human hands, and all the injuries of time, have striven together in vain for the destruction of this unique structure. It has come off victorious in every trial; and even now, when it has not only been stripped of its noblest decorations, but, what is still worse, been decked out with idle and unsuitable ornaments, it still stands in all its pristine glory and beauty.

"In order to obtain a notion of the size and solid excellence of the work, it will be well first to make the circuit of the entire edifice. We shall thus have an opportunity of admiring the fine distribution of the different masses. After the first circular wall or belt, which rests upon a base of travertine, has attained a height of nearly forty feet, it is finished off with a simple cornice, serving as a solid foundation for the second belt. As a preservative against sinking, this is, moreover, provided with a series of larger and smaller construction arches, alternating symmetrically with one another. After rising some thirty feet, further solidity is given to the wall by a girdle suitably decorated with consoles, and on this the third belt (which is but a few feet lower) is supported. A similar number of the arches already mentioned, introduced as frequently as possible, enables this wall to support the weight pressing upon it, and to raise the harmoniously rounded cupola boldly aloft.

Rom, Pantheon bei Nacht. (W)


"In ancient times the whole building, which is composed of brick, was covered and embellished with a coating of stucco. On the upper cornice, at the back, between the consoles, portions of terra-cotta decorations still remain, seeming to have formed part of this ornamental facing.

"In our examination of the interior, we are, unfortunately, much hindered in our attempt to investigate the constructive connection of the whole by the unmeaning ornamental additions, and the thoughtless transformation of the different organic masses.

"So much, however, may be discovered even on a superficial survey—namely, that the architect has everywhere endeavoured, not merely to diminish the pressure on the walls of the lower belt (which is nearly twenty feet thick) by inserting hollow chambers, but has given them additional strength by means of the vaulted constructions thus introduced. A hall, supported on pillars, lies between each of the eight modern altars, and behind each of them, on the outside, are niches, reached through the different doors, recurring at regular distances throughout.

"The slabs of coloured marble belonging to the attica were carried off some hundred years ago, under Benedict XIV., and their place supplied by the present coulisse paintings. This polychrome system would have greatly facilitated our researches into the coloured architecture of the ancients, and its loss is therefore much to be regretted.

"For, although this portion of the edifice was thus transformed at a comparatively late period, still the effect of those finely harmonized masses must have been a remarkable one.

"To judge from the combination of coloured stones still remaining in this edifice, the effect must have been very rich and beautiful. The elaborate capitals and bases of white marble must have formed a fine contrast to the yellow shafts of the pillars and the stripe of porphyry inserted in the architrave. The largest specimen of this coloured mode of decoration has been preserved in the pavement; although here also we must take it for granted that the original arrangement has been disturbed, the sunken bases of the columns sufficing to prove that the pavement has been raised in course of time. This circumstance is not without optical reaction on the proportions of the different masses. The horse-shoe arch over the entrance-door is remarkable. It forms a striking contrast to that of the tribune, where the projecting cornice rests upon two pillars, whereas the architrave, broken through by the doorway, is supported only by pilasters.

"The ædiculæ, now converted into altars, are covered in, partly with gables, partly with arches, the former resting upon fluted pillars of yellow marble, the latter upon porphyry pillars. The walls behind are likewise faced with slabs of coloured marble, which, in their original splendour, must have reflected the magnificence of the pillars.

"The facing of the door is the only considerable portion still remaining of the rich bronze-work with which this edifice was formerly fitted up. Simple as the decoration of these massive doors now appears, it is yet imposing for such persons as are capable of appreciating pure symmetry and a judicious distribution of the parts in surfaces so extensive. The nails, with heads in the form of rosettes, separating the different panels, are the only ornament. The window above the door is closed by a grating composed of curves placed one above the other, thus admitting both light and air. The destruction of the bronze cross-beams which formed the roof of the vestibule till the time of Urban VIII., is most to be regretted. This was composed of bronze tubes, on precisely the same principle as that on which Stephenson, a few years ago, constructed the bridge over the Menai Straits.

