Anadolu Beylikleri

CKM 2018-19 / Aziz Yardımlı



Anadolu Beylikleri

  Anatolian Beyliks
A map of the independent Turkic beyliks in Anatolia during the late 14th century

  • Anadolu Beylikleri arasındaki ilişki sürekli savaş ilişkisidir.
  • Daha başında Anadolu Selçukluları Malazgirt utkusunun hemen arkasından Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğundan ayrıldı. Sonra —

    — 1261’de Karaman Bey ve iki kardeşi 20.000 adam ile Selçuk başkenti Konya üzerine yürüdüler. Birleşik Selçuk ve Moğol güçleri Karamanoğullarını yendi. Karamanoğulları toparlandılar ve benzer çatışmalar sürdü. Karamanoğulları Mısır Memlüklerinin desteğini de sağladılar, iki kez Konya’yı ele geçirdiler, ama iki durumda da utkuları geçici oldu.
    — 1403'te Bayezid’in ölümü tüm Anadolu beylikleri için yeniden çatışmalara başlama olanağını yarattı. Karamanoğulları Bursa üzerine yürüdüler ve kente zarar verdiler; Karamanoğlu Mehmet bey yakalandı, yaptıkları için özür diledi, ve Osmanlılar tarafından bağışlandı.
    — II. Murad’ın 1443-44 Balkan çarpışmaları sırasında Karamanoğlu İbrahim Bey Ankara ve Kütahya’yı ele geçirerek iki kenti de yerle bir etti. II. Murad’ın Balkanlardan dönmesinden sonra Karamanoğulları Beyliği ortadan kaldırıldı.

  • Ne etnik köken birliği ne de din birliği herhangi bir barış ortamına zemin olmuş görünür.

Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks (W)

Anatolian beyliks (Turkish: Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century. A second more extensive period of foundations took place as a result of the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm in the second half of the 13th century.

One of the beyliks, that of the Ottomans expanded from its capital in Bursa and completed its conquest of the other beyliks by the late 15th century, becoming the Ottoman Empire.

The word "beylik" denotes a territory under the jurisdiction of a Bey, equivalent in other European societies to a "Lord".


Following the 1071 Seljuq victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert and the subsequent conquest of Anatolia, Oghuz clans began settling in present-day Turkey. The Seljuq Sultanate's central power established in Konya was largely the result of using these clans under Beys called uç beyi or uj begi especially in border areas to ensure safety against the Byzantines; is a Turkish term for a border territory equivalent to marches, thus uç beyi is similar to margrave in Europe. These clans, led by beys, would receive military and financial aid from the Seljuqs in return for their services and full allegiance.

Seljuq power deteriorated with the Mongol invasions from the east. The Ilkhanate commanders in Anatolia then gained strength and authority and this encouraged the beys to declare sovereignty. The fall of Seljuq centralized power in Konya and many Beys joined forces with the atabegs (former Seljuq leaders) and other religious Muslim leaders and warriors from Persia and Turkistan fleeing the Mongols, invading the Byzantine empire where they established emirates. To maintain control of their new territory, these reestablished emirs employed Ghazi warriors from Persia and Turkistan who also fled the Mongols. The ghazis fought under the inspiration of either a mullah or a general, trying to assert Islamic power, their assaults of the reestablished emirs upon the Byzantine Empire reaching even further expanded the power sphere of the beyliks.

As the Byzantine empire weakened, their cities in Asia Minor could resist the assaults of the beyliks less and less, and many Turks gradually settled in the western parts of Anatolia. As a result, many more beyliks were founded in these newly conquered western regions who entered into power struggles with the Byzantines, the Genoese, the Knights Templar as well as between each other.

Under its eponymous founder, Osman I, the Beylik of Osmanoğlu expanded at Byzantine expense south and west of the Sea of Marmara in the first decades of the 14th century. With their annexation of the neighboring Beylik of Karasi and their advance into Roumelia as of 1354, they soon became strong enough to emerge as the main rivals of Karamanids, who at that time were thought to be the strongest. Towards the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans advanced further into Anatolia by acquiring towns, either by buying them off or through marriage alliances.

Meanwhile, the Karamanids assaulted the Ottomans many times with the help of other beyliks, Mamluks, Aq Qoyunlu (“White Sheep Turkomans”), Byzantines, Pontics and Hungarians, failing and losing power every time. By the close of the century, the early Ottoman leaders had conquered large parts of land from Karamanids and other less prominent beyliks. These had a short respite when their territories were restored to them after the Ottoman defeat suffered against Tamerlane in 1402 in the Battle of Ankara.

But the Ottoman state quickly collected itself under Mehmed I and his son Murad II re-incorporated most of these beyliks into Ottoman territory in a space of around 25 years. The final blow for the Karamanids was struck by Mehmed II who conquered their lands and re-assured a homogeneous rule in Anatolia. The further steps towards a single rule by the Ottomans were taken by Selim I who conquered territories of Ramadanids and Dulkadirids in 1515 during his campaign against the Mamluks, and his son Süleyman the Magnificentwho more or less completely united the present territories of Turkey (and much more) in his 1534 campaign. Many of the former Anatolian beyliks became the basis for administrative subdivisions in the Ottoman Empire.


Language and Art

Language and Art (W)


Combined with the Seljuqs and the immigration of Turkic tribes into the Anatolian mainland the Anatolian Beyliks spread Turkish and Islamic influence in Anatolia. Unlike the Seljuqs, whose language of administration was Persian, the Anatolian emirates adopted spoken Turkish as their formal literary language. The Turkish language achieved widespread use in these principalities and reached its highest sophistication during the Ottoman era.


In spite of their limited sources and the political climate of their era, art during the Anatolian beyliks flourished, probably building the basis for Ottoman art. Although the artistic style of the Anatolian beyliks can be considered as representatives of a transition period between Seljuks and Ottomans, new trends were also acquired. Especially wandering traditional crafts artists and architects helped spread these new trends and localized styles to several beyliks across Anatolia, which resulted in innovative and original works particularly in architecture. Wood and stone carving, clay tiles and other similar decorative arts of the Seljuqs were still used, however with the influence of the pursuit for new spaces and its reflections in other arts as well.

Some representative examples of the Anatolian beyliks' architecture are İlyas Bey Mosque at Balat (Milet) (1404), İsabey Mosque at Selçuk (1375), Ulucami Mosque at Birgi (1312) built by the Aydın beylik. The above mosques, although being successors of Seljuq architecture, differ greatly in the increase of decorations in the interior and exterior spaces and the different placement of the courtyards and minarets. Karaman beylik also left noteworthy architectural works, such as Ulucami Mosque in Ermenek (1302), Hatuniye Madrassa in Karaman (1382), Akmedrese Madrassa in Niğde (1409), all of which respect a new style that considers and incorporates the exterior surroundings also. One of the first examples of the Anatolian beylik architecture hinting at the forming of the Ottoman architecture that aims at uniting the interior space beneath one big dome and forming a monumentalarchitectural structure is Ulucami Mosque in Manisa (1374) built by the Saruhan beylik. Also worth noting is the increase in constructions of madrassas that points at the beyliks' attaching greater importance to sciences.

Külliye ("complexes") and
dar al-shifa (hospitals) and
medrese (schools) and mosques



  📜 Beyliks founded after Manzikert (1071) and Köse Dağ (1243)

📜 Beyliks founded after Manzikert (1071)

Beyliks founded after Manzikert (1071) (W)

Beyliks founded after Manzikert (1071)

In the list below, only the beyliks that were founded immediately after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia, and who were vassals (or sometimes at war) to the centralized power of Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm based in Konya are listed.

Founded after the Battle of Manzikert
Beylik's name Capital city Duration of rule
Chaka of Smyrna İzmir 1081-1098
Shah-Armens (also called Ahlatshahs) Ahlat 1110-1207
Artuqids (three branches) Hasankeyf,Mardin, Harput 1102-1409
Danishmend Sivas 1071-1178
Dilmaçoğlu Bitlis 1085-1398
İnaloğlu Diyarbekir 1095-1183
Mengujekids Erzincan, later Divriği 1072-1277
Saltukids Erzurum 1072-1202
Çubukoğulları Harput 1085-1112


📜 Beyliks founded after Köse Dağ (1243)

Beyliks founded after Köse Dağ (1243) (W)

Beyliks founded after Köse Dağ (1243)

A second group beyliks that emerged as a result of the weakening of this central state under the Mongol blow with the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243 which had the indirect consequence of extending the Turkic territory in Western Anatolia toward the end of the 13th century.