"The cupola is nearly seventy feet in height, and rests on the attica, corresponding to the second outer belt. This attica has suffered most severely from modern alterations. The walls behind this afford space for a series of chambers. The massive wall of the third belt, on the other hand, surrounding the cupola to a third of its height, is rendered accessible by a passage running round the whole; and this again is spanned by frequently recurring arches, and lighted by the windows visible on the outside.

"The diameter of the cupola is nearly equal to its height. The round aperture at the top, by means of which the interior is lighted with a magical effect, measures about twenty-eight feet in diameter. Here is still to be seen the last and only remnant of the rich bronze decorations of which this edifice formerly boasted. It consists of a ring, adorned with eggs and foliage, encircling the aperture, and not merely strengthening the edge of the wall, but constituting a graceful and at the same time a simple and judicious ornament.

"It is certain that the five converging rows of gradually diminishing cassettoni have been decorated in a similar manner, and it is stated that vestiges of metal were discovered during the process of whitewashing.

"The six niches between the altars are each supported by two fluted pillars and a corresponding number of pilasters, the greater portion of them being composed of monoliths of that costly yellow marble frequently employed by the ancients. They are more than thirty-two feet in height, and, as regards size, are unique of their kind. It has been impossible, even for the ancients, to erect, of this rare material, all the pillars required for the embellishment of this splendid edifice, for which reason they were obliged to substitute six of pavonazzetto. These, however, they stained, without injuring the brilliancy of the marble or the transparency of the grain, in such a manner as to bring them into harmony with the other yellow masses, and to deceive even the most practised eye. This circumstance is of great importance in forming an opinion on the coloured architecture of the Greeks, as it shows how they contrived to harmonize the white marble masses without concealing the texture of the noble material.

"It is stated by Pliny that caryatides were placed here by a certain Diogenes of Athens, corresponding to the pillars which support the architrave.

"Apparently they were a free repetition of the caryatides of the Pandrosium; and probably the statue in the Braccio Nuovo, which was brought from the Palazzo Paganica, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Pantheon, was one of these, the scale being precisely adapted to this situation.

"Some of the large nails used in riveting the bronze plates together are still preserved in the different museums. We are indebted to Serlio, an architect of the sixteenth century, who preserved a drawing of it, for the only information we possess concerning this ingenious piece of mechanism. The Pope mentioned above, a member of the Barberini family, had the barbarity to carry off and melt down these important remains. An inscription on the left of the principal door celebrates the judicious transformation of these masses of bronze into cannons, and ornaments for churches" (Braun).

Urban VIII. "That the useless and almost forgotten decorations might become ornaments of the apostle's tomb in the Vatican temple, and engines of public safety in the fortress of S. Angelo, he moulded the ancient relics of the bronze roof into columns and cannons, in the twelfth year of his pontificate" (Inscription).

"What the barbarians did not the Barberini have done" (Pasquino).

"On each side of the entrance to the Rotunda are two immense niches, constructed of brick, in which the colossal statues of Augustus and Agrippa are supposed to have been placed. This opinion seems to me too hazardous, and contrary to the spirit of these two eminent statesmen.

"Standing among the sixteen granite pillars supporting the vestibule, we feel that there is something overpowering in the impression it produces. This, however, diminishes when we step out upon the piazza, which lies too high. At its original level, a flight of five steps led up to the building; and the effect when viewed from a distance must have been essentially different, as we may judge from the portion of pavement which has been excavated to the right of the Rotunda" (Braun).

Raphael's tomb is in the third chapel on the left.

“Living, great Nature feared he might outvie
Her works; and, dying, fears herself to die.”

— Cardinal Bembo: translated by Pope.


A bust, by Nardini, of Raphael was originally placed near here, but was removed in 1820, in consequence of people offering their devotions to it.


📹 The Pantheon (VİDEO)

The Pantheon (LINK)

The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.