Founded after the Battle of Köse Dağ
Beylik's name Capital city Duration of rule
Afshar Erzurum 1480-1534
Ahiler Ankara c. 1290-1362
Alaiye Alanya 1293-1471 as vassals to Karamanids
Aydinids Birgi, later Ayasluğ (Selçuk) 1300-1425
Canik Samsun- Amasya and the vicinity ?-1460
Jandarids (later called Isfendiyarids) Eflani, later Kastamonu, last Sinop 1291-1461
Chobanids Kastamonu (preceding the Jandarids) 1211-1309
Dulkadirids Elbistan, later Maraş 1348<table width="100%" border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" bordercolor="#CCCCCC" bgcolor="#FFEFE8">1522
Eretnids Sivas, later Kayseri 1335-1390
Erzincan Erzincan 1379-1410
Eshrefids Beyşehir 1285-1326
Germiyanids Kütahya 1300-1429
Hamidids Eğirdir 1300-1391
Kadi Burhan al-Din Sivas (replacing the Eretnids) 1381-1398
Karamanids Larende (Karaman) 1250-1487
Karasids/Karası Balıkesir, later Bergama and Çanakkale 1296-1357
Ladik (also called İnançoğlu, dependent to Sahib Ataids and Germiyanids) Denizli 1262-1391
Menteşe Milas 1261-1424
Beylik of Osmanoğulları (later the Ottoman Empire) Söğüt, later Bursa, Dimetoka, Edirne and Istanbul 1299-1922
Pervâneoğlu Sinop 1277-1322
Ramadanids Adana 1352-1608
Sahib Ataids Afyonkarahisar 1275-1341
Sarukhanids Manisa 1300-1410
Teke (issued from the Hamidids) Antalya, later Korkuteli 1321-1423
Beylik of Dobruja Babadag 1281-1299


  Karamanids 1250-1487

The Karamanid beylik and other eastern Mediterranean states in 1450.

History of Karamanids

History of Karamanids 1250-1487 (W)

Capital Larende
Common languages Old Anatolian Turkish
Islam (official)
Government Monarchy
• 1256?
Kerimeddin Karaman Bey
• 1483–1487
Turgutoğlu Mahmud
Historical era Late Medieval
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by Succeeded by
Sultanate of Rum
Ottoman Empire

The Beylik of Karaman (orange) in 1300..


The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province. From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia.



The Karamanids traced their ancestry from Hodja Sad al-Din and his son Nure Sufi Bey, who emigrated from Arran (roughly encompassing modern-day Azerbaijan) to Sivas because of the Mongol invasion in 1230.

The Karamanids were members of the Salur tribe of Oghuz Turks. According to Muhsin Yazicioglu and others, they were members of the Afshar tribe, which participated in the revolt led by Baba Ishak and afterwards moved to the western Taurus Mountains, near the town of Larende , where they came to serve the Seljuks. Nûre Sûfi worked there as a woodcutter. His son, Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey, gained a tenuous control over the mountainous parts of Cilicia in the middle of the 13th century. A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, instead established a Karamanid dynasty in these lands.

Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, and Silifke. The year of the conquests is reported as 1225, during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubadh I (1220-1237), which seems excessively early. Karaman Bey's conquests were mainly at the expense of the Kingdom of Lesser Armenia (and perhaps at the expense of Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan IV, 1248-1265); in any case it is certain that he fought against the Kingdom of Lesser Armenia (and probably even died in this fight) to such extent that King Hethum I (1226-1269) had to place himself voluntarily under the sovereignty of the great Khan, in order to protect his kingdom from Mamluks and Seljuks (1244).

The rivalry between Kilij Arslan IV and Izz al-Din Kaykaus II allowed the tribes in the border areas to live virtually independently. Karaman Bey helped Kaykus, but Arslan had the support of both the Mongols and Pervâne Sulayman Muin al-Din (who had the real power in the sultanate).

The Mongolian governor and general Baiju was dismissed from office in 1256 because he had failed to conquer new territories, but he continued to serve as a general and appeared, the same year, fighting the Sultan of Rum, who had not paid the tax, and he managed to defeat the sultan a second time. Rukn al-Din Kilidj Arslan IV got rid of almost all hostile begs and amirs except Karaman Bey, to whom he gave the town of Larende (now Karaman, in honor of the dynasty) and Ermenek (c. 1260) in order to win him to his side. In the meantime, Bunsuz, brother of Karaman Bey, was chosen as a Candar, or bodyguard, for Kilij Arslan IV. Their power rose as a result of the unification of Turkish clans that lived in the mountainous regions of Cilicia with the new Turkish population transferred there by Kayqubad.

Good relations between the Seljuqs and the Karamanids did not last. In 1261, on the pretext of supporting Kaykaus II, who had fled to Constantinople as a result of the intrigues of the chancellor Mu'in al-Din Suleyman, the Pervane, Karaman Bey and his two brothers, Zeynül-Hac and Bunsuz, marched toward Konya, the Seljuq capital, with 20,000 men. A combined Seljuq and Mongol army, led by the Pervane, defeated the Karamanid army and captured Karaman Bey's two brothers.

After Karaman Bey died in 1262, his older son, Mehmet I of Karaman, became the head of the house. He immediately negotiated alliances with other Turkmen clans to raise an army against the Seljuqs and Ilkhanids. During the 1276 revolt of Hatıroğlu Şemseddin Bey against Mongol domination in Anatolia, Karamanids also defeated several Mongol-Seljuq armies. In the Battle of Göksu in 1277 in particular, the central power of the Seljuq was dealt a severe blow. Taking advantage of the general confusion, Mehmed Bey captured Konya on 12 May and placed on the throne a pretender called Jimri, who claimed to be the son of Kaykaus. In the end, however, Mehmed was defeated by Seljuq and Mongol forces and executed with some of his brothers in 1278.

Despite these blows, the Karamanids continued to increase their power and influence, largely aided by the Mamluks of Egypt, especially during the reign of Baybars. Karamanids captured Konya on two more occasions in the beginning of the 14th century, but were driven out the first time by emir Chupan, the Ilkhanid governor of Anatolia, and the second time by Chupan's son and successor Timurtash. An expansion of Karamanoğlu power occurred after the fall of the Ilkhanids. A second expansion coincided with Karamanoğlu Alâeddin Ali Bey's marriage to Nefise Sultan, the daughter of the Ottoman sultan Murat I, the first important contact between the two dynasties.

As Ottoman power expanded into the Balkans, Aleaddin Ali Bey captured the city of Beyşehir, which had been an Ottoman city. However, it did not take much time for the Ottomans to react and march on Konya, the Karamanoğlu capital city. A treaty between the two kingdoms was formed, and peace existed until the reign of Bayezid I.

Timur gave control of the Karamanid lands to Mehmet Bey, the oldest son of Aleaddin Ali Bey. After Bayezid I died in 1403, the Ottoman Empire went into a political crisis as the Ottoman family fell prey to internecine strife. It was an opportunity not only for Karamanids but also for all of the Anatolian beyliks. Mehmet Bey assembled an army to march on Bursa. He captured the city and damaged it; this would not be the last Karamanid invasion of Ottoman lands. However, Mehmet Bey was captured by Bayezid Pasha and sent to prison. He apologized for what he had done and was forgiven by the Ottoman ruler.

Ramazanoğlu Ali Bey captured Tarsuswhile Mehmet Bey was in prison. Mustafa Bey, son of Mehmet Bey, retook the city during a conflict between the Emirs of Sham and Egypt. After that, the Egyptian sultan Sayf ad-Din Inal sent an army to retake Tarsus from the Karamanids. The Egyptian Mamluks damaged Konyaafter defeating the Karamanids, and Mehmet Bey retreated from Konya. Ramazanoğlu Ali Bey pursued and captured him; according to an agreement between the two leaders, Mehmet Bey was exiled to Egypt for the rest of his life.

During the Crusade of Varna against the Ottomans in 1443-44, Karamanid İbrahim Bey marched on Ankara and Kütahya, destroying both cities. In the meantime, the Ottoman sultan Murad II was returning from Rumelia with a victory against the Hungarian Crusaders. Like all other Islamic emirates in Anatolia, the Karamanids were accused of treason. Hence, İbrahim Bey accepted all Ottoman terms. The Karamanid state was eventually terminated by the Ottomans in 1487, as the power of their Mameluke allies was declining. To never again gather and threaten the integrity of the Empire, they displaced the entire population to the last man. Some were resettled in various parts of Anatolia. Large groups were accommodated in northern Iran on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan. The main part was brought to the newly conquered territories in north-eastern Bulgaria — the Ludogorie region, another group — to what is now northern Greece and southern Bulgaria — present-day Kardzhali region and Macedonia. Ottomans founded Karaman Eyalet from former territories of Karamanids.