İlk İmparator — Augustus (İÖ 27-İÖ 14)

Jül Sezar’ın yeğeni olan Gaius Octavius Thurinus Senato tarafından Roma ordusunun bütünü üzerinde yetke taşıyor olarak kabul edildi. Yaşam boyu Tribün olarak dilediği zaman Senatoyu toplantıya çağırma, onu çalıştırma ve kararlarını veto etme hakkı vardı. Bir Sensorun güçleri ile donatılı olarak, kamu ahlakını gözetim altında tutma ve yasaların Roma’nın gerçek çıkarına olmasını sağlamak için onları inceleme yetkisi vardı. Ve ‘Augustus’ sanı dinsel yetkesi olduğunu belirtiyordu.


Pax Romana

Pax Romana (W)

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the early Roman Empire. It is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BC and concluding in 180 AD with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the "good emperors".

Since it was inaugurated by Augustus with the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic, it is sometimes called the Pax Augusta. During this period of approximately 207 years, the Roman empire achieved its greatest territorial extent and its population reached a maximum of up to 70 million people — a third of the world’s population. According to Cassius Dio, the dictatorial reign of Commodus, later followed by the Year of the Five Emperors and the crisis of the third century, marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".




“I found a city of brick and left it one of marble.”

The aim of Augustus and his successors was to guarantee law, order, and security within the empire. Roman people understood and valued the peace and security that Augustus’s new order brought to the empire.


📹 Emperors of Pax Romana / Khan Academy (VİDEO)

Emperors of Pax Romana / Khan Academy (LINK)

Starting with the reign of Augustus and ending with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Pax Romana is a relatively stable 200 year period. The first five emperors are of the Julio-Claudia Dynasty. The last five of the Pax Romana are considered the "good" emperors by Machiavelli.


🎨 Roman Life


Roman life.


Sephoris, Roman Villa — Artist’s reconstruction of a villa at Sephoris. Luxury for those at the top of society — poverty for those at the bottom.


Women in a Roman bath house. Note the strigilis, the mosaics on the floor and the nice decorations on the wall.


Roman banquette.


Roman family at home.


Rehearsal of 'The Fluteplayer' and 'The Diomedes' wife' in the atrium of the Pompeian house of Prince, by Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger. (La Domus Romana) (Il Gardino Romana).

House of Caecilius Iucundus en PompeyaAncient Roman Homes of the Rich
La Villa di Arianna (L)  

Flora or Primavera
Painted on a water-green background, the female figure shows a yellow dress (chiton), the head adorned with a diadem and the forearm with an armilla (gold bracelet or other material, used in Roman times as an ornament ), while collecting white flowers resting in a kalathos (basket made of wicker or canes). Currently it can be admired at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, since it was removed from the wall of the complex, to become part of the Bourbon collection of the Royal Museum of Portici, along with all the frescoes, mosaics and objects discovered on the Varano hill. (LINK)

The Romans lived in dwellings, called domus , formed by an atrium surrounded by small rooms, with a small garden at the back. The domus had no windows: the light entered from the ceiling of the atrium, which had a large opening. Under this opening a tank collected rainwater.

Around the second century BC a new type of housing was born for shopkeepers and poor people: the insula. The insula was a large multi-storey building (up to 4 or 5), similar to modern apartment buildings. The ground floor was generally used for shops of various kinds; the upper floors were divided into small apartments that were rented. The insulae (plural of insula, we read insula) were devoid of water and toilet facilities.


  Roman Empire

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” V — Frieze A / Frieze of “Profectio” or departure of emperor Domitian for military campaign 93 AD — Palazzo della Cancelleria, Roma.

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” II – Frieze A

“Palazzo della Cancelleria Reliefs” II – Frieze A (F)

The two reliefs, frieze A) and frieze B), found beneath the “Palazzo della Cancelleria” were part of the decoration of a public monument which can be dated to the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD).
The events described in the frieze A) happen a few years later than those described in the frieze B).

Relief A) shows or the departure, “profectio”, of the emperor Domitian for a military campaign, or his “reditus” from the Sarmatian campaign in A.D. 93. The face of Domitian was re-worked to represent his successor Nerva, after his memory was condemned to oblivion, “damnatio memoriae” following his violent death.

Relief B) shows the arrival, “adventus”, of the Emperor Vespasian in Rome, being greeted by a person wearing a toga, who is probably his son, Domitian.