According to Abraham CresquesCatalan Atlas (compiled in 1375), the flag of Karamanoğlu consisted of a blue six-edged star. In the medieval times, this star was a popular Islamic symbol (especially among the Hanafi Madhhab) known as the Seal of Solomon due to the belief that the Jewish king, King Solomon was a prophet, and was used by several of the Anatolian beyliks (such as the Isfendiyarids). As such the seal was also used by Ottomans in their mosque decorations, coins and even in the personal flags of individual Pasha (e.g. that of Hayreddin Barbarossa[8]). It adorned the tombs of several early Islamic figures in Medina until the destruction of al-Baqi cemetery. Al-Buni and Ibn Arabi consider the seal to represent the Greatest Name, and its use remains common in contemporary Muslim esoteric circles.

Power of the Karamanid state in Anatolia

According to Mesâlik-ül-Ebsâr, written by Şehâbeddin Ömer, the Karamanid army had 25,000 riders and 25,000 saracens. They could also rely on some Turkmen tribes and their warriors.

Their economic activities depended mostly on control of strategic commercial areas such as Konya,  Karaman and the ports of Lamos, Silifke,  Anamur, and Manavgat.

Karamanid architecture

66 mosques, 8 hammams, 2 caravanserais and 3 medreses built by the Karamaninds survived to the present day. Notable examples of Karamanid architecture include:

  • Hasbey Medrese (1241)
  • Şerafettin Mosque (13th century)
  • İnce Minare (Dar-ül Hadis) Medrese (1258-1279)
  • Hatuniye Medrese (Karaman)
  • Mevlana Mosque and Tomb in Konya
  • Mader-i Mevlana (Aktekke) mosque in Karaman
  • Ibrahim Bey Mosque (Imaret) in Karaman

List of rulers


  1. Nûre Sûfî Bey (Capital City: Ereğli) (1250–1256)
  2. Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey (Capital City: Ermenek) (1256?-1261)
  3. Şemseddin I. Mehmed Bey (1261–1277), notable for making Turkish official language
  4. Güneri Bey (1277–1300)
  5. Bedreddin Mahmut Bey (1300–1308)
  6. Yahşı Han Bey (1308–1312) (Capital City: Konya)
  7. Bedreddin I. İbrahim Bey (1312–1333, 1348–1349)
  8. Alâeddin Halil Mirza Bey (1333–1348)
  9. Fahreddin Ahmed Bey (1349–1350)
  10. Şemseddin Bey (1350–1351)
  11. Hacı Sûfi Burhâneddin Musa Bey (Capital City: Mut) (1351–1361)
  12. Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1361–1357)
  13. Damad I. Alâeddin Ali Bey (1357–1398)
  14. Sultanzâde II. Mehmed Bey (1398–1399, 1402–1420, 1421–1423)
  15. Damad Bengi Ali Bey (1423–1424)
  16. Damad II. İbrahim Bey (1424–1464)
  17. Sultanzâde İshak Bey (1464)
  18. Sultanzâde Pîr Ahmed Bey (1464–1469)
  19. Kasım Bey (1469–1483)
  20. Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483–1487)


  Danishmendids 1071/1075 to 1178


Danishmendids 1071/1075 to 1178 (W)

Capital Sivas
Common languages Old Anatolian Turkish
Government Monarchy
• 1071/1075–1084
Danishmend Gazi
• 1175–1178
Nasreddin Muhammed
Historical era High Medieval
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by Succeeded by
Great Seljuq Empire
Sultanate of Rum

Anatolia in 1097, before the Siege of Nicaea.


The Danishmend or Danishmendid dynasty (Persianسلسله دانشمند‎, TurkishDanişmentliler) was a Turkish Beylik that ruled in north-central and eastern Anatolia from 1071/1075 to 1178. The dynasty centered originally around Sivas, Tokat, and Niksar in central-northeastern Anatolia, they extended as far west as Ankara and Kastamonu for a time, and as far south as Malatya, which they captured in 1103. In early 12th century, Danishmends were rivals of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, which controlled much of the territory surrounding the Danishmend lands, and they fought extensively against the Crusaders.

The dynasty was established by Danishmend Gazi for whom historical information is rather scarce and was generally written long after his death. His title or name, Dānishmand (دانشمند) means "wise man" or "one who searches for knowledge" in Persian.