Frieze A, list of characters, from left:
1 - Victory of whom only the left wing and part of the shoulder are extant;
2 - lictor, to be inferred from the axe-head visible against the right shoulder of character nr. 3, and from the surviving top of the fasce;
3 - lictor;
4 - Mars;
5 - Minerva;
6 - figure in tunic and paludamentum, Emperor Domitian reworked as Nerva’s portrait;
7, 8 - two lictors;
9 - Dea Roma or, perhaps less probably, Virtus;
10 - soldier;
11 - Genius Senatus;
12 - another soldier;
13 - Genius Publicus;
14,17 - four more military.

Source: H. Last, “On the Flavian Reliefs from Palazzo della Canceloleria” — The Journal of Roman Studies.

Roman marble relief
Domitian reign, 81 – 96 AD
From Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome
Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano


Roman Empire

Roman Empire (W)

Vexilloid of the Roman Empire (Flag of Roman Empire)

The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization.

Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome (27 BC-285 AD).

The Roman Empire was then divided between

and it was ruled by multiple emperors (with the exception of the sole rule of Constantine I between 324 and 337, and Theodosius I between 392 and 395).

The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.

In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar’s adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively making him the first emperor.

The first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan (98-117 AD).

A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.

Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380.

Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD.

The Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453.

Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe. The Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire. Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of later republics such as the United States and France. The corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture


Crisis of the Third Century

Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235-284) (W)

The divided Empire in 271

The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235-284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of

The crisis began with the assassinationof Emperor Severus Alexander by his own troops in 235. This initiated a 50-year period during which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals, who assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. The same number of men became accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor during this period and so became legitimate emperors.

By 268, the empire had split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and (briefly) Hispania; the Palmyrene Empire, including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus; and the Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them. Later, Aurelian (270-275) reunited the empire; the crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284.

The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the empire's institutions, society, economic life and, eventually, religion, that it is increasingly seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity.


271 AD Roman Territory '3rd Century Crisis.'

Roma’nın egemeni kişiler değil yasa idi ve bu olgu Roma tininin dayanıklılığının ve sürekliliğinin zeminidir. İmparatorluk döneminde bile yasa egemenliği imparatorların kendilerinin birincil dayanakları oldu ve bireysel özenci etkisizleştirdi.


Roma’nın gücü ve görkemi en temelde aşırı ölçüde sağlam boşinançlar üzerine, olmayan şeylere verilen saltık değer üzerine dayanıyordu. Bütün bir imparatorluk yalnızca sanal bir kültür olarak ortadan kalkışına doğru gelişti.

Vestal Virgins: Protectors of the city’s sacred flame

Vestal Virgins

Vestal Virgins (B)

Vestal Virgins, in Roman religion, six priestesses, representing the daughters of the royal house, who tended the state cult of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. The cult is believed to date to the 7th century BC; like other non-Christian cults, it was banned in AD 394 by Theodosius I.

Chosen between the ages of 6 and 10 by the pontifex maximus (“chief priest”), Vestal Virgins served for 30 years, during which time they had to remain virgins. Afterward they could marry, but few did. Those chosen as Vestal Virgins had to be of the required age, be freeborn of freeborn and respectable parents (though later the daughters of freedmen were eligible), have both parents alive, and be free from physical and mental defects. They lived in the House of the Vestal Virgins on the Roman Forum, near the Temple of Vesta. Their duties included tending the perpetual fire in the Temple of Vesta, keeping their vow of chastity, fetching water from a sacred spring (Vesta would have no water from the city water-supply system), preparing ritual food, caring for objects in the temple’s inner sanctuary, and officiating at the Vestalia (June 7–15), the period of public worship of Vesta. Failure to attend to their duties was punished by a beating; violation of the vow of chastity, by burial alive (the blood of a Vestal Virgin could not be spilled). But the Vestal Virgins also enjoyed many honours and privileges not open to married or single women of equivalent social status, including emancipation from their fathers’ rule and the ability to handle their own property.



Division of Roman Empire, 395 AD.

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