The Turkoman Danishmendid dynasty was founded by Danishmend Gazi. Sources about Danishmend Gazi's origins however, are steeped in "legendary flavor". According to Robert Irwin, Danishmend Gazi was a "Turkoman emir of inpenetrably obscure origins". For instance, according to Niketas Choniates, a Byzantine government official and historian and a near-contemporary of Danishmend Gazi, he was of Arsacid descent. According to Matthew of Edessa and Kirakos Vartan, Danishmend Gazi was of Armenian origin, which, as Tahsin Yazici explains, "is not incompatible with Niketas' report". Yazici adds that other historians explained his origins differently. Some identified him as a nephew of Malik-Shah I (r. 1072–1092), Sultan of the Great Seljuk Empire.  According to this narrative, Danishmend Gazi was sent by Malik-Shah to conquer Cappadocia. Others viewed Danishmend Gazi as a maternal uncle of Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (r. 1077–1086), the first ruler of the Sultanate of Rum. In addition, some historians believed he was one of the Seljuq commanders who fought at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. According to Yazici: "Osman Turan's suggestion that he was a Seljuq envoy to the Ghaznavid court was based on a misunderstanding of a passage in Abu'l Fazl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Bayhaqi and is thus totally erroneous". According to Robert Gregory Bedrosian (citing Suren Yeremian and Halil Yinanc), Danishmend Gazi was an Armenian Muslim. The Danishmendnâme, a 14th century (i.e. posthumous) epic romance based on oral traditions dealing with Danishmend Gazi, is likewise filled with "legendary material". According to the Danishmendnâme, Danishmend Gazi was a native of Malatya.

The dynasty


As of 1134, Danishmend dynasty leaders also held the title Melik (the King) bestowed in recognition of their military successes by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mustarshid, although the Beys (Emirs) of Danishmend prior to 1134 may also be retrospectively referred to as Melik. Danishmend Gazi himself was alternatively called "Danishmend Taylu".

Danishmends established themselves in Anatolia in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, in which the Seljuks defeated the Byzantine Empire and captured most of Anatolia. Gazi took advantage of the dynastic struggles of the Seljuks upon the death of the Sultan Suleyman I of Rûm in 1086 to establish his own dynasty in central Anatolia. The capital was likely first established in Amasia.


Danishmends Reign Notes
Danishmend Gazi 1075 -d. 1084 Also called Danishmend Taylu
Gazi Gümüshtigin 1084-d. 1104 Son of Danishmend Gazi
Emir Gazi 1104-d. 1134
Melik Mehmed Gazi 1134-d. 1142
Sivas branch (Meliks - The Kings) 1142–1175 Incorporated to Anatolian Seljuks
Melik Zünnun (first rule) 1142–1143 Son of Melik Mehmed Gazi
Yağıbasan 1143–1164 Son of Emir Gazi
Melik Mücahid Gazi 1164–1166
Melik İbrahim 1166-1166
Melik İsmail 1166-1172 Killed in palace revolt.[12]
Melik Zünnun (second rule) 1172–1174 Son of Melik Mehmed Gazi
Malatya branch (Emirs) 1142–1178 Incorporated to Anatolian Seljuks
Ayn el-Devle 1142–1152
Zülkarneyn 1152–1162
Nasreddin Muhammed 1162–1170
Fahreddin 1170–1172
Afridun 1172–1175
Nasreddin Muhammed 1175–1178 Second reign

In 1100, Gazi's son, Emir Gazi Gümüshtigin, captured Bohemond I of Antioch, who remained in their captivity until 1103. A Seljuk-Danishmend alliance was also responsible for defeating the Crusade of 1101.

In 1116, the Danishmends helped Mesud I become the Seljuk sultan.

In 1130 Bohemond II of Antioch was killed in a battle with Gazi Gümüshtigin, after coming to the aid of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, which Gümüshtigin had invaded. Gümüshtigin died in 1134 and his son and successor Mehmed did not have the martial spirit of his father and grandfather. He is nevertheless considered the first builder of Kayseri as a Turkish city, despite his relatively short period of reign.

When Mehmed died in 1142, the Danishmend lands were divided between his two brothers, Melik Yaghibasan, who maintained the title of "Melik" and ruled from Sivas, and Ayn el-Devle, who ruled from Malatya.

In 1155, Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan II attacked Melik Yaghibasan, who sought help from Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Mosul. However, when Nur ad-Din died in 1174, the Sivas lands were incorporated into the Sultanate.

Following the death of Fahreddin in a riding accident in 1172, he was succeeded by his brother Afridun. By 1175, Nasreddin Muhammed was back in power, and ruled as a Seljuk vassal. In 1178, Malatya was occupied which marked the end of the Danishmend rule, while the remaining Danishmends joined Seljuk service.

Culture and legend


Danishmend Gazi, the founder of the dynasty, is the central figure of a posthumous romance epic, Danishmendnâme, in which he is misidentified with an 8th-century Arab warrior, Sidi Battal Gazi, and their exploits intertwined.

Virtually all Danishmend rulers entered the traditions of the Turkish folk literature, where they are all referred to as "Melik Gazi". Hence, there are "tombs of Melik Gazi", many of which are much visited shrines and belong in fact to different Danishmend rulers, in the cities of Niksar,  Bünyan, Kırşehir, along the River Zamantı near the castle of the same name (Zamantı) and elsewhere in Anatolia, and Melikgazi is also the name of one of the central districts of the city of Kayseri. The same uniformity in appellations in popular parlance may also apply to other edifices built by Danishmends.

The official title of the Danishmendids was Grand Melik of All Rum and the East, was always inscribed in the local currency in Greek, indication of Byzantine influence. The Danishmend's coins, along with being bilingual, included an image of a figure slaying a dragon, thought to represent St. George.



  Germiyanids 1300-1429


Germiyanids 1300-1429 (W)

Capital Kütahya
Government Monarchy
• 1300–1327
Yakup I of Germiyan
• 1402–1429
Yakup II of Germiyan
Historical era Late Medieval
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by Succeeded by
Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
Ottoman Empire

Beylik of Germiyan (light red) in 1300.

The Anatolian beylik of Germiyan with its capital in Kütahya was one of the prominent frontier principalities established by the Kurds and Turks after the decline of Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm. According to Agoston and Masters Germiyanoğulları were Turkomans who had immigrated to the west because of Mongol pressure in the second half of the 13th century.

For a brief period in the second half of the 14th century, Germiyan Dynasty was second only to Karamanid Dynasty in its rising power. But they were later taken over by the neighboring Osmanoğlu dynasty, who were to found the Ottoman Empire later.

Germiyans played a crucial role in settling Turkish populations along the coastal regions of the Aegean Sea, the founders of the Beyliks of AydinSarukhanİnançoğlu and Menteşe having started out as Germiyan commanders.

Because of various factors arising from the Mongol invasion, their branch of the clan had left the regions of Fars and Kirman, and headed west into Anatolia, having remained for a time around Malatya, and then moving to the Kütahya area, where their beylik was formed rather rapidly.

They rebelled against the central power in 1283, upon the execution of the sultan Kaykhusraw III by the Mongols, and placing of Mesud II on the Seljuq throne. The struggle between combined Mongol-Seljuq forces based in Konya and the rebel forces of Germiyan continued until 1290. An agreement could only be reached in 1299, upon which the Germiyan Dynasty also entered into possession of Ankara. When the Ilkhanid governor Emir Çoban took over Anatolia in 1314, they declared allegiance and concentrated on raids towards the regions to their west.

Their western offshoots that were the Beyliks of Menteşe,  Aydin, Ladik,  Sarukhan and Karasi were all subject to the Germiyan in the early periods of their foundation, while the Beyliks of Sâhib Ata and Hamidids to the south had to rely on them for protection against attacks from the Karamanids. As for the northern regions of Anatolia, Byzantine sources record Umur Bey, a commander and son-in-law to the Germiyan family, to be the possessor of Paphlagonia, where Jandarid dynasty was to rule only after Germiyan power weakened.

Their strong political entity was eventually surrounded by newer states established by their own former commanders, leaving the Germiyan no outlet to the coastline or to Byzantine territory. Their powerful Karamanid neighbors exerting constant pressure from the east, Germiyan gradually fell under the rising influence of the Ottomans.

The actual Turkish province of Kütahya was called the sub-province (sanjak) and later province (vilayet) of Germiyan until the early years of the Republic of Turkey, when which it was renamed after its central town.

The founding dynasty of the beylik produced illustrious descendants either under the Ottoman Empire or in present-day Turkey, a notable one among these being the 19th century grand vizier Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha.



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